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University of Toronto 


From July i, 1916, to December 31, 1916 


Published Every Friday and Daily Eight Times in June by thi 

Edward A. Simmons, President. 

L. B. Sherman, Vice-Preside Henry Lee, Vice-President & Treas. 

M. H. YVium, Secretary. 

Woolworth Building, New York. 

Chicago: Transportation Building. Cleveland: Citizens' Bldg. 

London: Queen Anne's Chambers, Westminster. 

W. E. Hooper 
E. T. Howson 
B. B. Adams 
H F. Lane 

Samuel O. Dunn, Editor. 
Roy V. Wright, Managing Editor. 
H. H. Simmons K. R. Hare 
R. E. Thayer J. G. Little 

C. B. Peck E. S. Barnum 

- Lacher C. W. Foss 

F. W. Kraeger 

G. L. Lacher 
W. J. Yoss 

(Established in April, 1856) 






Sixty-First Quarto Volume — July 1, 1916, to December 31, 1916 


Anderson, Lee, S3 
Anthony, J. T., 695 
Aumiller, A. E., 459 

Baker, J. E., 95 
Balch, C. F., 1135 
Ballantine, N. D., 935 
Barkley, H. J., 706 
Barnum, M. K., 315 
Basford, George M., 539 
Batchelder, A. F., 989 
Bell, J. Snowden, 882 
Berggren, Halvar A., 790 
Bonner, Francis A., 1080 
Buchanan, E. F., 398 
Burlingame, Charles, 421 
Burton, T. L., 855 

Calder, Frank E., 934 

Campbell, W. L., 414 

Carpenter, Rev. Charles K., 462 

Carroll, John W., 226 

Cassell, Byron, 53 

Chapman, Cloyd M., 20 

Clausen, L. R., 181, 934 

Collins, Wm. J., 240 

Cook, Parker, 508 

Corning, C. W., 1194 

Coss, J. L., 96, 398, 541, 687, 934, 996, 1080. 

County, A. J., 791 

Den Tex, K., 423 

Dudley, P. H., 287 

Dunn, Samuel O., 55, 103, 505, 629 

Ebel, M. F., 706 
Elliott, C. G., 139 * 
Emerson, R., 54 

Faus, H. W., 226 • 

. Felton, Samuel M., 997 

Franklin, Lewis B., 644 
Fry, O. V., 289 

Gain, H. M., 461 
Geer, F. R., 587 
Goetz, Henry A., 460 

Haanel, H. E., 155 
Harrison, Fairfax, 148 
Heckman, C. I., 461 
Heinle, A. W., 398 
Heintzelman, T. W., 586 
Hiatt, Walter S., 59, 119 
Hine, Major Charles, 420 
Hodges, George, 442 
Hooper, E. R., 1123 
Humphrey, C. J., 1085 

Ingoldsby, Frank S., 52 

Kaho, H. F., 462 
King, Paul H., 283 
Kirk, J. G., 596 
Klingman, J. D., 332 
Knowles, C. R., 606 

La Bach, P. M., 368 

Lacher, W. S., 705 

Lane, Francis W., 881 

Lane, H. F., 492, 547, 598, 649, 691 

Leigh, E. B., 758 

Lundy, Maurice H., 467 

Lyndon, George W., 801 

McCabe, Frank M., 22 
McKenzie, Edward F., 510 
Markham, C. H., 327 
Milliner, Frederick H., 53 
Meyers, A. J., 275 
Muhlfeld, J. E., 1097 
Myers, H. W., 811 

Northrup, W. F., 109 

O'Daniel, J. F., 1029 
Odell, P. E., 22 

Pace, Anderson, 324 
Parmelee, Julius H., 244, 1180 
Payne, J. L., 589 
Pearce, H. C, 200 
Pennington, C. A., 459 
Pennington, M. E„ 883 
Pigeon, Homer, 442 
Porter, L. C, 191 
Post, George A., 381, 754 

Raymond, W. G., 1124 
Redding, T. H. E., 182 
Reisler, E. T., 983 
Ripley, Edward P., 238 

Smith, S. H., 95 
Snyder, George Duncan, 404 
Speonk, L. L, 272 
Springer, J. F., 197 
Stoddard, W. L., 21, 73 
Strebig, Ira I., 331 
Sulln-an, John G., 363 

Thomas, F. W., 760 
Thomas, Wm. Bailey, 4, 274 
Thorne, C, 1080 
Trumbull, Frank, 113, 895 

Vanderlip, Frank A., 836 

\Wiss, Howard F., 358 
Welcker, Rudolph, 66 
Wilson, G. H., 498 
Wollner, William S., 189, 1140 

Young, C. D., 17, 158 

Zinn, A. S., 847 

[July 1 — Dec. 31. 1916 



[Illustrated arlnlcs arc i, . , ius%] 

Accident (See also Safety First; also Grade 
Crossing i : 
Boston Street Car, 863, 1011 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy neai 

wood, Neb., 708 
Explosions of Munitions at Black Tom 

Island, N. T.. 190*. 251, 1151 

I. C. C. Bulletin, No. 57, 77 

Monthly Summaries: May, 110; Tune, 152 ■ 

July, 369, 521; August, 552; September, 

949; October. 1001; November, 1142, 1208 

National Railways of Mexico at Tlalne- 

pantla. 37 
Pennsylvania Railroad's Record, 203 
Trespassing and Prohibitive Laws, 954, 95J 
Trespassing Prevention; St. I.. & S. F,. 161 
Western Maryland, near Knobmount, 1008 
Western Maryland near York Road, 328. 
Accounting (See also Association of American 
Railway Accounting Officers; also Associa- 
tion of Transportation and Car Account- 
ing Officers; also Valuation) : 
Car Numbers and Initials Incorrect, 398t 
Car Purchases and Replacement Funds, 272J 
Clearing house Plan, It; 52{ 
Fiscal Year, Change in, 1 35 1, 898, 912, 

1073t, 1101, 1121t 
Freight Station, 420 

Kansas City Collection Bureau, 784t, 811 
Acme Supply Company: 

Curtain Fixture. Enclosed Groove, 296* 
Acoustics (See Station) 
Acworth, W. M.: 

American Situation, 101 
Adamson Law (See Legislation): 
Advertisement: Earnings of Train Employees, 

121, 137f 
Advisory Board CSee Education) 
Agent (See Employee) 

Agriculture (See also United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture! :■ 
Farmers' Direct Grievance, The, 790t 
Farms for Soldiers: C. P., 1061 
Federal Grain Standards Act, 960 
Marketing Service; N. C. & St. L., 611 
Products, Selling Price of, 729t 
Refrigeration of Perishables in Transit, 882* 
Roads for Farming Communities, 274J 
Air Brake (See Brake) 
Aisle (See Car) 
Aloe, A. S. Company: 

Color Test, Jennings, 412* 
American Association of Freight Agents: 
Local Freight Agent. 135t, 148 
Relations Between Subordinate Associations 
and the A. R. A., 421 
American Association of Passenger Traffic 
Annual Convention, 693, 744 
American Association of Railroad Superinten- 
Annual Meeting, 351f. 361 
Building a Line to the Public, 324, 439t, 

Discipline on the New York Central, 498 
Opportunities for the Superintendent, 327 
American Bridge Company: 

Car Repair Shed at Memphis, I. C, 546* 
C. & N. \V. Bridge at Chicago, 233* 
Turntables; A. T. & S. Fe., 295 
American Coin Registers Company: 

Ticket-Collecting Machines; S. P., 189 
American Locomotive Company: 

Annual Report, 307 
American Railway Association: 

Car Shortage, Circular of the Car Service 

Commission, 1165t, 1192 
Car Shortage Relief Plan, 943, 1039, 1063 
Demurrage Record in California, 394t, 402, 

Freight Car Surpluses and Shortages, 125, 

271f 472. 482j, 912, 947 
Grade Crossings, Standardizing Signals at, 

157*, 179t, .204 
Meeting in New York, 906 
Relations with Subordinate Associations, 421 
Report of Mobilization of National Guard, 

150*. 908 
Standard Box Car Proposed. 11701 
American Railway Bridge and Building Associa- 
tion: Annual Convention, 745* 
American Railway Employees' Journal: 

Lies About Official Salaries, 483t 
American Railway Engineering Association: 
Bibliography on Valuation, 1060 
Nominations for 1917, 1152 
Operating Conditions and Fuel Consump- 
tion, 363 
Rail Failure Statistics for 1915, 632 
American Railwav Master Mechanics: 

Committees for 1917 Convention, 913 
American Railway Tool Foremen's Association: 

Annual Convention, 355, 385 
American Society for Testing Materials: 

Annual Meeting, 15* 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers: 
Clasp Brakes for Passenger Cars, 855* 
Mechanical Design of Electric Locomo- 
tives, 989 



Swi 816 912 

1101, 11 
Arkan , 


Missiuipi ,,45« 

Arkansas on Wheels," 1008 
Association of \ anting 

Ofti. i 

Annu -, 5* 

Cooperation B< :oads and Pub- 

Association of M - of Chilled Car 


Work During 1916, 801 
Association of Railway Electrical Engineers: 

Annual Convention, 841 
Association of Transportation and Car Account- 
ing Officers: 

Meeting _>9* 

Atchison, Topcka & Santa Fe: 

Annual Report, 536t* 577 

Apprenticeship System, 760 

Automobil. Platform, 42:* 

Bonuses to Employees, 1061 

Death Benefit Plan. 38 

Fight-Hour Law, 519. 592 

Harmony Meetings, 238 

Lift Bridges at Freight Houses, 92f. Ill* 

Ticket Office at Los Angeles, 860* 

Turntables, Improved, 294* 
Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic: 

Annual Report, 933f* 

Valuation Report, 178f, 195, 757, 913, 1060, 
10751, 1090 
Atlantic Coast Line: 

Signals, Automatic Block, 67* 
Atlantic Southern: 

Road Dismantled, 1151 
Automatic Stop (See Signaling) 

Accidents at Grade Crossings, 1 3 5 1 . 382, 
S81t, 1060 

Competition with Railways, 997 

Preventative of Branch Line Building, 621t 

Record Runs. 247, 520 

Signals, Crossing (See Signaling) 

Thome's, Clifford, 49t 

Unloading Platform; A. T. & S. Fe., 422* 

Record Flights, 863, 954 


liility Law. 
Baldwin Locomotive \\ 

Export Types for Jamaica Government and 


; 1 1 S O. , 

Steam Stoi 

Triplex; Erie, 7-1" 

Gravel Pit at Rockdale; C. R. I. i; P., 144 

Municipal Railway Proposed, 817 
Baltimore & Ohio: 

Annual Conferences of Officers, 37 

Annual Report, 930t*\ 

Arrests by Police D :005 

Employees and Federal Valuation, 411 

Locomotives, Mallet Type. 

Safety and Sanitation Rules, 700 

Safety First Car, 520 
Baumei-' ipany: 

Station at Chip M * 

O., 152* 
Bell (See Signaling) 
Belt Rail (See Car, Freight) 
Bernet, John J.. 
Bessemer 8 ie: 

Car for Valuation Party, 996* 
Bethlehem Steel Company: 

lisition of Pennsylvania and Maryland 
Companies, 88 
Bill of Ladi- 
Block Signal 
Boiler (See also I 

Pulverized Cor.l Shops 

at Parson 

Pulvi 1194 

Bonus (See Employee — Wages) 

Transport. i- 1061 

Street Cai : 1 1 

Boston & Albany: 

Grade Crossing Signals. 298 
il Report, 6841* 


. 855* 
. Trains, 4*. 




:ge at 

III : 

1 152 
net, 995* 







Bntton, Frank II 

Brooklyn Raj 


llighl Hearini I < C 

Bryan, V 



Annual R. ; 

Christmas :;s2 

Dock at Buff a' 

Telegraphers' School, I 

Bureau of Foreign and I 'on 
Exports i 

Rhea, Frank, to ■ rner.t Mar- 

ket Abroad. 
Work Abroad, 1077f 
Bureau of Railway Economics: 

Bibliography on >060 

Comparat jrld's Rail- 

-, 903 


Revenues and 1 520. 


Bureau of R 



Bureau of the Cen- 

Construction of Steam an.: Iroad 

Busine^ ncc; also i 

See Locomot 
Caboose (See Car, Freight) 

I 210 



. 363 

N H 

Car (See als 

also Chief I 

" A r ka 


July 1— Dec. 31, 1916] 

GENERAL NEWS— Continued 

[Illustrated articles are indicated thus*; Editorials thus t; Letters to Editor thust] 

Car Association i < 'ontimu d I. 

Construction of Steam and Electric Cars, 

Coupler (See Draft Gear) 

Curtain Fixture, Enclosed Groove, 296* 

Fish, 116* 

Hospital Train for U. S. Army, 1003* 

Imperial Trains of Europe, 119 

Inspector (See Employee) 

Motor (See Motor Cars) 

Noise in Sleeping Cars, 53$ 

Orders in 1916, 1164t, H69f, 1195 

Passenger, Boston & Maine, 61* 

Postal— Specifications for Insulating Mate- 
rials, 1119t 

Purchases by Car Trust Method, 272$ 

Repair Shed at Memphis; I. C, 546* 

Sleeping; Canadian Govt. Rys., 1049* 

Valuation; B. & L. E„ 996* 

Weight of Steel Passenger Coaches, 586$ 
Car, Electric (See Car) 
Car, Ferry: 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern, 322* 

Car, Freight: 

Analvsis of the Journey of a Freight Car, 

lli9t, 1135 
Belt Rail Applied to All-Steel Automobile 

Cars; Union Pacific, 707* 
Caboose; N. C. & St. L., 453* 
Door (See Door) 
Economizing with, 621$, 934$ 
End Slopes for Hopper Cars, 52$ 
Equipment in Service in 1915, 221 1, 456 
Handling Freight Trains, 798 
Hopper; Erie, 285* 

Hopper; Philadelphia & Reading, 194* 
Hopper; Woodward Iron Company, 593* 
Maintenance of, 654 

Orders in 1915 and 1916, 582f, 783$, 926$ 
Ore; Duluth, Missabe & Northern, 68* 
Refrigerator Car Service, 883* 
Repairs to Foreien Cars and the M. C. B. 

Rules, 925f, 935, 1123$ 
Shortage (See Car Service) 
Shrinkage of Box Car Sheathing, 200 
Steel Car More Economical Than Wooden, 

Tank Car Specifications, 911, 1150 
Tank Cars Need Not Be Furnished by the 

Pennsylvania, 1156 
Truck (See Truck) 
Car, Passenger (See Car) 

Car Service (See also Central and Western As- 
sociation of Car Service Officers) : 
Analyzing a Freight Car Journey, 1119$, 

Car Department Problems, 406 
Car Trust Method of Maintaining Equip- 
ment, 272$ 
Demurrage Rates and Car Shortage, 818, 960, 

977f, 1039, 1063 
Demurrage Rates for Intrastate Traffic, 961 
Demurrage Rates on Coal Cars in Illinois, 

Demurrage Rates Raised by State Commis- 
sions, 1153 
Demurrage Record in California, 394$, 402, 

Employees and Car Movement, 934$ 
Hired Cars, Repair to, 95$ 
Loading and Unloading of Freight Cars 

Promptly, 621$, 934$ 
Numbers and Initials on Reports, 398$ 
Shortage Investigated by the I. C. C, 729$, 
743, 809, 830$, 859, 863, 900, 911, 943, 
1039, 1045, 1165$, 1192 
Shortage, Record, 622$, 678$, 708, 830$, 840, 

866, 927$, 934$, 977$ 
Summary of Freight Cars in Service, 221$, 

Surpluses and Shortages; A. R. A., 125, 

271$, 472, 482$, 912, 947 
Unloading, Premiums for, 4$, 315$ 
Car Shortage (See Car Service) 
Car, Tank (See Car, Freight) 
Car Foremen's Association of Chicago: 

Freight Car Utilization and M. C. B. Rules, 
925$, 935 
Card (See Desk) 
Carnegie Steel Company: 

Rail Mill at Bessemer, Pa., 555 
Carter, C. J. Lumber Company: 

Bloxonend, A New Flooring, 707* 
Causeway (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Cement (See Concrete) 

Central & Western Association of Car Service 
Semi-Annual Meeting, 850 
Central States Conference on Rail and Water 

Transportation, 1103, 1145 
Chesapeake & Ohio: 

Annual Report, 623$*, 673 

Boston Praised, 1061 

Illinois Central's Terminal Plans, 1120$, 

Station Union, 311$, 802* 
Zone Valuation Committee, 325 
Chicago & Alton: 

Annual Report, 787$*, 877$ 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois: 
Annual Report, 733$* 

Grade Crossing Accident and Suit Against 
Automobile Driver, 581$ 
Chicago & North Western: 

Annual Report, 627$*, 671 
Bridge, Three-Track Bascule, 233* 
Locomotive, Atlantic Type, for Burning Pul- 
verized Coal, 227* 
Rail Section, 90-lb.. 946* 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy: 

Accident near Elwood, Neb., "08 
Annual Report, 928$*, 969 
Bridge at Metropolis, 111., 399* 
Chicago Gravel Company: 

Pit at Rockdale, 111., 144 
Chicago Great Western: 

Annual Report, 788$*, 827 
Crossing Signals, 413 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul: 
Annual Report, 584$* 
Electric Operation. 23*, 816, 911, 1152 
Signals, Light, 403* 
Chicago Railway Signal & Supply Company: 

Crossing Signals; C. G. W, 413 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific: 
Annual Report, 833$* 
Ballast, Crushed Gravel, 144 
Reclamation of Scrap, 596* 
Reorganization Plan, 877$ 
Signaling Protection at Drawbridge, Rock 

Island, 111., 783$, 793* 
System Loss and Damage Committee Meet- 
ing. 426 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha: 
Annual Report, 628$*, 675 
Station at Chippewa Falls, Wis., 152* 
Chicago Tribune: 

Anybody Can Kick a Railroad, 926$ 
Chief Clerk (See Employee — Clerk) 
Chief Interchange Car Inspectors and Car 
Foremen's Association: 
Annual Convention, 621$, 652, 661 

Construction Contract to Americans, 660 
Locomotives for the Canton-Hankow Rail- 
way, 465* 
Chiriqui Railway Construction, 847* 

Death Benefits; A. T. & S. Fe., 38 
Freight Claim Agents' Convention, 26 
Loss and Damage: 

Handling, Shipping and Packing, etc., 225$ 
Northern Pacific Claim Prevention, 120 
System Committee; C. R. I. & P., 426 
Over, Short and Damage, 1029$ 
Clearances (See Legislation) 
Clearing House (See Accounting) 
Clerk (See Employee) 
Coal (See Fuel) 
Coaling Station (See Station) 
Collection Bureau (See Finance) 
Colorado & Southern: 

Annual Report, 979$*, 1023 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Company: 

Annual Report, 718 
Color (See Signaling) 

Committee on Relations of Railway Operation 
to Legislation: 
Report to Railroads, 902 

Handline of L. C. L. Freight, 109, 240, 
414, 459 

Coaling Stations; St. L. & S. F., 333* 
Floor for Through Girder Spans; Wabash, 

Handling Concrete on Small Jobs, 750 
Portland Cement Tests, 18 
Roads for Freight Traffic, 274$ 
Specifications for Aggregates, 20 
Conference Committee on Car Efficiency of 
A. R. A.: 
Car Shortage Relief, 907, 943, 1010, 1039. 
1063, 1165$, 1192 
Congress (See Legislation) 

Construction, New (See also Grade Crossings, 
also Bridges and Buildings; also Yards and 
Terminals; also Station): 
Automobiles as Preventatives of Branch 

Line Building, 621$ 
Chiriqui Railway, 847* 
Cost of Building a Railroad, 1073$ 
Hudson Bay Railway, 816 
Municipal Railroad in Baltimore, 817 
Southern Railway's Repair of Flood Dam- 
age, 991* 
Tunnelinc Through a Snow Slide, 1123$* 
Conventions (See also names of associations) : 

Waste of Time at, 1$ 
Cost (See also Finance; also Supplies; also 
Subway; also Water Service; also Valua- 
tion; also Accounting): 
Building a Railroad, 1073$ 
"High Cost of Expediency, The," 439$, 443$, 

587$, 688$ 730$, 806, '934$ 
Repairs to Foreign Cars, 925$, 935, 1123$ 
Cotter, G. F. Supply Company: 

Piston Valve Chamber for Slide Valve Cylin- 
ders, 296* 

Council of National Defense, 452, 709 
Coupler (See Draft Gear) 
Cox, M. F.: 

Power Reverse, Gear, 839* 
Credit (See Finance) 
Creosote (See Ties and Timber) 
Crossing (See Grade Crossings) 
Cunningham, William J., 558* 
Curtain (See Car; also Grade Crossing) 


Dallas, Texas: 

Union Passenger Facilities, 889* 
Damages (See Gaims; also Legal Decisions) 
Damper (See Ventilation) 
Davis, T. H.: 

Creosote Spot Test, 362 
Deadrick, W. I.: 

Car Repair Shed at Memphis; I. C, 546* 
Delaware & Hudson: 

Liquor Selling Discontinued, 39 

Securities Held Abroad, 700 

Station at Cooperstown, N. Y., 239* 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western : 

L. C. L. Freight Checking System, 109 
Dempsey, J. Edwin: 

Telegraphic Cipher Code, 1002 
Demurrage (See Car Sen-ice) 
Department (See Organization) 
Depreciation (See Accounting; also Valuation) 
Desk for Card Catalogue; Pittsburgh Rys., 379* 
Despatching (See Train Despatching) 
Discipline (See Employee) 
Dividend (See Finance) 
Dock (See Piers) 

Lock, Triplex, 556* 

National Car Door, 556* 
Draft Gear: 

Coupler, Type D Standard, 298, 313$ 
Drawbridge (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Dudley. P. H.: 

Rail Investigation and Tranverse Fissures, 
287*. 398$ 
Duluth, Missabe & Northern: 

Car, Steel Ore, 68* 

Coaling Station at Proctor, Minn., 542* 

Locomotives, Mallet, 1125* 
Duluth, Winnipeg & Pacific: 

Cab Window, Clear Vision, 297* 

Earnings (See also names of companies; also 
Revenues and Exoenses) : 
October 1915 and 1916, 1025t, 1056 
Rate of 5.6 per cent in 1916, 534$ 
Train Emplovees, 121, 137$ 
U S. Steel Corporation. 173. 824 

Economic Club of New York: 
Right to Strike, 1084 

Economic Practices: 

Distribution of Folders, 166 

Fuel (See Fuel) 

Reclamation of Scrap; C. R. I. & P.. 596* 

Safety First and False Economy, 442$ 

Economic Psychology Association: 

Scientific Tests on Signal Interpretation, 
270$, 289* 


Advisory Board, University of Illinois, 830$ 
Air Brake Instruction; Pennsylvania, 510 
Apprenticeship Results, 49t 
Apprenticeship System; A. T. & S. Fe. 760 
Car Department Apprentices, 656 
Telegraphers' School; B. R. & P., 1150 
Telegraphers' School; So. Pacific. 2-17 

Efficiency (See Operating Efficiency; also Em- 

Eight-Hour Day (See Employee — Wages) 

Electrification (See also Association of Railway 
Electrical Engineers') : 
Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 23*, 816, 

911, 1152 
Great Northern Plans. 764 
Illinois Central's Terminal Plans in Chi- 
cago, 1120t, 1131* 
N. Y. N. II. & H. Electric Operation, 912 

El Paso & Southwestern : 
Annual Report, 786'*'* 

Ely, Theodore N.: 

Locomotive Firebox Design, 882$ 

Embargo (See Freight) 

Employee (See also Education; also Officer; 
also Train Rules): 
Agent, Freight, 135$, 148, 1029$ 
Apprentice ("See Education) 
Building a Line to the Public, 324. 439$, 

Car Inspector's Training, 92$, 351t, 361 
Car Movement, Increasing the. 934$ 
Christmas Greetings; B. R. & P., 1152 
Clerk Problem, Views of the, 54$, 273$. 

315$, 1140 
Color Test, Tennings. 412* 
Death Benefits, A. T. & S. Fe, 38 
Despatcher (See Train Despatching) 

[July 1— Dec. 31, 1916 

Employee (Continued): 

Discipline on the New York Central, 498 
Efficiency Campaign; I!. R. X., 1151 
Efficiency Tests, 155, 279, 3i*2t, 330 
Eight Hour Day (See Employee— Wages) 
Emergency Train; Lehigh Valley, 864 
Employment Scheme; Pennsylvania, 1149 
Floods and Team-Work; Southern Ry 297 
Full Crew Law (See Legislation) 
Labor and Capital, Relations Between 11241 
Labor, Organized, and President Wilson 
679T, 877f ' 

Labor, Organized and Unorganized. Waees 
°f. «9t. 443$, 587$, 688$, 730$, 806, 
Mansfield, C. II., Acquitted, 764 
Meet at Denison, Tex.; M. K. & T 139* 
Passes; Lehigh Valley, 120 
Pay to National Guard Men, 37, 251 861 
Pensions; Florida East Coast, 37 
Pensions; Great Northern, 470 
Pensions and Strikes; So. Pacific, 143 
Politeness in Train Service- W P 210+ 
586$ ' " '' 

Relief Fund for National Guardsmen's 

Families; Penna., 251 
Safety (See Safetv First) 
Selecting Men, 175+, 270f, 289* 
Seniority Rule in Train Service, 688$, 789$, 

Shifting Conductors and Enginemen 2741 

Enginemen and Trainmen (See Em- 
ployee—Wages: Eight-Hour Day) 
N. C. & St. L. Controversy, 1055, 1149 
New \ork Street Railways, 339, 470 
Pension System Affected; S. P., 143 
Prevention Law Urged, 1037, 1084 

11 19f, 1128 
Prevention Plan, 545, 687$ 
Right to Strike, 1084 
Suit of H. F. Spayd vs. Brotherhood, 1061 
Trainman's Working Day, 136t* 
Wages : 

Average for 1915, 91f 

Bonuses, 1055, 1061, 1151, 1163f, 1208 

British Railway Men Get Increases, 

469, 559 
British Wages in 1913, 294 
Canadian Pacific Controversy, 845 
Eight-Hour Day Commission, 649 
Eight-Hour Day Demand, 3$, 33. 50t. 
72, 121, 136f*, 137t. 143, 161, 175$ 
176f, 177t, 181$, 203, 205, 219t, 220t, 
245, 251, 269t, 291*. 313, 323, 335*. 
352t, 353f, 370, 393f, 394t, 415, 439$, 
441f, 443$, 450, 462, 481$, 484$, 505, 
509, 5811, 587$, 623$, 658, 743, 789$, 
790$, 878$, 1080$ 
Eight-Hour Day in Other Industries, 

Eight-Hour Law, 394t, 415, 450, 481$, 
492, 505, 519, 531$, 534t, 547, 551, 
553, 581t, 582$, 592, 600, 628$, 649, 
679$, 692, 708, 709, 863, 877$, 878$, 
887, 913, 938, 941, 953, 994, 1008, 
1027$, 1039, 1128, 1209 
Eighty Per Cent Movement, 658, 1060 
Increases in, 37, 78, 120, 203, 219$, 339, 
382, 424, 469, 559, 658, 764, 816, 861, 
1151, 1161. 1163t, 1171$, 1178 
Letter from Frank Trumbull to Henrv 

Ford, 509 
Minister's View of the Wage Con- 
troversy, A, 462 
New York Central Telegraphers, 203, 

Shopmen's Demands, 520, 559, 764 
Switchmen's Demands, 708, 816, 912, 

1101, 1171$, 1178 
Train Employees' Earnings, 121, 137$ 
Unorganized Emplovees, 439$, 443$, 
587$, 658, 688$, 730$, 806, 934$, 1060 
Y. M. C. A. Membership Campaign, 1005 
Engine (See Locomotive) 

Daylight Savins?. 39 
Sand Drags at Keadbv, 1152 
Wage Demands Granted, 469, 559 
Wages in 1913. 294 

War Payments to the British Rys., 244 

Car and Locomotive Orders in 1915 and 

1916, 582$, 7S3+, 926^ 
Car and Locomotive Orders in 1916, Stat- 
istics of, 1164$, 1169$, 1195 
Exports in 1916, 360, 607 
Freight Cars and Locomotive- in Service 

from 1890 to 1915, 221 v. 
Hiring or Building Cars, 95$ 
Market Abroad, 349, 966, 

Car Hopper, 285* 

Locomotive, Gasolene Switching, 232*, 426 
Locomotive, Triplex Articulated, 74 
Signs, Standard Safety, 846' 

Coal Docks Compared with American, 197* 
Evansville Chamber of Commerce: 

Central States Conference on Transporta- 
tion, 1103, 1145 


£ X u-u tive (See Officer) 
Kv!t (S h e namea " f "Mocial 
Explosion (See Accident; 
Export (See Wiipment) 

Revenues and Expenses for April 424- 
. 521; July, f060j August, 1103 

Fairbanks, Morse & Company: 

Fare r°siT g p Stati0nS> §*' J " & S - F - ^3* 
{.are (bee Passenger 1 

farming (See Agriculture) 

rarrar, Asa: 

Switch Lock, 954 

Federal Board of Arbitral 

Violin : . 816, 912, 

Federal Valuation' (See' Valuation) 

Filing (See Organization) 

Finance (See also Accounting; al 80 Valuation; 
also Larnings; also Revenues and Ex- 
Officers) ° bociety of RaiIw ay Financial 
Atlantic - ' -mantled, 1151 

333 ship, 311$, 351$, 

Canadian Railroads Under Government Own- 

107^' , 5 r?J,' S5 ' 94t ' 103 ' 589 > ''->■ 703. 
1U/6|, 1081 

Capital and u |4 « 

Car Trust and Renewal Funds, 

Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Reorganiza- 

Collection Bureau at Kansas Citv. 784$ 811 
Credit, Sound, and Regulation, I 
Dividend (banc, i [63* u; 5 

Dividend I'ayments in 1915, 176$ 
Earnings in 1915 and 1916, 1025$, 1056 
Earnings in 1916, 

Missouri Pacific Reorganization Plan, 175$ 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis Sold, 91$ 
New York. New Haven & Hartford Stock- 
holders Suit, 269$ 
Operating Income in 1916, 351$ 
Opportunity and Responsibility of the Rail- 
road Man, 829$. 836 
Profits Limited, 381 
Public Ownership of Securities, 360 

7'iR» y Purchases and Business Conditions, 
Raising Money to Build a Railroad, 1073$ 
Receiverships and Foreclosure Sales as of 

December 31, 1916, 1164$, 1183. 
Securities Held Abroad, 700 
Selling Price of a Product, 
Southern Railway's Mortgage Ponds, 783$ 
Steel Market During 1916, 730$, 829$ 
War Payments to the British Railways, 244 
Western Maryland Reorganization, 785$ 
Firebox (See Locomotive) 

Fires (See also Railway Fire Protection As- 
sociation ) : 
Canadian Railways and Forest Fires, 955 
Explosions of Munitions at Black Tom Isl- 
and, N. J., 190*, 251, 1151 
Miscellaneous, 78, 203, 559, 708, 764 954 

1005, 1055. 1101. 1149, 1208 
Prevention Day; N. C. & St. L., 607 
Protection of Wharves and Piers, 1047 
Fiscal Year (See Accounting) 

Damages in South, 122, 204, 297 
Southern Railway's Repair of Damage, 991* 

Bloxonend, 707* 

e Houses and Shops, 746 
Mastic, J. M., 154* 

Solid Type for Through Girder Span. Wa- 
bash, 149* 

Florida, East Coast: 

Pension Department, 37 
Foley Brothers, Peppard and Fulton: 

Ore Dock- at Ashland; M. & St. P. & S. S. 
M., 237* 
Ford, Henry: 

from Frank Trumbull on the Wage 
Controversy, 509 
Foreclosure Finance) 

Forest (See Tics and Timber) 

Canadian Railways Imported, 1149 
Friendship Corners in Stations, 59* 



Paris as a Military i H53 

St. Lazare Station at Paris Rebuilt, 1 I 

. R. T. Tr. : Eighty Per Cent Movement, 


Law, 451, 767 
Bill Mock Valuations, 

Y. N II. & II., 
Congestion in 1211 

Embargoes, 866, 917. 960, 1105. 1153 
L. ' nest, 109, 

240, 414. 
L. C. L. ctor. 298 

Loading and L'nloa i ill to Ship- 


uomobiles; A T. 

'juick Unloading, 4$ 315} 
,," ant, 883* 

. D L 4 
W., 240 

ling, 3151 

j'. re f^ ■ ight) 

rreight Claim A 

I erminals) 
i * rei 8»" mmerce 

•ate Commis- 

82, 96$, 166, 711 

Mill :nd, 208 

ses 126 
lie" in, 818 

nooga. 859 

?5 d ' iurnia;.So. Pacific 301 

Shreveport Rate Case, 302, 311$, 386,' 523 
332$ 611, 662, 712, 741, 810, 1047, 1107 
lexas Railroads and the State, 708 

• Kate Changes, 207 343 
„ . , i 960, 1063 

Freight Station (See Station; 


ks in Europe and America, I ' 
Coal I-amine Threatened, 840 
Coaling Station; Dul. Miss, \ No 54" 
Coaling Station: | '233' 

Coah: : 750 

Consumption an Litions, 363 

tconomy and Assigned Engines, 934$. 
Economy and Locomotive Boiler Design, 695* 
Oil I 

Coal : 

Poller-. Station 

I. CM 

Full Crew Law 1 lt ion) 
Fuller Kngineering Company: 

Pulverizer .rsons Plant; M K. 4 

T., 549* 

Galveston Causeway Plans, 1152 


Dairy Instruction Car, 960 

Central Station in Leipsic, 
m with America 
Goethals Commission, 1008 

Governn; -hip (See also Government 

K. j 

•. 103. 589 

eminent, 413 

Go\. gulation: 


I 507 
■7 '>A\ 
947 ".0, 1074$' 

1 )134 

■ on Facilities for 

-ioncrs on. 

Profits, Limiting, 381 

Ramstedt, A. P 
1 134 

State or 1 illation, 113, 204 

302. 311t 
1080$. 1134 
Transportation Conference at Evans\ille 
I ■ . 1145 
Grade I 

Acc Illinois Central, 607. 

1061, 1149 

'revention; Long Island, 135 

Accidents with Monetary* ' lblic, 

Curtains. Spiked. 272$ 
Elimination Problem: 

R, at Camden, N I 
revent Accidents, 898 
Signal Standards — Joint Re; R \ 

an,i lissioners.' 

isual, 927$, 983$ 
Whistling at, I 
Graham. Purnh.-im & ' 

Chicago Union Station, 802* 


July 1 — Dec. 31, 1916} 

GENERAL NEWS— Continued 

[Illustrated articles arc indicated thus*; Editorials Huts t; Letters to Editor thust.] 

Gra ihii Train Sheet, 398J 

e Ballast) 
Greal Britain (See England) 
i. ii. n lakes Dredge & Dock Company: 

< 8 X w Bridge al Chicago, 233* 
Greal North' 

Annual Report. 92Sf* 

Electrification Plans, 764 

Pension Plan, 470 

Valuation Cost, 829f 


Hayward Company: 

Bucket, Motor-Operated, 944* 
Headlight (See Locomotive) 
"High Cost of Expediency, The," 439f, 443*, 

587J, 688J, 730t, 806, 934t 

Roads of Concrete and Asphalt to Promote 
Freight Traffic, 274t 
Highway Crossing (See Grade Crossings) 
Hocking Valley: 

Annual Report, 686t, 725 
Hoisting and Conveying: 

Bucket, Motor-Operated, 944 

Hoist, Inaersoll-Rand, 947* 

Track, Experimental, 423* 
Hormiguero Central Corporation: 

Locomotive, Steam Storage, 592* 
Hudson Bay Railway: 

Construction Progress, 816 
Hudson Coal Company: 

Powdered Fuel in Boilers, 1194 
Hungary: Collision, 1060 
Hunt, Jarvis: 

Union Station at Dallas, Texas, 889* 
Hunt, Robert W. & Company: 

Rail Inspection, 941 


Illinois Central : 

Annual Report, 625t*, 669 

Car Repair Shed at Memphis, Tenn., 546* 

Car Shortage, 866 

Crossing — Accident Campaign, 607, 1061, 

Observation Tour of Freight Traffic Men, 

Station at Chicago, 517* 
Terminal Plans, 1120t, 1131* 
Water Station at Centralia,_ 111., 606 
Illinois Manufacturers' Association: 

Committee to Appear Before Newlands Com- 
mittee, 1060 
Strike Danger Warning, 1103 
Illinois State Game and Fish Commission : Car 

for Fish Transportation, 116* 

Train Operation on the East Indian Rail- 
way, 1185 
Industrial Development Corporation: Nut 

Lock, Spring, 910* 
Ingersoll-Rand Company: Hoist, Portable, 

Institution of Railway Signal Engineers, Lon- 
don: Tablet Station, 1130* 
Insurance- (See Claims; also Employe) 
Intake (See Water Service) 
Intercolonial Railway: 

Political Considerations and Railway Ap- 
pointments, 1120t 
Results of Government Management, 50t, 55, 
94i, 103, 589, 629, 703, 1076t, 1081 
International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' As- 
sociation: Annual Convention, 316* 
International Railway General Foremen's Asso- 
ciation: Annual Convention, 384, 405 
Interstate Commerce Commission : 
Accident Bulletin. No. 57, 77 
Accident Report: 

West Maryland near Knobmount, W. 

Va., 1008 
West Maryland near York Road, Pa., 
Annual Report, 1040, 1122f 
Annual Report of Chief Inspector of Loco- 
motive Boilers, 1132 
Bill of Lading Hearing, 767 
Car Shortage Investigation, 729t, 743, 809, 
830t, 859, 863, 900, 911, 943, 1039, 1063, 
Earnings for 1916 Estimated, 1212 
Fiscal Year, Changed, 912, 1073t, 1101, 

Headlight Requirements, Hearings on, 814, 

831t, 851 
Mail Pay (See Mail) 
Membership, Bill to Increase, 926t 
National Industrial Traffic League's Rules 

of Practise, 611 
New Jersey Lighterage Case, 767 
N. Y.", N. II. & II. and Operation of Water 

Lines, 742, 960 
Purchases of Railroad Supplies, 73 
Regulation (See Government Regulation) 
Revenues and Expenses for 1916, 482t, 520, 

Inter-taii ( on ' ommission (( ontinued) : 

Statistics to June 30, 1915, 91t, 176t 
Valuation (See Valuation of Railways) 

Interstate Commerce Commission Rulings: 

Bunker Icing Charges on Oysters, 387 
Cars for Meats from Argentina, 254 
Cement to Texas Points, 82 
Class Rates from Chestnut Ridge Railway 

Stations, 343 
Class Rates from New Orleans, La., to 

Tulsa, Okla., 81 
Clay from Florida. 167 
Coal from Bon Air, Tenn., 82 
Coal from Indiana and Illinois, 302 
Coal in Chicago Switching District, 565 
Coal to Memphis, Tenn., 169 
Coal to Red Wing, Minn., 612 
Commodity Rates from St. Louis to North- 
east Texas, 209 
Complaints Dismissed, 40, 168 
Corn Rates from Sioux City, la., 1064 
Cottonseed Oil, Rates on, 40 
Cottonseed Products from Texas, 819 
Demurrage Rates Increased, 818, 960, 977t, 

1039, 1063 
Express Rates from Sioux City, 82 
Fiscal Year Changed, 1073t, 1101, 1121f 
Fruit and Vegetables from Texas Points, 

Glucose from Keokuk, la., 167 
Grain from South Dakota to Des Moines, 

Grain in Illinois to Chicago, 82 
Export Grain Products from Missouri River 

Cities, 167 

Grain to Arkansas Points, 81 

Headlight Order, 177f, 191*, 469, 814, 

831t, 851 
Industrial Railways, 819 
Industrial Railways Case, Second, 343 
Iron and Steel to Colorado Points, 473 
Iron Ore Rate Cases, 427 
Live Stock, Less Than Carload Rates on, 

Live Stock Switching at Nashville, 81 
Lumber from Helen, Ga., 81 
Lumber from Helena, Ark., 1106 
Lumber from Pacific Coast, 167 
Lumber from Louisiana Points, 81, 167 
Lumber from North Pacific Coast Points to 

Texas, 1064 
Lumber from Wisconsin Points, 472 
Lumber, Hardwood, Reshipped from Nash- 
ville, 82 
Lumber Rates on the Santa Fe, 1212 
Lumber to New Mexico Points, 767 
Milling Logs in Transit on Tap Lines, 207 
Missouri River-Nebraska Cases, 126, 270t 
Molasses from Texas and Louisiana, 167 
Nashville Switching, 169 
Nashville Flour Transit Rules, 819 
New England Milk Case, 208 
New York Storage. 125 
North Carolina to Chattanooga, Rates from, 

Panama Canal Act, Applications Under, 

167, 207 
Passenger Fares from Chicago to San Fran- 
cisco, 1106 
Passenger Fares in Illinois, 254, 270t, 386, 

860, 905, 925t, 960. 1107 
Pennsylvania Must Furnish Tank Cars, 

Print Paper from the Soo, 1212 
Rail and Water Line Rates, 40 
Rates from Copperhill, Tenn., 867 
Rates from Des Moines, la., 1107 
Rates to Concordia, Kan., 40 
Rates to Points on the Globe Division of 

the Arizona Eastern, 472 
Rating on Postal Cards, Envelopes and 
Newspaper Wrappers in Southern Classi- 
fication. 343 

St. Louis, Mo., (Cupples Station) Terminal 

Regulations, 168 
Salt, Rates on, 81 
Shreveport Rate Case, 302, 31 It, 386, 523, 

532t, 611, 662, 712, 741, 810, 1047, 1107 
Steamer Lines from Norfolk to Baltimore, 

New York and Richmond, 387 
Stopping Hogs at Winona, 1212 
Storage for Imported Wood Pulp, 1064 
Sugar from California to Texas, 1065 
Suspension of Increases, 472, 523, 612, 662, 

711, 767, 818, 867, 917, 960, 1011, 1064, 

1106, 1154, 1212 
Switching at Louisville, Ky., 254 
Tar to Kansas City, 1212 
Telephone Rates, 126 
Transcontinental Rate Cases, 207, 343, 387, 

565, 662, 711, 740, 917, 960, 1063 
Transit at Kansas Points, 167 
Wharfage at Gulfport, Miss., 168 
Wheat from Minneapolis, 1212 
Wool from California, 712 
Wool from Chicago, 387 
Yellow Pine, Rates on, 1106 
Investors, Safety Points for, 508 

tion : < lommission 

Regulation, 04-1 
In .u and Steel (See also American Society for 
Testing Materials) : 
Alloy Steel in Locomotive Design, It 
Buildings, Portable Steel, 157* 
Heat Treatment of Steel, 355 
Steel Market During 1916, 730t. 829t 
Italy: Transportation System in War Time, 
320, 364 

Jamaica Government Railway: Locomotives, 
Baldwin, 465* 

Japan: Collision, 1060 

lennings, J. E. : Color Test, 412* 

jersey City: Explosion of Munitions at Klack 
' Tom Island, 190*, 251, 1151 

Johns-Manville, II. W. Company: Mastic 
Floors, 154* 

Joint Committee on Reasonable Regulation ot 
Railroads: Newland's Investigation, 947 

Joint Congressional Committee: (See Govern- 
ment Regulation) 


Kansas City Railroad Collection Bureau, 784t, 

Kansas City Southern : 

Annual Report, 832t* 

Valuation Report, 1026t, 1034 
Kansas City Terminal Railway: Viaduct, 995* 
Kelly-Atchison Company : 

Car Repair Shed at Memphis, I. C, 546* 

C. & N. W. Bridge at Chicago. 233* 
Koch, Carl: Locomotive, Steam Storage, 592* 


Labor (See Employee; also Legislation) 
Lackawanna Steel Company: 

Sheet Piling, 102* 
Lane, Harold F., Washington Editor, 439t 
Lansing Company: 

Tractor, 28* 
Lee, Blewett: 

"President's Labor Program," 1208 
Legal Decisions: 

Accidents — Assumption of Risk, 40, 961 
Accidents — Contributory Negligence, 41, 84, 

387,867, 868, 1213 
Accidents, Crossing, 83, 84, 255, 429, 473, 

613, 663, 712, 867, 868, 961, 1213, 1214 
"Actual Cost" of Repairing Cars, 613 
Adamson Law Unconstitutional, 953, 994 
Alabama Anti-Shipping Law, 663 
Animals Scared by Blowing Off Steam, 473 
Atlantic Southern Dismantled, 1151 
"Attractive Nuisance" Doctrine, 169 
Bill of Lading Stipulations, 524, 1109 
Carmack Amendment, 523 
Condemnation of Land, 867, 868 
Change of Watercourse, 868 
Construction Contract, 1108 
Contract for Payment of Transportation by 

Installments, 613 
Contracts as to Passenger Fares, 613 
Contracts for Settlement of Claims for In- 
juries, 613 
Conversion of Shipment, 1155 
Cost of Interlocking Plant at Crossing, 474 
Counterclaim for Damages to Freight, 473 
Damages, Excessive, 40, 474, 712 
Damages for Delay in Transportation, 255 
Damages for Suffering Before Death, 1110 
Damages, Punitive, 819 
Delivery of Goods, 83 

Duties Towards Passengers Alighting, 429 
Employers' Liability Law, 614, 867 
Excursion Fares — Necessity for Tickets, 523 
Exemption of Logging Cars from Law, ,S24 
Federal Employers' Liability Act, 169 
Fires, Damages from, 429, 614, 712, 1155 
Flooding, Liability for, 255 
Freight Rate Regulation, 613 
l-'roir Blocking Statute Construed, 663 
Furnishing Cars, 1109, 1154, 1156, 1213 
General Electric Co. v. New York Central, 

Grade Crossing Elimination Expense, 473 
Hall, Samuel D., v. Pennsylvania R. R., 39 
Hours of Service Act, 474, 1012 
Illinois Public Utilities Cannot Construe 

Contract Rights, 473 
Indiana Headlight Case, 1156 
Initial Carriers' Liability, 303 
Injuries to Employees, 83, 169, 303, 344, 
387, 428, 524, 566, 663, 868, 918, 961, 1065, 
1056, 1108, 1155. 1156, 1213 
Injuries to Licensees, 127, 255, 918 
Injuries to Passengers, 255, 613, 663, 1155 
"Interstate Shipment," 429 
Joint Rates, 474 
L. & N. Officers Must Answer Ouestions of 

I. C. C. Counsel. 607, 651, 708, 1101 
Land Grant for Limited Term, 255 
Liability for Acts of Railroads' Peace Offi- 
cers, 614 
Liability for Libel of Express Messenger, 40 

[July 1— Dec. 31, 1916 

Liability for Loss by Freezing, 82 
Liability, Limitation of, 819, 868, 1108, 1110, 

Libei of Common Carrier, 566 
Liquor Billed in Assumed Name 1108 
Liquor Transported into Dry Territory, 387 
Live Stock Transportation. 1065 1154 
Live Stock Killed on Track, 255, 344, 1066 
Live stock Overheated in Pen, 255 
Live stock, Unloading of, 613 
Long and Short Haul Rates 1109 

' ut , f° r Trespassing Children, 867 
.Mental Suffering" of Passenger 1?13 
un Foreign Companies Law 127 
cipal Consent Not Required to Build 
Branch Lines, 303 
New Jersey Pass-Law Invalid, 961 

, x ork P. S. Commissions, Power of. 

Cla 1 i |J 3 for Damages, 4*1, 83, 255, 
Tank Car Cases, 768 
Passenger Carried Beyond Destination, 961 

: ser rare Cases. 1066 
Passenger or Trespasser, 819 

reight Trains in Kansas, 256 
Physical Connection Between Tracks 867 

ng Tariffs at Stations, 524 
Purchaser Not Liable for Claims Against 
Receiver, 40 s 

F-Stablished by Carrier, 712 
Rebate Alter Delivery Within Plant, 1012 
Rebate by Compromise of Claim. 

of Interstate Demurrage Charges, 

ef Associations, 82 

: Fund Contract, 1154 
Repairs on Cattle Cars in Transit, 473 

: ot Way, Width of, 1154 

: to Build Third Track, 663 
Right to Refuse Live Stock, 566 
Right to Transport Passengers Carrying 

Liquor Into Dr.- State, 868 
Right to Work Is Property, 83 
Routing Shipments — Different Rates Be- 

een Two Points, 83 
Safety Appliance Acts, 524 

Under Foreclosure Proceedines, 613 
irn rC Shipment Under Legal Process, 

rate Coach Laws, 127, 169 524 
Service Letters, 961 

ce on Agents of Company, 428 
ice on Foreign Railroad Corporations, 

nkage in Weight of Cattle 918 
819 ern Pac5fic ' s Land Gran ts in California, 
on Agent's Authority, 819 
Look and Listen Rule. 962, 1066 
Stopping Special Excursion Trains, 524 

5 on Structural Steel, 524 
Switching Charges, Absorption of, 1155 
Switching for Competitors, 1109 
Tax . 566, 663, 1108, 1213 

Terminal Charges. 474 
Traffic Contracts, 918 
Trespassing Pedestrians, 1154 
Twenty-Eight Hour Law, 1012 
Lmon Pacific v - Public Service Commission 

oi Missouri in Bond Issuance Case, 565 
Lpset Price in Foreclosure Sale, 473 
\\ages of Discharged Employees, 1154 
\\aking Sleeping Passencers. 1214 
Wisconsin Fencing Statute, 428 

Legislation : 

son Law, 394t. 415, 450, 481+ 492t 

519, 531f, 534f, 547. 551+, 553, 581+,' 

1, 592, 600 628±, 649, 679+, 692, 708 

. 887, 913, 938, 941, 

953, 994. 1008, 1027^. 1038, 1128, 1209 

Army Appropriation Bill, 452, 709 

Baggage Liability Law, 468 

Bill of Lading Law, 451, 767 

Clayton Act, 73, 120, 165, 339 

Clearance Bill, 277 

Coal Suits of Government v. Lehigh Val- 

ley and Reading Companv, 709 
Committee on Legislation, Report of, 902 

lonal Investigation of Regulation 
-ce Government Regulation) 
Eight-Hour Law Poll in California, 628* 
federal Grain Standards Act, 960 
Full Crew Law in Pennsylvania, 127 
Grade Crossings, Protection of, 898 
Labor \ ote and President Wilson, 877t 
Manila Railroad Sale, 413 
Patents and Inventors, 508 
Political "Frame-Up," A, 353+ 
Post Office Appropriation Bill, 207, 220+, 230 
Proposed, 1040, 1054. 1093, 1144, 1208 
Rate Regulation, 1209 
Regulation of Supply Purchases, 73, 120. 

165, 339 
State or Federal, 113, 204, 270t, 302, 311+. 
644, 792, 897, 925+, 944, 1073+, 1080*. 1134 
State Law Passed in 1916, 1000 
Strike Prevention Law Urged. 1037. 1084. 

1119+. 1128 
Strike Prevention Plan, 545, 687* 
Trespassing Prohibitive Laws, 954, 956 
"Tyranny, The New," 505 
Violations of Laws, Fines for, 469, 520. 660 

708, 816. 911, 960, 1610 
Weitern & Atlantic Releasing Bill*, 78, 339 



£ nn . : \ 265 

Loal Suit 7Q9 


aV Tom 1.1- 

hmployees, 120 

-40+ 445* 

H 814 1 , ip 8 t 31+ Re 85 i ^ raentS • 177t> 191 "' * 69 - 
Loa f : r Service) 

Lock lock) 


Of the Chief Inspector of 
omotive Boilers. 1132 

W , 

£ a ! dv ■ Export, 465* 


Cab V. - 97 . 


? ue ! 363 

£ . V, cc i nomv and Boiler design, 695* 
E uc1 -. ' ■. 347, 1097 

Oasolene Switching; Erie, 232*. 426 
Oear, Power Reverse, 839* 

e i9 d i« gh 4 t 6 9 f < 8 u i4 pni i5it R a uiren,enu - i77t - 

Mallet; D. M. 1125* 

me h nts , , Ca 92?, eP !5 t lT' nt ^ ^^ DeTelop - 

M 989 aniCa ' D ' eSig " ° f EIectric Locomotive-. 

Mechanical Stoking, 795 

Mountain Type: N. ft \V., 362* 

X^umber in Service in 1915, 221 + 

Orders in 1915 and 1916, 582+, 783t. 926t 

Urders in 19R, n $r 

Pacific Type; P. cv R. 107* 

Problems That Demand Solution, 539 

Kepair Facilities, 137+, 315*. 

Shop Repairs, 677 + 

Smoke Elimination, 797 

Steam Storage Industrial, 592* 

Steel, All* 

Superheaters, Advantages of, 797 

lnplex Articulated; Erie 74* 

Turntables: A. T. & S. Fe., 295* 
ng Parts, 316* 

Whistle Code, 881* 

Whistling at Highway Crossings, 1025+ 
Locomotive Boiler (See Locomotive) 
Locomotive, Electric (See Locomotive) 
Locomotive Firebox (See Locomotive) 
Locomotive Pulverized Fuel Company: 

::c Type Locomotive Equipment: C 4 
-V W. f 227* ' ' 

Long Island: 

Gra i^ Crossing Accident Prevention, 135t. 

Loree, L. F: 

Railroad Securities Helu Abroad, 700 
Loss and Damage (See Claims) 
Louisiana Railway & Navigation Company 

Car Records, Accuracy of, 398* 
Louisville 4c Nashville: 

es, Switch, 977+, 998* 
Locomotive Power Reverse, 839* 
•• M - H. Must Answer Questions of 
W., 607. 651, 708, 1101 
Timber Treating Plant, 1035* 
Louisv Car Conference, 830t. 859, 863 

-cth, and Railroad Labor Disputes 481 + 
Lumber (See Ties and Timber) 
Lumbermen's Association of Chicago: 
Reconsignment Privileges, 1010 


untera' Aiso- 



. 298, 


McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Company 
Car, Fish, 116* 

Machine (See Ticket) 


Aerial Mail Service, 651 

Parcel Post and Compensation to the Rail- 
roads and Star-Route Carriers, 467 
Pay on Space Basis, 598, 658, 691, 742, 882* 
Pay Regulations, New, 207. 220+, 230 
Postoffice Appropriation Bill, 207, 220+. 230 
Postoffices on Wheels, Specifications for. 

Report on Railway Mail Service, 1089 
Maine Central: 

Annual Report, 538+* 
Maintenance of Equipment: 

Car Trust Method of Purchasing. . 
Repairs to Hired Cars, 95* 
Maintenance :ers ' Associ- 

•nual Convention, 705 

. in 1916, 1168+ 
Manila Railroad Company: 

Sale to Philippine Government. 413 
Maintenance Work in 1916. 1168t 
Manns, D. E.: 

Dock at Buffalo; B. R. & P., 359* 
Marsh & Turman Lumber Company: 
Bloxonend, A New Flooring. 









- it Traffic, 166 

, ' 1133 

I16M 1175 

MiSeTj HeS^*" (S 

J|h Valley Station at Buffalo. 

Minneapolis. St. Paul ft Sa : - ie . 

Annual Report, 980t* 
ck. Ore, l- 
Minneapolis Steel & Machinery Company: 

I', ft S. S. 

Minnesota Joint Engineering Board. 382 
in, Kansas ft Texas- 

B °1& Bu £. nin S Pulverized Coal at the 

Parsons. Kan., Shops, 549* 
field Meet at Denison. Tex. 139* 
1. Oklahoma ft Gulf: 

Law Test Case, 953. 994 
Reorganization Plan, 
Motion Pictures: 

A pa C r I ed an 95t and Europcan Con.- 


Thomas Transr Zealand 
uovernment Rys., 366* 

Municipal Railroad Proposed for Baltimore, 817 

Murchison, Kenner ' OJ/ 

L< 445* Val ' ey S,a,lon at Buffalo, 440 + , 


. Chattanooga ft St. Lc 
Bridge at Metropolis. 111.. 399* 
Caboose Cars, Steel Frame, 453* 
Employees' Grievances, 1055 1149 
Fire Prevention Day, 607 
National Association of Railway Commi 
Annual Convention, 693, 897, 925" 
Sl 2u4 1S 3t Highwav Cro ' 179f. 

Th i e 074+ ^ Bef ° re NewL * nds Com " 

National Conference Committee of the Rail- 
Negotiations on Wage Demands. 121. 137+, 
i / • , 220*1 245 
National Council of the Chamber of Commerce- 

Railroad Situation, 941 
National Defense: 

Council of National Defend 
National Guard and the R 1 
Sit. 79 80. 121. 150*. 247, 251 

L r i va - te C "^" 18 and Preparedness. 49t 
Relation of Railway Personnel to. 404 
Report of A R. A. Committee on Mobili- 
zation, 150*. 908 

Transportation of American Troops in 1916. 

1 Guard (See National Defense) 
-National H -ion: 

Regulation Causes Locomotor Ataxia 113 
National Industrial Traffic League- 

n of Railway Regulation, 564 
Meeting, Annual, 878t, 894 
Meeting, Summer, 293 
Regulation, Need for Better, 895 
Rules of Practise Before I. C. C. Proposed 
Changes in, 611 
National Railways of Mexico: 

Accident at Tlalnepantla, 37 
National Safety Council: 

Annual Meeting, 735, 879+ 
National Steel Car Companv: 

Sleepers for Canadian Gorentment Rail, 
ways, 1049* **** 


July 1— Dec. 31, 1916] 

GENERAL NEWS— Continued 

[Illustrated articles- are indicated thus*; Editorials thus f; Letters to Editor thus%.\ 

Nebraska Bankers' Association: 

Influences Affecting Passenger Traffic, 997 
Netherlands State Railways: 

Track, Experimental, 423" 
New England Railroad Club: 

Locomotive Fuel Economy and Boiler De- 
sign, 695* 
New England Traffic Club: 

Election of Officers, 1105 
Newlands Congressional Committee (See Gov- 
ernment Regulation — Investigation) 
New Orleans, Texas & Mexico: 

Valuation Report, 1008. 
New South Wales Government Railways: 

Signaling Apparatus, 1129 
New Orleans Great Northern: 

Car Exchange with Big Trunk Lines, 1209 
New York & New Jersey Express Company, 610 
New York Central: 

Discipline by Suspension, 498 
, Dow, Marcus A., on "The Evil of Railroad 
Trespassing," 956 

Rail Investigation and Causes of Transverse 
Fissures, 287*, 398* 
I Rebating Case vs. General Electric Co., 1012 
1 Sale of New York, Chicago & St. Louis, 91t 

Telegraphers' Pay Increased, 120, 203, 219t 

Terminal at Buffalo, N. Y., 1138* 

Tickets, Commutation, Misused, 81 

Trucks in Gibson, Ind., Freight Station, 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis: 

Sale of, 91t 
New York, New Haven & Hartford: 

Annual Report, 731**, 775 

Boat Lines, Operation of, 742, 960 

Electric Operation, 912 

Suit of Minority Stockholders, 269* 

Valuation Cost, 829t 
New York Railroad Club: 

Training Young Men for Promotion, 760 
New York Railways Company: 

Strike, 339, 470 
New York State Bankers' Association: 

Shall Railway Profits Be Limited, 381 
New York Subways, Cost of, 37 
New York Traffic Club: 

Election of Officers, 1063 
New Zealand Government Railways: 

Motor Car, Thomas Transmission, 366* 
Nixon, W. C, 380*. 1137* 
Nohsey & Schwab: 

Car Repair Shed at Memphis: I. C, 546* 
Noise (See Public, The Railways' Relations 

Norfolk & Western: 

Annual Report, 583** 

Locomotive, Mountain Type, -362* 
Norfolk Southern: 

Valuation Report, 178f, 195 
Northern Pacific: 

Annual Report, 981t\ 1019 

Freight Claim Prevention, 120 
Nut Lock, Spring, 910* 


Oakland, Antioch & Eastern: 

Car Ferry, Gasolene-Driven, 322* 

Ticket, at Los Angeles; A. T. & S. Fe, 860* 

Officer (See also International Railway General 

Foremen's Association; also Organization): 

Building a Line to the Public, 324, 439t, 

Opportunity and Responsibility of the Rail- 
road Man, 829t, 836 

Politics of Railway Officers, 679t 

Promotions by Merit, 688* 

Protest to Executives, 688*, 806 

Salary List, 483t, 623t 

Scientific Selection of Men, 175t, 270t, 289* 

Superintendents and the Seniority Rule, 806 

Superintendent's New Friends, 879* 

Superintendent's Opportunities, 327 

Train Despatchers as Officers, 410, 677t, 

Valuation Data; B. & O., 411 
Oil (See Fuel) 
Operating Efficiency (See also Train Rules): 

Efficiency in the Supply Department, 200 

Efficiency Tests, Methods of Conducting, 155 

Efficiency Tests; Pennsylvania, 279, 312*. 

Electrification (See Electrification) 

Starting Long Trains, 4* 

Train Operation on the East Indian Rail- 
way, 1184 
Operating Studies: 

. Western Maryland, 183* 
Oregon Short Line: 

Pass Holder and Writing Frame, 452* 

Car Department, 655 

Desk for Card Catalogue; Pittsburgh Rys., 

Mechanical Department and Needs of the 
[ Future, 92t, 531 1 

Organization (Continued) : 

Organized and Unorganized Men, Treat- 
ment of, 439t, 443*, 587*. 688*. 730*. 
806, 934* 

Stores and Mechanical Departments, 200, 

Pacific Car Demurrage Bureau: Record in 
California for Four Months, 394*. 402, 
Paint (See also Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters' Association ; also Maintenance 
of Way Master Painters' Association) : 
Preparation of Iron and Steel for, 19 
Panama Canal (See Waterways) 
Parcel Post (See Mail) 

Parker Supply Company: Ventilation Access- 
ories, 76* 
Paris : 

Military Railway Center, 1053 
Station at St. Lazare Rebuilt, 1147* 
Passenger _ Fares (See also State Commission 
Rulings ; also Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission Rulings) : 
Illinois Rates, 254, 270t, 386, 860, 905, 
925t, 960, 1105, 1212 
Passes : 

Elsmith Holder and Writing Frame, 452* 
Grand Trunk, 861 
Lehigh Valley, 120 
New Jersey Law Invalid, 961 
Patent (See Legislation) 
Pay (See Employee; also Mail) 
Pennsylvania : 

Accident Record, 203 

Accidents at Grade Crossings, 861 

Bridge at Kiskiminetas Tunction, 939* 

Buckets, Motor, 944* 

Efficiency Tests, 279, 31 2t, 330 

Employment Clearing House, 1149 

Furnishing Tank Cars, 1156 

Grade Crossing Elimination in Camden, 

N. J., 69* 
Hall, Samuel D., Verdict for, 39 
Mechanical Department, 531t 
Relief Fund for Families of Employees in 

Military Service, 78 
Safety First Calendar, 1005 
Signal Scheme Green — Yellow — Red, 248 
Signals, Position Light, 117* 
Suit of Brakeman vs. Brotherhood, 1061 
Test Department, 158 
Track Inspection, Annual, 621t, 639* 
Train Handling on Heavy Grades, 510 
Pennsylvania Steel Company : Mississippi River 

Bridge at Memphis, 645* 
Pension (See Employee) 
Pere Marquette : Annual Report, 879** 
Philadelphia & Reading: 
Cars, Hopper, 194* 
Locomotives, Pacific Type, 107* 
Philadelphia Bourse : Investigation of Govern- 
ment Regulation, 947 
Philadelphia Credit Men's Association : Regu- 
lation and Sound Credit, 791 
Piers : 

Coal Docks in Europe and America, 197* 
Dock at Buffalo, B. R. & P., 359* 
Ore Dock at Ashland, Wis., M. & St. P. 
& S. S. M., 237* 
Piles, Methods of Driving, 747 
Piling, Steel Sheet, 102* 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie: Safety First, 247 
Pittsburgh Railways Company: Desk for Card 

Catalogue, 379* 
Plant (See Bridges and Buildings; also Ties 

and Timber) 
Platform (See Freight) 
Politeness (See Employee) 
Politician and the Intercolonial, The, 1120t 
Politics (See Legislation; also Officer) 
Postoffice (See Mail) 
Premium (See Freight) 
Preparedness (See National Defense) 
Presidents' Conference Committee on the Fed- 
eral Valuation of the Railroads (See 
Pressed Steel Car Company: 

Hopper Car; Woodward Iron Co., 593* 
Hopper Cars ; Erie, 285* 
Hopper Cars; P. & R., 194* 
Preston Car & Coach Company: Sleepers for 

Canadian Government Railways, 1049* 
Price (See Cost) 
Product (See Agriculture) 
Profit (See Finance) 

Prosperity, The Basis of Our Present, 758 
"Protests to Executives," Comments on the, 806 
Public Service Commission (See State) 
Public, The Railways' Relations with : 

Acworth, W. M., on American Situation, 

Building a Line to the Public, 324, 439t, 

Cooperation Between Railways and Public, 

269t, 283 
Harmony Meetings ; A. T. & S. Fe, 238 
Motion Pictures of American and European 

Railways, 95* 
Noise Nuisance on Sleeping Cars, 53* 
Ownership of Railway Securities, 360 
Press and the Railways, 926* 

Public, The Railways' Relations with: (Con- 
tinued) : 

Private Concerns and Preparedness, 49t 

Right of Public Service Employees to 
Strike, 1084 
Pullman Company: 

1 1 capital Train for U. S. Army, 1003* 

Passenger Cars; B. & M., 61* 
Pulverized Coal (See Fuel) 
Purchases (See Finance; also Equipment) 

Quebec Bridge Construction and Collapse, 275*, 

440*, '456*. 487* 


Rail (See also Track): 

Carnegie Steel Co.'s Mills at Bessemer, 555 
Chicago & Northwestern 90-lb. Section, 946* 
Failures and Temperature; So. Pacific, 605* 
Failures in 1915, 632, 941 
Fissures, Transverse, Causes of; New York 

Central, 287*. 398* 
Initial Strains, 328 
Specifications, Diversity of, 95* 
Railroad Situation (See also Government Regu- 
lation; also Employee): 
Comparisons Between 1906 and 1916, 1172 
National Chamber of Commerce's Discussion 
on, 941 
Railroad Water & Coal Handling Company: 

Drinking Water Still, 1144 
Railway Age Gazette Not an Organ of the Rail- 
ways, 587*, 790* 
Railway Business Association: 

Congress and the Railways, 507 
Federal Regulation Favored, 204 
Railway Business Association: 

Rates and Legislation, 1209 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh: 

Activities of the Railroad Test Department, 

Locomotive Problems That Demand Solution, 
Railway Development Association: 

Meeting, Semi-Annual, 914 
Railway Executives' Advisory Committee: 
Eight-Hour Law, 516, 551 
Thorn, Alfred P., Before the Newlands Com- 
mittee, 978*. 984, 1030 
Railway Fire Protection Association: 
Annual Meeting, 602, 642, 1047 
Railway Real Estate Association: 
Annual Meeting, 701 

Railway Situation at Close of 1916, 1172 
Railway Workers' Non-Partisan Association: 

Eight-Hour Law, Opposition to, 709 
Railway Signal Association: 
Annual Meeting, 481*, 495 
"New Tyranny, The," 505 
Railway Ticket Protective Bureau: 

Ticket Thief Caught, 1063 
Ralston Steel Car Company Ore Cars; Duluth, 

Missabe & Northern, 68* 
Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association: 

Committees for 1917 Convention, 914 
Ramsey, Joseph, Jr., 65* 
Ramstedt, A. P.: 

Letter to Senator Newlands on Federal Reg- 
ulation, 1134 
Rates (See Freight Rates; also Passenger Fares; 
also Interstate Commerce Commission; also 
State Commissions) 
Reading Company: 

Coal Suit of Government, 709 
Receivership (See Finance) 
Reclamation (See Economic Practices) 
Records (See Accounting) 
Refrigerator Car (See Car, Freight) 
Regulation (See Government Regulation) 
Relations Between Capital and Labor, 1124* 
Revenues and Expenses: 

Automobile's Effect on Revenues. 997 
Bureau of Railway Economics' Summary for 
May, 248; August, 954; September, 1150 
Express Companies for April, 424; May, 521; 

July, 1060; August, 1103 
Interstate Commerce Commission's Summary 
for 1916, 482*. 520, 534* 
Trend of Earnings in 1916, 1180* 
Rhea, Frank 

Investigation of Equipment Market Abroad, 
349, 966, 1077+ 
Richmond Railway Club: 

Efficiency in the Supply Department, 200, 
Ripley, E. P.; Eight-Hour Law, 592 

Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Associa- 
Annual Convention, 512 
Roads (See Highway) 
Robbery (See Train Robberies) 
Roberts & Schaefer Company: 

Coaliim Plant: Dul. Miss & No., 542* 
Rule^ ( See also Train Rules) : 

hi Shipments and Rules, 1029* 
Safety and Sanitation; Baltimore & Ohio, 

TJuly 1— Dec. 31, 1916 


St. Lawrence Bridge Company: 

Quebec Bridge Erection and Collapse 275* 
440f, 456*. 487* v ' ' 

St. Louis & San Francisco: 

Coaling Stations, 333* 

Color Test, Jennings, 4i_ - 

Trespassing, Campaign Against, 161 
St. Louis Railway Club: 

Woods Used by the Railroads, 358 
St. Louis Southwestern: 

Annual Report, 931f* 
Safety First (See also National Safety Council; 
also Accident; also Grade Crossings): 

Baltimore & Ohio Exhibit Car, 520 

Baltimore & Ohio Rules, 700 

Economy, False, 442J 

German and American Railways, 226* 

Illinois Central, 607 

Inventors, Points for, 508 

"Is it Safe?" Slogan, 251 

Painting Precautions, 706 

Pennsylvania's Calendar for Schoolrooms 

Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, 247 

Report of National Assn. of Ry. Commis- 
sioners — Committee on Safety of Railroad 
Operation, 899 

Shifting Conductors and Enginemen, 274J 

Signs for Locomotive Cab; Erie, S46* 

Southern Pacific, 382 

Superintendent and Safety First, 879f 

Train Despatcher's Office, 996 

Union Pacific, 339 

Whistle, Use of, 851*, 1025f 
Salary (See Employee— Wages; also Officer) 
san Antonio & Aransas Pass: 

Annual Report, IO^'t* 
San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railway: 

Terminal Signaling and Interlocking, 633* 
Sanitation and Safety Rules; B. & O., 700 
Scrap (See Reclamation) 
Seaboard Air Line: 

Annual Report, 1078f*. 1117 
Security (See Finance) 
Shed (See Bridges and Buildings) 
Sherwin-Williams ( 'ompany: 

Annual Convention, 9*66 

Output, Quantity vs. Quality in, 677f 
Short Line Railroad Association of the South: 

Annual Convention, 1130 
Shreveport Rate Freight Rates) 

Siems-Carey Railway & Canal Company: 

Chinese Railway Construction Contract, 660 
Signal:: - Railway Signal Association) : 

Automatic Block; Atlantic Coast Line, 67* 

Bells or Disks at Highway Crossings, 927t, 

Block Signal Mileage on January 1, 1917, 
1168f, 1175 

Block Signals for All Roads, 899 

Caution Signals, Disregard of, 181J 

Cautionary Highway Crossing Signal, 988* 

Color Test, Jennings, 412* 

Crossing Bells, C. G. W., 413 

Drawbridge Protection at Rock Island, 111.; 
C. R. I. & P., 783t, 793* 

Grade Crossing Signals, 157*. 179t, 204, 298, 
898, 927t, 933$, 988* 

Landmarks in Signaling History, 161 

Light; C. M. & St. P., 403* 

New South Wales Government Rys., 1129 

Pennsylvania's Green- Yellow-Red Order, 248 

Position Light Signals; Pennsylvania, 116 

Rotary Interlocking Block, 1133 

Scientific Tests on Signal Interpretation, 
270t, 289* 

Speed-Signaling, A Swedish View of, 790t 

Standard Code Revised, 96t 

Tablet Station Without Attendance, 1130* 

Terminal Signaling and Interlocking; San 
Francisco-Oakland Terminal Ry., 633* 

Whistle Code, 881J, 1025f 
Signals,^ Block (See Signaling) 
Signs (See also Signaling): 

Crossing Signal, Cautionary Highway, 98S* 

Safety; Erie, 846* 
Smith, Ernest L. : 

Pass Holder and Writing Frame, - 
e (See Locomotive) 
Smoke Prevention Association: 

Powdered Coal for Stationery Boiler Plants, 

e, Tunneling Through a. 112 
Society of Railway Financial Officers: 
:al Meeting, 729f, 753 

Kansas City Collection Bureau, 784 1, 811 

Opportunity and Responsibility of the Rail- 
road Man, 829t, 836 
Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Association: 

Branding Lumber, 64* 
Southern Pacific: 

Annual Report, 535t*, 573 

Car 5 -66, 1211 

Machine Collection of Tickets and Fares, 189 

Pension System and a Strike, 143 

Rail Failures and Temperature 1912-15, 60S* 

Safety First Work of Employees. 

School for Telegraphers, 247 

Weight of Steel Passenger Coaches, 586J 
Southern Pine Association: 

Meeting at New Orleans, 816 
Southern Railway: 

Annual Report, 683|*. 721 

Flood I - 99i» 

5 pan -' mgs; 

c pec j ,158 

£tano\. rain Rules; 


Stanneld, I- rank: 

c. . In '"20f 

i)tate ' nal Associa- 

. ustment, 82, 96* 
166, 711 

Georgia: Western & .< :,sing, 78 

Idaho: K. ^nl Regu- 

lation, 1134 

Illinois: Coal Car Problems, 1010, 1011. 1064 

ln iS Intrastate 

Traffic, 961 

Clifford Thome's Automobile, 49t 
Louisiana: Cotton B r.eans. 

Louisiana: Shreveport Rate Case, 532f 

aska: Car - ._ gig 

tion; N. V. C, 918 
New York: Street Railway Strike, 470 

\ork: Wellsville & Buffalo Suspend*. 
818, 861 
nsylvania: Fiscal Year December 31, 565 
th Dakota: Demurrage Rates Raised, 1153 
ants and - ntion 

of Rates, 708 
Texas: Shreveport Rate Case, S32t, 611. 662 
712, 741, 810, 1107 
State Commission Rulings: 

ima: Increased Time Limit for Freight 
Rate Increases Denied, 662 
Georgia: Penny Scrip Sale Ende . 
Illinois: Demurrage Rates for Coal Cars. 

Illinois: Freight Cars for Grain Shipment. 

564, 867 
'Hin jer Fares, 865, 1212 

Massachusetts: Street Cars Must Stop Be- 
fore Drawbridge, 1011 
New- York: Contract on Commutation 

Ticket, 1011 
New York: Local Freight Rates, 662 
Pennsylvania: Commutation Rates, P. & R.. 

Pennsylvania: Connecting Track with Eri« 

and Pennsylvania Railroads, 767 
Pennsylvania: Full Crew Law, 127 
Pennsylvania: Jitney Bus Control, 1107 
Tennessee: Demurrage Rules, 1107 
Virginia: Freight Rate Increases, 960 
Wisconsin: Intrastate Distance Tariffs on 
Agricultural Implements, etc.. Reduced. 
State Railroad Legislation in 1916, 1000 
State Regulation (See State Commissions; also 

Government Regulation) 

Acoustics, Improvements in, 677t 

Chicago Union, 31 It, 802* 

C. St. P. M. & (J., at Chippewa Falls, Wis., 

Coaling; Duluth, Missabe & Northern, 542* 
Coaling; St. L. & S. F., 333* 
Coaling Stations, Small, 750 
Delaware & Hudson at Cooperstown, N. Y., 

Facilities for Children, 95J 

ght Station Accounting Simplified, 420 
French Stations in War Time, 59* 
Illinois Central at Chicago, 517* 
Lehigh Valley at Buffalo, 440t, 445* 
Leipsic Central Station, 464* 

York Central at Buffalo, 1138* 
-enger Stations of Moderate Size, 749 
St. Lazare Station, Par. 

d Passenger, at Dallas, Tex., 889* 
Water Station at Centralia, 111., 606 

-es) : 
Bio on Tanuarv, 1, 1917, 

1168t, 1175 
Cars and Locomotives Ordered in 1916, 

1164f, 1169t, 11 
Co- . 1166*. 1186* 

Car Surpluses and SI from 1907 to 

Construction of Steam and Electric Cars, 290 

Earnings in 1916. 11 

Prices of Railway Material 1914-1916, 636 

Rail Failures in 1915. 

. 1183 
Id's Railway- . 903 

Steel (See Iron and Steel) 

Eight-Hour Law, 
Strauss Bascule I 
C. & N. V 

:', 66* 

Strobel - 

Keokuk Bridge, 
Subway (See also -Elimination 

Probk ■ 

Superheater (See Locomotive) 

. 330 

., 158 

Interr r« 

Supenr ^a j^. 


Efficiency in the Supply 200. 


.rt Trade, 349, 966, 10! 
Exports in 1916, 360. 607 
Materials, Increased Cost of; !'• 
Materials, Specifications an 1 Tests of. Penn- 
sylvania, 159 
Purchases, of, 73. 120, 165 

Reclaiming Ma: ;96» 

Surpluses and Shortages (S-- .ice) 

. '•ment, 954 
Switchmen's Union of North An-.-- 
ands, 70)J, 


Tablet (See Sign 
Tax Assessments, 702, 703 
Teleferica of the Italian Arrr. 
- iph: 


Sch ; 150 

- raph, 138* 

>thods of 


Texa- -. Rulings) 

Ya: - - 1060. 

1075t. 1090 

1074 + 

' 978t. 


M ?66 # 

Thompson. 1 W. : 

Thorne, Clifford: 

mobile, Gi: 
Baf te Cases, 925t. 



Commutation Ticket- C, 81 

bine Collec- 189 

Office at I 860* 

Thief Caught, 1063 
Ties and Timber: 

Creosote Snot '.' 

Creosotcd Timri. 

Cross Ties. 

Decay and Its Control, 1085* 

Forest Fire Prev- .nada. 955 

Forest Products La! 

State- . 689* 


Plant. Tim' 1035 # 

Toledo, Si 


Ore - P. & S. S. 

ilso American Railway Tool Fore- 
men's Associat; 



!, 1055 
, 66* 


See Truck) 

Bureau of Fore 
Commerce, 349, 966. I< 

-er Traffic. 997 

. 1151 
c Club of Chicago: 

' abor 

tat, 883* 

. 1010 


5e« also Telepho: 


cm of Operating 

Trains. 1185 
Economy and Safety I 


July 1 — Doc. 31, 1916] 

GENERAL NEWS- Continued 
[Illustrated articles are indicated tints*; Editorials ilius t; Letters to Editor thust] 

. ■ 

Eight-Hour Day and the Despatcher, 1080$ 

Real Life in the Despatcher's Office, 541 

Safety First and tlu Ti in Despatcher, 996 

Train Sheet, Graphic, 398$ 
Train, Emergency; Lehigh Valley, 864 
Train, Exhibition, to Advertise Arkansas, 1008 
Train Handling on Heavy Grades, 510, 798 
Train, Hospital, for U. S. Army, 1003* 
Train, Imperial, in War Time, 119 
Train Operation on the East Indian Railway, 

Train Robberies, 520, 559, 764, 911, 1005 
Train Rules: 

Standard Code Revised, 96$ 

Western Pacific, 219f, 236, 586$ 
Train Sheet (See Train Despatching) 
Trains, Starting of, 4$ 

Transcontinental Rates (See Freight Rates) 
Transportation of American Troops in 1916 
Traveling Engineers' Association: 

Annual Convention, 312f, 764, 795 
Trespassing (See Accident) 
Triplex Lock Company: 

Box Car Door Lock, 556* 
Triumph of Mobocracy, 394t, 790$ 

Safety Attachment, 1092* 

Standard Improved; N. Y. C. Lines, 694* 

Tractor for Freight Handling Service, 28* 
Trumbull, Frank: 

Eight-Hour Day Law, 551 

Letter to Henry Ford on the Wage Contro- 
versy, 509 
Trussed Concrete Steel Companv: 

Portable Steel Buildings, 157* 
Tunnel Through Snow Slide, 1123$* 
Turntable (See Locomotive) 
Tyrar.ny, A New, 505 


Union Bridge & Construction Company: 

Mississippi River Bridge at Memphis, 649 

Ohio River Bridge at Metropolis, 399* 
Union Metal Products Company: 

National Car Door, 556* 
Union Pacific: 

Adamson Law, Test of, 863 

Aisle Strips for Coaches, 202* 

Bridge at Omaha, 1208 

Cars, All-Steel Automobile, Fitted with 
Wooden Belt Rail and Floor Stringer, 

Insurance of Employees, 1209 

Luncheons by Tray Service, 658 

Safety First, 339 

Wireless Telegraph and Telephone, 53*$ 
Union Signal Construction Company: 

Terminal Signaling: San Francisco-Oakland 
Terminal Ry., 633* 
Union Station Company: 

Chicago Station, 802* 
Union Switch & Signal Company: 

Light Signals; C. M. & St. P., 403* 
Union Terminal Company: 

Station at Dallas, Tex., 889* 

United States Army: 

Hospital Train, 1003* 
United States Board of Mediation and Concilia- 

Report on Effects of Arbitration, 153, 601 
United States Department of Agriculture: 

Forest Products Laboratory, 689* 

Government Egg Car, 253 
United States Steel Corporation: 

learnings, 173, 824 
University of Illinois: 

Advisory Board, 830t 


Valuation of Railways: 

Abandoned Property, 326 

ography on, 1060 
Chicago Zone Committee, 325 
Cost; N. Y. N. H. & H. and G. N„ 829f 
Cost of Reproduction New, 1073f 
Employees and Federal Valuation, 411 
Kansas City Southern, 1026f, 1034 
New Orleans, Texas & Mexico, 1008 
Progress, 382, 861, 1151, 1163f 
Protests Against Reports, 1075t, 1090 
Right of Way, 701 
State Commissions' Interest in, 945 
Tax Assessments and Valuation, 703 
Tentative Reports — A. B. & A„ Texas Mid- 
land, etc., 178t 195, 757, 913, 1026f, 1060, 
1075f, 1090 


Piston Valve Chamber for Slide Valve Cylin- 
ders, 296* 
Truck Safety Attachment, 1092* 


Damper Ouadrant and Damper Clip, 76* 

Viaduct (Sec Bridges and Buildings) 

Virginian Railway: 

Train Despatchers as Officers, 410 


Wabash : 

Floor for Through Girder Spans, 149* 

Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal: 
Annual Report, 586f 

Wages (See Employee) 

Walsh, E. H. & Sons: 

Car Repair Shed at Memphis; I. C, 546* 

War and the Railroads: 

British Government's War Payments, 244 
French Stations as Hospitals and Restau- 
rants, 59* 
Italy's Transportation System, 320, 364 
Paris as a Military Railway Center, 1053 
Rebuilding the St. Lazare Station, 1147* 
Relation of Railway Personnel to Military 

Defense, 404 
Trains, Imperial, in Europe, 119 

Washington Correspondence (See separate head- 

Washington Office Opened, 439t 

Water Service: 

Costs on Various Railroads, 352f, 368, 983$ 
Drinking Water Still, 1144 

Water Service <( ontinued): 

History of Water Station at Centralia, 111., 

Intakes and Intake Lines, 745 

Panama Canal Traffic, 301, 866 
Weight of Steel Passenger Coaches; So. Pacific, 

Welding (See also International Railroad Master- 
Slacksmiths 1 Associai ion - 

Wilson Electric Arc Welder, 1143* 
Wellsville & Buffalo: 

Operation Suspended, 818, 861 
Western & Atlantic: 

Releasing Legislation, 78, 339 
Western Association of Short Line Railroads: 

Meeting at Denver, 1096 
Western Maryland: 

Accident near Knobmount, W. Va., 1008 

Accident near York Road, 328 

Annual Report. 682$*, 727 

Operating Study, 183* 

Reorganization Plan, 785t 
Western Pacific: 

Train Rules, 219f, 236, 586$ 
Western Society of Engineers: 

Construction of the Chiriqui Railway, 847* 

Timber Decay and Its Growing Importance, 
Westinghouse Air Brake Company: 

Annual Report, 666 
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Com- 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern Car Ferry, 322* 
Wheel (See also Association of Manufacturers «f 

Chilled Car Wheels) 
Whistle (See Locomotive) 
Wilson, President: 

Eight-Hour Day Law (See also Employee — 
Wages), 534f, 547 

Politics of Railway Officers, 679f 
Wilson Welder & Metals Company: 

Electric Welder, 1143* 
Wireless (See Telegraph; also Telephone) 
Wood (See Ties and Timber) 
Wood, Arthur J.: 

Tests of Insulating Materials for Postal 
Cars, 1119f 
Wood, Guilford S.: 

Truck, Package Freight, 694* 
Woodward Iron Company: 

Car, 100-Ton Hopper, 593* 
Wright Safety Air Brake Company: 

Truck Safety Attachment, 1092* 


Yards and Terminals: 

European and American Tidewater Coal 

Docks, 197* 
Freight House with Lift Bridges; A. T. & 

S. Fe., 92f, 111* 
Illinois Central's Terminal Plans, 1120t, 

Lehigh Valley at Buffalo, 440$, 445* 
Leipsic Central Station, 464* 
Young Men's Christian Association: 
Membership Campaign, 1005 
New York Central at Buffalo, 1138* 
M. K. & T. Athletic Meet, 139* 

Air Brake Association Proceedings, 441 
Application of Agency Tariffs, 52 
Bridge Engineering, 1028 
Canadian Trade Index, 1916-1918, 933 
Commercial Mortmain, 138 
Corrosion of Iron, 94 
Handbook of Rock Excavation, 835 * 
Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, 354 
Mechanical Handling and Storing of Materials, 
The, 686 


Modern Framed Structures, 180 
Passenger Terminals and Trains, 1080 
Poor's Manual of Industrials for 1916, 538 
Proceedings of the American Railway Engineer- 
ing Association, 734 
Railway Library and Statistics for 1915, The, 

Rise of Rail-Power in War and Conquest, The, 

Scientific Management and Labor, 224 

Standards of the American Society for Testing 
.Materials, 982 

Structural Timber Hand Book on Pacific Coast 
Woods, 271 

Synopsis of Decisions and Recommendations Re- 
lating to Freight Accounts, 314 

Universal Directory of Railway Officials, 1916, 

Voting Trusts, ISO 

Abbey, IT. C, 209 
Abbott, W. P., 258 
Ackermann, A. Henry, 390 
Adams, Harry R., 821 
Adams, L. W., 88 
Adams, R. H., 130 
Addington, Keene H., 390 
Ahem, John A., 526 
Akeley, Carl E., 773 
Albert, Charles S., 962 
Alden, T. D., 615 
Alexander, Ernest, 1110, 1157* 
Alexander, Walter, 344* 
Allen, C. Frank, 120 
Allen, C. L, 431 
Allen, E. R., 820 
Allen, George R., 84 
Allen, G. G., 476, 526 
Allen, Harry C, 1215 
Allen, L. B., 42, 129$ 
Allen, S. G., 772 


|* Indicates photograph and sketch. %lndicates sketch only.] 

Allen, Stuart A., 664, 769 
Allen, W. P., 87 
Anderson, A. J., 85, 1013 
Anderson, R. S., 963 
Andrews, J. H., 257, 305$ 
Anthony, J. T., 132* 
Archibald, J. D., 616 
Armstrong, Samuel T., 1112 
Armstrong, W. M., 212 
Armstrong, W. R., 171* 
Am, William G., 129 
Arnold, W. G., 714 
Arundel, J. T., 820 
Askew, W. R., 770, 871 
Atkinson, John M., 867 
Austin, B. N., 616 
Austin, William A., 773* 
Avery, R. L., 129 
Ayers, A. R., 567* 
Ay res, Walter S., 1157 



Baals, D. S., 170 
Bache, J. S., 525 
Bacon, W. M., 388 
Bailey, Daniel S., 919 
Bailey, N. E., 1110 
Baily, J. H., 619 
Baker, J. E., 713* 
Baker, W. R., 1110 
Baldwin, A. R., 128, 209, 346 
Baldwin, Henry, 567 
Baldwin, L. W., 713, 768 # 
Ball, H. F., 772 
Ball, Raymond E., 305 
Ballantyne, T. B., 1068 
Bangster, William, 88 
Banks, E. S., 526 
Bankson, C. L., 476 
Barba, W. P., 666 
Barker, David N., 88 
Barmore, G. H., 133 
Barrett, J. M., 388 

Barrett, R. L., 820 
Barron, C. M., 347 
Hartlett, O. P., 210 
Rasiner, J. A., 389 
Rassett, R. M., 713 
Basye, E. M 821 
Batchelder, Frank C, 41* 
Batchellor, F. D., 210 
Bate, J. T., 1068 
Baths, J. M., 1013, 1111 
Bauer, A. F., 964 
Baugh, F. E., 431 
Baum, W. W., 257 
Beal, F. L., 870 
Beale, F. D., 964 
Beall, C. A., 477 
Beard, Thomas G., 770, 871* 
Bears, A. M., 44 
Beaudry, R. F., 664 
Beauprie, A. W., 1013 
Beaver, J. D., 304 

[Jul>- 1 — Dec 31, 1916 

Bebb, I. I-'.. L21S. 
Beckwith, J. Q., 869 

Beckwith. Thomas L„ 257 

Begien, R. N„ 42, 44* 

Belknap, K. E., 88 

Bell, C. E., 770 

Bell, F. B., 619 
Bell, II. I-".. 43 
Bell, II. I... 4.'. 963. 1068 

Bell, Tames R., 770 

Bell, T. O., 615 

Bell, W. I., 44 

Belsito, F. G.. 718 

Benedict, Paul M., 1 157* 

Benner, Samuel A., 1113 

Bennett, T. A., 209 

Benson, J. C, 665 

Bergman, T. S., 129 

Bernet, To'hn T., 100*. 128 

Berry, F. V.,'210 

Bertram, II. A.. 964 

Bess, C. E„ 770 

Bettenburg, N. C, 665 

Betts, A. A., 1154 

Betts, Lewis, 88 

Biard. A. T., 664 

Bickle, Henrv W., 84* 

Bickler, W. N., 526 

Riddle, W. B., 388* 

Bingham, W. T., 1215 

Binklev, L. G., 529* 

Bird, R. M„ 88 

Blackburn, J. A., 388 

Blackie, George F., 1158 

Blagden, A. S., 1161 

Blakely. G. H., 212 

Bleasdale, Tames, 821 

Blen, George W., 718 

Blendinger, F. L„ 714 

Bloom, J. G., 85, 171 

Blount, J. W., 1158 

Blue, B. W., 389 

Boatner, Vincent V., 128, 170* 

Bock. E. L., 42, 170 

Boifeuillet. Tolm P., 1011 

Booth, \V. L„ 43 

Bowe, J. T., 388 

Bowen, Edmund I., 304 

Bovce, George R., 87 

Boyd, T. H., 664 

Bovle, A. J., 1113 

Bovle, J. H., 820, 869 

Bradburv, H. R., 475 

Bradlev, W. L.. 1215 

Brashares, H. E., 433 

Brennan, J. D., 43 

Brennan, Thomas F., 820, 919t 

Brewer, T. W„ 919 

Briggs, \V. E., 768, 770 

Bright, F. E., 922 

Brinser, C. E., 616 

Britton, F. H., 209 

Britton, R. F., 770 

Broadbent, J. H„ 44 

Brooke, George D., 615, 769* 

Brooker, Edwin, 1157 

Brooks, F. S., Ill 

Brooks, T. T.. 475 

Brooks, W. E., 713 

Broughton, M. H., 128, 209* 

Broughton, T. Gibson, 664 

Brown, A. D., 1215 
Brown, Charles L., 212 

Brown, E. L„ 430, 525* 

Brown, F. M., 526* 
Brown, Franklin Q., 772 
Brown, F. V., 962 
Brown, H. H., 345 
Brown, Orno M., 257 
Brown, R. L., 87 
Brown, Thatcher M., 922 
Brown, W. B., 43, 256 
Browne. Tames A., 869 
Bruce, G. A., 1158 
Brvan, C. G., 920 
Bryan, J. T., 963 
Bucholtz. Carl, 664, 713, 821 
Buddin, G. R., 870 
Buick, T. M., 87 
Buffington, E. T., 717 
Buker, J. E., 718* 
Bumpas, G. \V., 769 
Burch, H. F., 769 
Burchfield, C. E., 129 
Burckhalter, F. L., 664 
Burgan, H. M., 872 
Burgee. H. T., 871 
Burgess. T. B., 85 
Burk, C. H., 475 
Burkholder, C. J., 874* 
Burr, F. A„ 46 
Burr, Walter D., 345 
Burton, Tames Tr., 1215 
Burton, R. B., 964* 
Burton, W. S., 389 
Butler, F. A., 821 
Butler, S. S., 475 
Butler, Willard P., 922 
Butt, R. L., 871 
Buxton, C. P., 963 
Byington, F. J., 256 

Cahill, M. H., 615, 713* 
Calder. A. B., 1215 
Callahan, T. E., 769 
Call, R. V.. 1217 


Calloway, W I: , 616 

5, 820 
Cameron, W 431 

Campbell, li. A., 42 
Campbell, D.. Vv . 

. 1067 
Campbell, Hudson, 820 
Campbell, II. G. I 305 
Campbell, Lyman II., 85 
Campion, H. T., 
Canfield, J. B., 821 
Canniff, W. IT., 106*, 128 
Cannon, E. L., 1111 
Caples, Ral] 

!, 345 
Carey, George C, 477 
Carey, James D., 874 
Carey, lames P., 1067, 1157* 
Carlisle, I. (,'., 1068 
Carlisle, '(. II., 85 
Carlton, G. R., 714 
Carmichael, R. 11 . 769, 920* 
( armo . I' 1 
Carpenter, F. li., 128 
I II., 345 
roll. Phil. 1215 
I . 86 

■ rs, W. F., 965 
Cass. C. P., 133 

• . W. F., 346 
Chaffee, W. D., 527 

dler, T. M., 345 
Chapin, N. D., 257 
Charland, J. G., 475 
Chassell, E. D., 1065 
Christian, Tames R., 770 
Chubb, 1. E., 1016 
Church, S. L., 616 
Church, S. H., 713 
Clapp, C. D., 872 
Clark, Arthur B., 615* 
Clark, Joseph S., 666 

< iarke, J. X„ 88 
Clavton, F. F., 476 
Cleary, E. E., 769, 919* 
Clements, M. F.. 872, 920* 
CTewer, H., 129, 130 
Clifford, Robert C, 618 
Clifton, W. D„ 345 
Cloos, W. D., 477*, 772 
Coble, W. M., 919 
Coburn, Ralph G., 1217 
Coffin, J. S., 772 
Colbert, James T., 304 
Cole, Fred M„ 718 
Coleman, C. F., 1067 
Collins, F. S., 870 

< ollins, George, 345 

is, T. A., 1067 
Condon, Tohn M., 664 
Conine, W. H., 664 
Conklin, Glenn G., 568 
Connett, O. W., 616 
Constans, Oscar A., 770* 
Cook, George T., 88* 
Cook, John A., 615 
Cook, W. D„ 1013 
Cook, W. G., 172 
Coolidge, F. W. Jr., 170 
Cooper, Bruce I)., 1215 
Cooper, E. M., 664 
Cooper, F. W., 963 
Coppage, T. B., 42, 85* 
Coppell, Arthur, 869 
Corey, S. 7., 664 
Corey, William E., 1070 
Corning, Warren S., 528 
Correll, E. J., 258 
Corrigan, George W.. 871, 920* 
Cortazar, Luis M., 475 
Cottingham, Walter II., 966 
Coulter, W., 43 

1. S. D., 769, 770, 919 
Craft, G. L., 1161 

n, \lfred, 712 

David T., 1157 
Crawford, E., 1012, 1111* 
Creer, Hugh E., 874, 922* 

r, Tohn T., 1159 
Crockett, A E., 88 
Crombie, D., 1012 
Crosbv, E. A., 209 
Crowley, David EL, 1065, 1154* 
Crowley, P. E., : 
Crugar, E. L., 1112 
Culton, M. O., 346 
Culver, W. R., 964 
Cummin, Tohn D., 820, 821 
Cundiff, Warren K., 257 
Cunningham, D. G., 86, 130* 
Cunningham, Edward R., 476 
Cunningham, W. J., 558* 
Curtis, E. D., 475 
Cutler, Otis H., 716, 1070 
Cutting, E. AT., 478 
Cuvler, G. W., 210 
Cuyler, T. De Witt, 1070 

Dailev, Maurice. 820* 

Dales', A. E., 258 

Da Silva Freire, Dr. J. J., 347 

Dalton, R. P., 42 

Daniels, C. S., 618 

Daniels, H. E., 529* 

Daniels, M. B., 170 

Darden, T. F., 1067 



. 569 

r 1 6 

A K., 963 


rge, 529 

. 88 
I R. W., 1158 

I-., 1067 
T. C, 476 


•i, 87 
Dean, William, 527 
Deneen, W. J., 1067 

73, 920 
Dennis, J. S., 1067 
Derby, G. G., 526, 566* 
Derbvshire, G. T., 42, 171* 
De Rousse, Oswald T., 615* 
Dervin, James P., 2"57 
Des Brisay, N. R., 616 
Deverell, A. C, 1158 
Dewev, F. E., 345 

Ben C, 475, 566* 
Dickey, Daniel B., 170 
Dickinson, A. H., 128 
Dicks A. E., 257 
Dillon. Svdnev, 922 
Dimmitt L. H., 344 
Dixon, Donald S., 345 
Dixon, J. E., 772 
Dixon, Thomas B., 257 
Dodds, J. H., 1068 
Dody, Tohn, 615 

r. H., 42 
Donald, F. C, 714 
Donaldson. W. E., 529 
Dorety, Frederic G., 962 
Dorr, Tohn V. N., 773 
Dotv, IT. W., 305 
Douglas, A., 820 
Dow, Herbert \Y 
Dowling. T. T., 665 
Doyle, J. 'M., 567 
Duane, D. J., 869 
Dudenbostel, W. E.. 42 
Duff, William A., 770, 872* 
Dufheld, E. H., 526 
Dunbar, Frank. 433 
Dunham, II. I.., 962 
Dupuis, Eugene, 305 
Durham, George, 567*, 616 
Dutton, S. M.. 388 
Dyer, J. H., 43, 85* 

Earl, George H., 664 
Earl, Harrv D., 820, 870* 
Earl, H. G., 769 
Earle, Thomas, 212 
Easton, W. S., 209, 210 
Eaton, F. H., 87 
Eberhart, Frank, 664. 713 
Eckels, Charles E., 304 
Eckels; Charles P.. 821 
Eckert, E. E., 963 
Eddins, II. ML 963 
Eicher. Tohn H., 922 
Einsick, II. I 7 ., 431 
Eisenhart, H. W., 88 
Elder, T. D., 665 
Ellingson, T. W.. 85 

li II.. 1215 
Elliott, W. S.. 526 
Ellyson, H. K., 528 
Elmore. W. R., 257, 616, 771* 
Elsev, Charles, 128 
Elston, Alva C, 821 
Emig. T. C. 871, 920* 
Engel, Frank J., 307 
Engh. Arthur. 44, 86* 
English. William T.. 821 
Ensel. E. L, 476 
Erb, Newman, 430 
Erickson. ITalford. 344 
Etter, W. K., 526 
F.vans, Harry M., 212*. 1217* 
Evans. Tohn, 665 
Evans. T. F., 128 
Evans. T. L, 210 
Everham. A. C, 1068 
Everitt, George S.. 128 
Extrand, Charles W., 129 
Eyster, A. B., 431 

Falck, F. M., 820 
Falk, Leon, 619 
Falk. Maurice, 619 
Farnham, Robert. Jr., 86 
Farnum, Henry W., 390 
Farnsworth, F. A.. 770 
Farquhar, Louis A., 128* 
Farr, Arthur V., 1016 
Farr, B. L, 714, 872* 
Farrells, A. L. 963 
Fee. T. H., 388, 476* 
Fell. F. L. 1215 
Felton, E. C. 88 
Fenn. S. P., 966 


• 770 

• 69 # 
Fitzgerald, J. M 

1 70* 

Flanagan, I 





. 963 
: 161 




Fox, I 

Fox, Eugene, 4. : . 

Fox, F. C, 431, 

Fox, G. J., 963, 1111* 

Fohn L., 919 
Frank, A. W., 966 

. J. A., 42 
French, George W.. 388 
Freund, Sa- 1012* 

. Archibald, 770, 870* 
Frohman, Sidney, 348* 
Fryburg, F. M., 665. 920 
Fullington, M. A., 43 

Gabriel, R. W.. 

Gahan, George C. 1110, 1157* 

Gallow, E. B.. 616 

Galloway, A. K.. 

Galloway, Charles W., 41* 

Gardner, W. H., 85 

Garrison, A. C, 212 

Garvev. H. S.. 431 

Gary, Elbert H., 1161 

Gass, H. A., 616 

Gassman, E. R., 615. 

Gav, E. A.. 664 

Gavlord, G. E.. 43, 304 

I W.. 1215 
Gelwix, Edmund, 389 
Gibson, F. C, 478 
Gilhula, P. F.. 121S 
Gilleas. II 
Gilliland, J. R., 43 
Gillineham. A. I. 
Gillispie, R. W.. 88 
Glasgow, Tohn L.. 
Gleason, F. B., 966 
Gleason, L A., 963. 1013* 
Gleason, J. W., 964 
Gleeson. W. F., 566 
Glessner. C. C 

Glvnn. William C. 963, 1013* 
Godfrev, F. E., I 
Goeldner. E 
Gold, Ecbert H., 390 
Gomm. C. H., 769 
Goodrich, R. C, 1157 
Goodsell, J. O.. 257 
Goodwin, E. P., 43 
Gordon, Edwin K. 
Gorman, T. G., 820 
Gould, Edwin, 209 
Gould, I. F., 768 
Grace. E. G.. 88 
Graham. R. P.. 616 
Grammes, R. A.. 304 
Gray, A. D„ 256 
Grav. B. D., 666. 
Gray, l 

Grav. Dudlev O, 346*. 388 
Grav, To^eph S.. 1011 
Grav. M. I ... 666 
Green, F. W., 869, 1067 # 
Green. W. E., 820 
Greenfield. Hugh. 389. 476 
Greenwood. H. E., 258 
Greenwood, Tohn L., 305 
Greenwood. W. E.. 390* 
Greer, B. B., 43. 85* 
Gregg, John 869 
Greincr, J. R., 43 
Grice. E.' W., 42 
Griffin, E. O., 1112, 1214* 
Griffin, T. T.. 824 
Griffin, William, 529 
Griffith, Arthur C. 304, 430* 
Griffiths. William F.. 43* 
Grigg. F. N., 259 
Griggs, George L,, 820 
Grimshaw. H. P., 713. 714 
Groce. Georee H., 1071 
Groseclose. W. B., 869 
Grunder, F. D.. 88 


July 1— Dec. 31, 1916] 


Haas, Exum M., 824" 

Hackett, S. E., 88 

Hackett, W. W., 1158 

Hager, William M, 87 

Haggandcr, G, A., 44. 130* 

Hail.-, J. C., 171, 257* 

Hain, H. J., 966 

Haines, F. E., 209 

Hale, Arthur, 1010 

Hall, Norman W.. 1157 

Hall, R. J., 257 

Hall, VV. W., 1013 

Hallock, H. M., 475, 615$ 

Hamlin, K. E., 256 

Hamilton, F. H., 820 

Hamilton, G. H., 43 

Hamilton, T. A., 820 

Hammond, C. P., 1068 

Hanley, II. C., 526 

Hanna, E. E., 1215 

Hansen, H. A., 128 

Hardin, Abraham T., 525* 

Harding, C. R., 1111 

Harkins, C. H.. 431, 770 

Harlan, R. J., 567, 664 

Harris, C. L., 344 

Harris, E. J., 129, 130 

Harris, T. E., 1013 

Harris, W. F., 258 

Harrison, Frank B., 348 

Harrison, J. P., 872 

Harrop, A. H., 1113 

Hart, Henry E., 210 

Hart, Henry J., 768, 919$ 

Hasse, Otto A., 966 

Hasson, T. O., 966 

Hatch, Charles W., 304 

Hately, C. F., 390* 

Haughton, B. W., 770 

Hawkins, R. D., 115S 

Hawkins, S. K., 664 

Hayden, George W., 872 

Hayden, W. S., 128 

Haydon, Charles, 820 

Hayes, James C, 1068 

Hayes, W. L., 390 

Hazelhurst, L. W., 664 

Hazeltine, A. J., 1161 

Heeran, William T., 1012 

Hegeman, J. S., 88 

Heiser, William F., 129 

Hendricks, J. T., 210, 257* 

Henion, B. C, 1215 

Henry, Philip W., 922 

Herbert, G. B., 1067 

Herbert, J. M., 209, 256J 388, 869 

Herrick, Robert E., 965 

Herth, C. E., 258 

Hevenor, Herman P., 307 

Hibbard, E. R., 390 

Hibbard, Howard H., 390, 433* 

Hibbard, I. L., 963 

Hickey, G. L., 305, 615 

Hickman, J. R., 475 

Higgins, H. R.. 1157 

Hild, G. T., 210 

Hill, C. C, 665, 770 

Hill, C. E., 526, 962 

Hill, F. H., 664 

Hillard, C. W., 388, 430* 

Hilliker, C. E., 1013, 1068 

Hills, A. J., 345 

Hilsabeck, C. E., 257 

Himmelright, R. J., 132* 

Hinchman, C. F., 86 

Hines, Walker D., 42* 

Hixon, G. O., 714 

Hoag, G. A., 344 

Hobson, J. S., 172 

Hodgdon, William, 1215 

Hoffman, N. K., 1215 

Hoffman, W. F., 1217 

Hogan, Joseph F., 919 

Holbrook, Percv, 1070 

Hollingsworth, 0. O., 1067 

Hollomon, T. T., 567, 664 

Holloway, H. C, 170 

Holmes, H. C, 664 

Holmes, R. G, 714 

Honywill, A. W., 85 

Hopkins, Guy, 962 

Hood, G. D., 209, 305* 

Howard, Clarence H., 1114 

Howe, C. H. R., 258 

Hoxie, R. S., 820, 1012* 

Hubert, Conrad, 390 

Hubbell, C. H., 209 

Hudson, B. M., 615 

Hudson, E. E., 1017* 

Hudson, W. C, 870 

Huffman, S. S., 615 

Hughes, F. J., 42 

Hughes, Robert, 1217 

Hulen, John A., 388 

Hulst, John, 716, 922 

Humes, W. Sharon, 307 

Humphrey, A. L., 922 

Humphrey, H. J., 869 

Hunt, E. L., 769 

Hunt, I. M., 713 

Hunt, Robert W., 87 

Hunt, W. E., 345 

Hunter, James Westmorland, 257, 

Hunter, T. W., 475 
Hunter, Robert, 526 

Huntington, ( '. \\'., 430, 1067, 

llimtoon, C. F„ 1217 
Hurdleston, Charles W., 712, 918$ 
Hurley, G. L.,' 769, 870$ 
llussev, K. A., 821 
Huston, H. M., 256 
Huston, P. P., 872 
Hutchinson, J. H., Jr., 616 
Hutchinson, Sydney £., 1070 
Hutchison, A. E., 1157 
Hyndman, Frank T., 528* 

lams, A. A., 615 
Ingold, G. T.. 86 
Ingram, C. M., 41 
Ingram, W. T., 475 
Ironsides, A. J., 43 
Irving, Elmer, 616 
Ivers, W. H., 46 

Jacklin, W. M., 1014 
Jackson, C. O., 770 
Jackson, H. A., 88 
Jackson, J. L., 1161 
Jackson, M. R., 619 
Jackson, Richard A., 713 
lackson, R. E., 389 
Jacobs, M. II., 388, 431 + 
Jacoby, Wm. L., 619 
James, A. K., 770 
James, Cleveland A., Ill 
Jamieson, P. C, 963 
Jamieson, T. G., 713 
Jay, S. V., 1157 
leffries, W. L. Jr., 1217 
Jett, C. F., 344* 
Johnson, A. L., 212 
Johnson, H. H„ 128 
Tohnson, L. L., 1158 
Johnson, M. 1'.., 128 
Johnston, A. \Y., 128, 304* 
Johnston, L. H., 714 
Johnston, W. G., 475 
Johnstone, Homer C., 477 
Jones, B. F., 963 
Jones, B. H., 212 
Jones, E. H., 42 
Jones, J. A., 1013, 1067* 
Jones, J. S., 42$ 
Jones, Paul, 770 
Jones, R. D., 1158 
Jones, William E., 389 
Jordan, E. E., 919 
Jordan, H. A., 567 
Joyce, Adrian D., 966 
Judd, George M., 477 

Kauffman, H. H., 616 

Kavanaugh, C. J., 388 

Kavanaugh, J. P., 304 

Keen, T. J., 664 

Keffer, W. H., 820, 821* 

Kell, R. L., 616 ' 

Keller, W. H., 43 

Kelley, H. O., 171 

Kellogg, W. L., 1068 

Kelly, M., 1068 

Kelly, William, 665 

Kelsey, F. D., 256, 567 

Kendall, A. H., 665 

Kennedy, R. C, 871, 963$ 

Kennedy, W. B., 88 

Kennedy, W. H., 212 

Kenney, N. S., 1217 

Kennison, Frank, 348 

Kentfield, L. H., 714 

Kerrick, A. C, 919 

Kerrigan, William P., 713 

Kilander, Charles C, 212 

Kimbell, R. E., 256, 1110 

Kimes, J. C, 664 

Kmcaid, R. N., 129 

King, F. C, 304 

Kingston, Charles E., 963, 1013 

Kinney, C. W., 714 

Kinnison, P. F., 966 

Kirkbride, Franklin R., 922, 1161 

Klein, Herman J., 821 

Kitching, E. C, 388 

Kittle, C. M., 1067, 1157* 

Knickerbocker, Fred Hugh, 304* 

Knight, Lester B., 716 

Knightlinger, J. W., 526 

Knightly, R. A., 129 

Knisely, Edward S., 88 

Knox, C. M., 210 

Knox, Henry C, 477 

Koch, Tohn J., 1215 

Koch, W. G., 963 

Kopf, H. D., 1161 

Kraft, W. B., 1215 

Kraft, W. T., 305 

Krebbs, B. G, 388 

Kyle, George A., 618, 771* 

Lacy, G. G, 820 
Ladd, Elwood G., 477 
Lake, J. J., 1158 
Lamb, George W., 869 
Lambert, L. A., 128 
I.ameroux, D. P., 772, 824* 
Lamoreux, S. J., 388, 476* 
Landers, P. J., 256, 344* 
Landreth, J. P., 717* 
Lane. Chauncey L„ 390, 824 

Lane, E. G., 210 

Lane, Harold F., 439$ 

Lane, H. A., 567 

Lane, Mills B., 304 

Langdon, A. L., 388* 

Lankey, V. W., 714 

La Rue, B. F., 566 

Lautz, H. B., 1157 

Lawton, Alexander R., 304 

Layden, T. W., 256 

Leamy, M. F., 43 

Leary, J. H., 210 

Lcason, O. C., 820 

Leat, Charles, 964 

Leavitt, E. D., 304 

Le Bertew, M. B., 475 

Le Boutillier, George, 1215 

Leckie, A., 821 

Lefaivre, E. F., 1068 

Leggett, F. H., 966 

Leighty, W. J., 1070, 1114* 

Lemmon, Charles A., 821, 1111 

Lemperly, C. M., 966 

Leo, Patrick R., 475 

Lepreau, F. J., 1070* 

Lester, F. A., 478 

Le Van, E. B., 1215 

Leverich,- C. E., 567 

Levy, E. D., 388, 430* 

Lewis, G. R., 919 

Lewis, H. R., 770 

Lewis, O. S., 770, 871* 

Lilley, E. C, 345 

Lilley, Ray L., 526 

Lima, Cristobal, 475 

Lincoln, I. W., 1161 

Lincoln, W. D., 305 

Lindley, E. C, 713, 769J 

Linn, W. A., 1159 

Lisle, E. C, 431 

Litchfield, P. T., 85 

Little, A. G, 210 

T-ittlefield, C. E., 128 

Lloyd, J. A., 345 

Lockett, J. H., 919 

Lockwood, R. T-, 344 

Logan, H. A., 1161 

Long, E. W., 43 

Loomis, H. S., 666 

Loree, J. T., 43 

Lounsbury, Charles, 922 

Love, Joseph E., 387 

Loving, W. G., 869 

Low, Seth, 481 

Lunday, C. G., 869, 919$ 

Lyman, L. B., 43 

Lynch, T. J., 769, 770 

Lyons, U. G, 1161 

McBride, J. S., 616, 8211 
McCain, C. C, 714 
McCall, C. B., 616 
McCandless, R. A., 256 
McCann, C. B., 820 
McCarthy, M. L, 257 
McCarthy, T. W., 210 
McCarty, O. H., 345 
McCarty, O. P., 616, 664* 
McCarty, R. E., 1214 
McCarty, R. J.. Tr.. 769 
McCleary, H. R.j 922 
McClellan, A. W., 616 
McClellan, William, 478 
McConnell, F. D., 1068 
McCormick, George, 1067, 1068, 

McCraney, J. D., 1067 
McCuen, R. E., 389 
McCullough, J. V., 664 
McCurdy, F. T., 478 
McCutcheon, L. C. 304 
McDonald, J. L., 1068 
McDonald, Richard J., 869 
McDuffie, A. W., 713 
McDuffie, G. E., 768 
McFadden, H. C, 1013, 1111 
McGarrah, Gates W., 716 
McGarry, W. J., 919 
McGill, W. E., 820 
McGinty, H. H., 664 
McGrew, J. A., 43 
Mcintosh, Stuart IT.. 170 
Mclntyre, F. M.. 1215 
McKay, John, 475 
McKeen, Benjamin, 1214 
McKenney, W. F., 259 
McKenzie, K. D., 85 
McKillop, R.. 43 
McLain, E. P., 567 
McLaughlin, C. E., 256 
McLaughlin, S. T., 770 
McLaughlin, W. C, 1013 
McMahon, W. C, 1217 
McMahon, W. L, 257 
McNausrhton, L, 1217 
McOuade, R. L, 210 
McQuilkin, 0.'\'., 130 
McRoberts, L. C. 1068 
McVav. D. R., 477 
Mackall, Paul, 88 
Macbeth, 11. A.. 567 
MacDuffie, A. W., 870 
Mackenson, Clarence T., Jr., 963 
MacLaren, M. F., 43, 209 
Macy, C. E., 129 

Magallanes, M., 475 

Magee, J. Howard, 919 

Maguire, J. F., 714 

Main, J. T., 476 

Malone, W. II., 389 

Manderfield, J. II., 919 

Mange, John I., 212 

Mann, L. R., 431 

Marick, G. L., 43 

Marker, E. R., 46 

Markle, N. R., 257 

Marnay, John D., 664, 769 

Marshall, R. S„ 714, 821$ 

Marshall, Waldo H., 1217 

Martin, G. A., 966 

Martin, G. R., 430, 525* 

Martyn, C. W., 664 

Mason, E. W., 209, 345* 

Masteller, M. L., 1111 

Matthews, H. M., 770 

Maule, Warren M., 718 

Maury, P. L., 966 

Maxwell, H. W., 43 

Mays, Floyd R., 128 

Mead, James F., 1013 

Meeder, William R., 129 

Meinhold, E., 171 

Meininger, Philip, 770, 871$ 

Merino, Manuel, 475 

Merritt, C. S., 345 

Mesker, L. H., 172 

Metcalf, W. B., 85 

Middleton, Tohn A., 616 

Miles, H. C., 919 

Millar, Alexander, 820, 962$ 

Miller, John F., 922* 

Miller, Otto, 128 

Miller, Ross, 387 

Miller, W. H., 43 

Mills, H. D., 718 

Mills, H. O., 305 

Miner, William H., 1071, 1114 

Minnich, G. M., 966 

Minnick, F. G., 1215 

Minshull, G. B., 919 

Mitchell, Carl A., 85 

Mizener, Logan A., 345 

Moffitt, J. B. Tr.. 1215 

Monson, W. L., 257 

Montgomery, M. D., 133 

Montiel, C, 475 

Mooney, Neil, 475 

Moore, Andrew B., 820 

Moore, Charles B., 1113 

Moore, K. A., 257 

Moore, W. C, 869 

Morcom, W., 475 

Morgan, H. L., 1068 

Morgan, Milton B., 129 

Morison, D. W., 1159 

Morris, E., 714 

Morrison, J. C, 128 

Morrow, J. R., 85 

Morse, W. C, 714 

Morton, Arthur V., 922 

Moser, Frank H., 388, 431* 

Moser, Frank L. 821 

Moses, S. D„ 476 

Motsett, Charles H., 85 

Mount, C. W., 526 

Mover, F. C, 133 

Mudee. Burton W., 390, 433*, 529, 

Mudge, E. W., 619 
Muhlfeld, Tohn E., 772 
Mulcahey, A. H., 1112 
Mullen, Tohn F., 44 
Mullin, F. R., 820 
Mundee, W. F., 919 
Murphy, M. G, 616 
Murrav, Samuel, 171$ 
Murrav, S. B., 664 
Murray, William S., 1158 
Mussman, L. H., 257 
Myers, E. L., 717 
Myers, F. W., 388 

Nai smith, P. L., 1067 
Nanne, Roberto A., 43 
Nash, C. J., 1114 
Nash, W. A., 820 
Naylor, Norman C, 1113* 
Neal, W. M., 43, 869 
Neeland, Marvin A., 716 
Neilson, Edward S., 963 
Nelson. C. A., 210 
Neubert, W. P., 433 
Newell, G. A., 615 
Nicholl, Franklin M., 259 
Nichols, R. W., 433 
Nicoles, K. M., 210, 305$ 
Niemann, F. W., 85 
Niemeyer, C. H., 616 
Nixon, W. C, 380* 
Northam, M. P., 346 
Norton, C. H., 389 
Nuelle, J. H., 388, 431$ 
Nutt, L R., 128 
Nye, Charles F„ 527$ 

O'Brien, David A., 860 
O'Connor, F. L, 476, 568* 
O'Connor. T. L, 526 
Odell, Paul E., 129, 170 

[July 1— Dec. 31. 1916 


O'Fallon William G., 86 
Ogden, George B., 475 
Ogilvie, George B.. 769 
O'Keefe, W. H., 615, 664J 
Oliver, E. R., 770 
Oliver, George W., 256 
Oliver, G. L.. 171 
O'Meara, F. W. H., 962 
O'Neal, Charle= T., 714, 820* 
O'Xeil, Fred W., 824 
O'Neill, P., 664 
Opheim, Tohn, 568 
Orr, H. H., 616, 821t 
Orr, T. W., 713 
Orr, R. E., 85 
Ouellet, D. O., 713, 769t 
Overman, P. L.. 128 
Oren, Fred B.. 128 
Ostby, Oscar F.. 172* 
Overbaugh, Chester B., 666 
Owen, Arthur E., 43, 86* 

Paine. F. H. P. 
Parish, Le Grand, 772 
Parker, R. T.. 526, 567* 
Parrish, T. B., 43 
Parrott. T. E.. 171 
Parrv, F. B.. 919 
Parsons, Robert S., 475 
Parsons, T. W . 
Patterson, Robert M.. 209 
Patton. C. S., 388, 4751 
Peabodv. G. II.. 529*. 1070 
Pearce. W. C, 964 
Pearce. \V. G., 1161 
Peck, E. A., 615 
Peil. F. A., 475 
Pennington. C. A.. 170 
Peters, David. 920 
Pharr, A. J., 820. 869* 
Phenneger. E., 713 
Phillips, Charles H.. 919 

Phillips. William. 964 

Pickrell. W. T.. 566, 665 

Pidcock. C. W., Tr.. 430 

Pike, Harrv A., 717* 

Piatt. H. V.. 43. 128*, 475 

Poffenberger, T. G., 616 

Pollock, Edward L.. 1113 

Ponton. H. D., 1068 

Poole, Thomrs E., 919 
Porter. A. S.. 12 

Porter. C. B., 1112 

Porter, C. C, 1067 

Porter, E. C, 1161 

Porter. N. V., 476 

Possom, Fav E., 874 

Potter, W. H., 1013 

Powell, C. D., 346 

Power. T. A.. 1067 

Pratt. T. F., 568, 1159 

Preston. W. C, 821 

Price, George, 1016 

Price, T. M 

Purcell, H. G.. 1071 

C. H.. 713. 769 

Pringle. X. \V.. 616 

Proctor, G. W., 820 
-. T. W., 1157 

Pudnev, E. H., 43 

Purcell. Walter F.. 477 

Purdv, F. A., 1113 

Purvis, Allan. 820 

Purvis, W. X.. 820 

Pyne, R. A.. 476 

Quiglev, T. E.. 258 
Quiglev, T. P.. 210 
Quinham, B. H., 527 

Rabago, J. E., 475 
Raddock. T. S., 1215 
Ragin. W. C, 1013, 11 lit 
Ragonneto. A. L., 307 
Rams, G. S., 86* 
Randall, C. G., 210 
Randolph, G. F., 

I T.. 1217* 
Randolph. R. F., 88 
Ratliff, T. R., 346 
Raycroft. T. J.. 821 
Raymond, Edward, 526 
Resd, J. M., 919 
Reagan, Frank H.. 616 
Reddig, H. 
Reeder, T. H.. 1068 
Reeves, G. B., 869 
Reeves, P. H.. 258 
Regan, P. T., 615 
Reillv, T. E., 664 
Reinhart, C. A., 615 
Replogle, T. Leonard, 347 
Revnolds. T. F.. 1215 
Rhea, Frank. 349, 966 
Rhoades, Lyman, 128 
Rice, N. M., 388, 430* 
Richards, George D., 431 
Richardson. W. F.. 1111, 1158' 
Richev, E. W., 307 
Richler, W. X., 526 
Rickmond, T. H., 129 
Riddile, F. C, 619 
Rider, E. G.. 428 
Rieck, H. W., 1068 


e, John P., 307 

Roberts, Charles S.. 1068 
Roberts, Daniel S., 770, 1111* 
Roberts, Tan 
Roberts, k. 

Robe • 1215 

Robinson, Dwipht E 
Robinson, Edp. | ot 

Robinson, F. T.. 
Robinson, R E., 666 
Rochester, R. K.. 1215 
Rockwood, E. I!., 821 
Roe, J. H., 666 
Rogan, James F., 478 
Rogers, E. I 821 
Ropers, John D, 920 
Rollins, Frederick. 1114 
Rosenblatt, X., 1071 
Rosenblatt, S., 1071 

B., 665 
Ross, C. P., 1157 

William B., 966* 
Rosser, F. W., 85 

Rouse, C. M., 714 
Rowan, Ch&- 
Rowell, L. T., 870 
Rowland. S. V., 1013. 1111 
Rude, W. P.. 348 
Ruickbie, G. P., 1111 

Run 070 

Ruppert, C. L., 85 

1, George K.. 305 
Russell, Tames, 1067, 1110J 
Russell, J. P., 869 
Rutherford. George G., 1013, 1111 
Rvan, T. E., 43 
Rvan, R. E., 820 
Ryborg, C. O., 431 

St. Gair, D. W., 43 
Sample. W. H., 714 
Sanborn, F. E., 769 
Sanborn, H. F., 1068 
Sanborn, S. E., 713 
Sandberg, T. A., 664 
Saunders, T. E., 433 
Scarborough. C. E., 567, 615 
Scheer. E. W.. 42. 128, 129* 
Schleyer. Georpe H., 962$ 

Schneider, F. W. L.. 616 

Schoen, Chas. T., 619 

Schoen. W. H.. 619 

r chofield. T. A.. 1161 

Schram, T. T., 1158 

Schuch, T. H., 1111 

Schule, R. R., 665 

Schultz, M. T... 

Schultz. R. F. C. 1217 

Scott, R. M., 820 

Scott, R. W., 820 

Scott, W. C, 209 

Sears, Louis, 570$ 

Seeeer, T. C, 821 

Selden. M. C, 963 

Selfridge. H 

-ince. Frank L., 922 

Sewell, H. T.. 85 

Sewell, R. £.. 869 

Shaal. Robert C. 1217 

Shanks, H. T., 872 

Sharp. H. 

Sharp, William E., 390, 433* 

Shaw, B. B„ 171 

Shea, P. J., 821 

Shearer. Henrv, 615. 769$ 

Shedd, Job- 

Sheehan, Michael. 919 

Shepard, George C... 390 

Shepherd, T. A., 713 

Sheridan. H. W.. 567 

Shick, F. A., 212 

Shope. D. A., 821 

Shortz, M. D., 85 

Shuman, T. F.. 869 

Shumate. Golden, 1068 

Shurtlefr, W. E., 526 

Sike*. C. S., 85 

Simmons. P.. J., 1215 

Simmons, T. H.. 

Simpson, F. C, 129 

Simp-on, F. J., I 

Simpson, R. L.. 257 
Sinclair. Robert D., 965* 
Sipes, C. B., 870 

Siwer, F. L., 1217 

Skellv, L. T., 869 

Skev,' W. R\, 527 

Skinner, W. O.. 388 

Slavton. F. T., 389 

slick, E. E., 666 

Smart. Edward M., 1157, 1214* 

Smith, Bode K.. 210, 305$ 

Smith, C. O., 919 

Smith, F. C. 42 

Smith, Tohn L., Tr.. 305 

Smith, T. Allan. 390 

Smith, T. I 

Smith, Oliver J.. 718$ 

Smith, O. E., 713 

Smith, R. C, 963 

Smith, R. Home, 304 

Smith, P.ov W , 713 768* 

Smith, Stanley H., 666 

th, William B., 871 


. 304 

. 476 


MS. 616 

. 616 
n T.. 1068 




568, 616*, 872 

Stoddard, Solomon. 88* 
. 616* 
. 1114 



E. T., 1070 
r, Tohn A., 713, 870$ 
ncis Lee, 44* 
. 431 
Sumner. Eliot 130* 
Sump, Georee F., 388 
Surles. J. \\'.. 1067 
Swearinpen. H. H., 1157 
Sweet, A. E., 1067 

Tappart, Howard H., 1158 

Tapley, F. B., 346 
Tavlor. C. W., 1068 
'Tavlor, E. B., 713 
Tavlor, F. W., 1112 

'lor, George C. 1217 
Taylor, Robert, 1013 
Taylor, S. B., 1161 
Teague, O. R., 388 
Telford, F. W., 133 
Tellez, D., 475 
Terry, T. L., 259 
Thiehof, W. F.. 43, 170$ 
Thomas, C. L., 770 
Thomas, Isaac B., 130$ 
Thompson, A. W., 84, 770 
Thompson, H. F., 869 
Tnompson, T. R., 43 
Thomson, George L. A., 1158* 
Thomson, M. A., 964 
Thomson. W. B.. 1070 
Thorn, Charles X., 666 
Thorne. Clifford. 1212 
Thornburgh. W. X., 348* 
Thorp, C. M., 619 
Thorpe. G. «"... 717 
Thrower. Daniel W., 129, 130$ 
Tilden. T. D., 713 
Tilford, T. E., 431 
Tink Ml 

. T. C, 664 
Toft. Guy. 44 
Tombs. Guv, 964 
Tomlinson.'C. W., 664 
Toucev. S. R., 919, 963 
Towner, M. E.. 872, 1013* 
• "». L., 305 
Trabue, 'H. H. 1158 
Tracv. William T.. 821 
Trenarv. G. II.. 615 

Tripp, Guv E.. 1070, 1161 
. 307 
Trumbull. ! 1070 

Turk, James E., 820 
Tur;,. r J62 


Turn. Q*% 

Tuttle. F. V. 


Underwood, Enoch W., 304 


L'pton, Georee A., 431 
Uthegrove, Daniel. 1067 

Vance, 920t 

Vander . 1114 

Van Deuscn. H. T.. 966 

Van Di 1157 

Van Hecke, 

Van Swerii . 128 

Van Swerinpen. O. P., 128 



Vievra, Tacques, 1113 

Vincent, E. S., 664, 963 


Volkr. 1068 

Voorh--", H. I; , 

Wadden, \Y 
Waldo, Gentry, 


Uallace, H. A . 
Wallace, J. 


■ \ 


. 307 
. 618 
Ware, I 






Whae. A. W.. 616 

'., 869 

■-. C. W.. 

v. S. A.. 

-5*. 919, 963- 
Whittington, W. I... 431 
Wick. H. C, 87 

. 713 


E., Jr., 86 

ami, R. D., 304, 345 
ims, T. II., 43 

n, Donald, 388, 431* 
F. W., 130 

46, 85 

:iiam, 664 
le, Thomas, 346 
1'.. 1068$ 
Witherspr. ■ 431 475 

Wolfe, H. W., 770 


B. T.. 820. 869 # 
. 476 
Wood, P. O., 389 
Wood, R. H . 

Wooddall, 1 

Woodruff, A. W. :::•., 870 
Woodruff, Robert E., 821 
Woods, A. R.. 526. 1157 
C. F., 86 

. 256 

1'.., 86 
ard, 717* 
. Georee ( 

n.. 1068, 1158* 
!).. 1113 
W:erpel, E. G., 475 
Wurzer, E. C, 665 
Wyman, R. G., 964 
Wynne, Charles D., Jr., 1068 

Ximeno, A., 307 


Vellowly, T. 
Youngs, R. } 
Zion. A. A , 


July 1 — Dec. 31. 1916] 


[* Indicates photograph and sketch. %Indicates sketch only.] 

Andrews, C. E., 131, 256 
Angell, William A., 965 

Beck, C. A., 44- 
Bogue, Virgil (lav, "14* 
Brass, J. L., S6 
Bright, Frederick W., 822 
Britton, Frank H., 160* 
Brown, George R., 872* 
Butterfield, Ora E., 1215 

Cade, John T., 46* 

Cain, D. E., 478$ 

Calhoun, William T.. 527 

Calvert, T. E., 1159* 

Canfield, Edward. 346t, 388 

Childs, William A., 617 

Christian, J. R.. 45 

Chur, Walter, 390 

Clifton, Edward C, 171 

Clough, William P., 346* 

Colby, C. W., 305, 345 

Connolly, William H., 1065, 1107 

Cota, A. T.. 86 

Coyle, M. C, 1068 

Cuntz, William C, 874* 

Daly, Tohn M., 1014* 
Dawson, W. M. O., 428 
Denker, Henrv B., 433 
Dombaugh, P. E., 346 
Dousman, Robert S., 1014J 
Drummond, Thomas J., 307$ 

Ely, Theodore N., 822* 
Kttinger, Charles D., 478* 

Fabian, Harry A., 258t 
Fisher, Frederick C, 1114* 
Fox, John A., 771, 963 

Garrison, D. E., 87 

Gedge, Frederick C, 212, 390 

Goddard, J. Sterling, 1016* 

Hadley, Emerson, 920 
Haile, John C, 1014 
Hallett, Reuben C, 528 
Harris, Captain C. L., 715 
Hemans, Lawton T., 961, 1065, 1107* 
Hendee, Edward T., 922* 
Hopkins, Thornton, 307 
Hotchkiss, C. W., 822*. 1067, 1070 

Tames, John Moore, 527 
Jansen, William B., 665$ 
Jones, J. T., 1112 

Kent, Edward, 258 
Kerr, Robert, 1112$ 
Kirchoff, Charles, 173$ 
Kirschke, M. T., 172 
Kouns, Charles W., 476* 

Leake, William F., 772* 
Lewis, Thomas E., 1 3 1 1 
Lord, George L., 716 

McGuire, John, 1215 
Mcintosh, James A., 212 
Mclntyre, Charles L., 821 
McKinney, Col. R. C, 619* 
McNicoll, David, 1014* 
McWood, William, 665 
Mackrell, T., 210, 304 
Millen, John, 210 
Monkhouse, Henry, 1014$ 
Moore, James Hobart, 131 
Morey, Franklin, 1070, 1114 
Morrissey, P. H., 1014$ 
Morrison, Allen E., 1014 

Xixon, W. C, 1137* 

Osgood, Joseph O., 45* 

Parrott, W. E., 617 

Peabody, James, 171, 210*, 256 

Pennypacker, Samuel W., 428 

Phelps, W. H., 210 

Pool, J. R., 1068 

Powell, John N., 86$ 

Preis, Richard L., 258$, 346 

Ramsey, Joseph., Jr., 65*, 713 
Ramsay, Major William G., 618 
Rice, Fletcher C, 1215* 
Richardson, Joseph, 431 
Ruble, R. S., 131, 257 

Sanborn, William D., 1215$ 
Sands, George L., 1014, 1068$ 
Savage, George S., 964 
Sawyer, Edward, 715* 
Scherer, L. L., 821 
Sherwin, Henry A., 47* 
Skinner, O., 476 
Slater, O. E., 1068 
Sovereign, Allen, 568 
Splitdorf, Henry, 716 
Stevenson, Charles W., 715* 
Stickney, A. B., 258, 278* 
Stocks, W. H., 347 

Thomas, W. A., 568 
Thomas, Walter D., 212 
Thomson, Robert B., 86 
Thurston, John M., 305 
Towne, Robert S., 258 
Trenary, George H., 617$ 

Wellman, A. O., 131, 256 

White, Fred H., 131, 389 

Whiting, A. T., 528 

Whittemore, Don Juan, 131* 

Wiley, Charles, 1070 

Williams, William D., 612, 712, 918 

Wilson, James H., 1011, 1065$ 

Witt, W. A., 771 

Work, A. S., 132 

Wratten, William, 210 


American Beet Sugar Company et al. v. Southern 
Pacific et al., 1065 

Beaver Valley Milling Company et al. v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 1064 

Boston & Maine Boat Lines, 207 

Business Men's League of St. Louis v. Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 254 

Byrd-Matthews Lumber Company et al. v. Gaines- 
ville & Northwestern et al., 81 

Cameron, William & Company, Inc., et al. v. Abi- 
lene & Southern et al., 1064 

Central Vermont Boat Lines, 207 

Chicago Wool Company et al. v. Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, 387 

Coal to Red Wing, Minn., also Fourth Section 
Applications Nos. 2297 and 2874, 612 

Concordia Commercial Club et al. v. Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 40 

Connor Lumber & Land Company v. Akron, Can- 
ton & Youngstown et al., 472 

Dallas Chamber of Commerce, Freight Bureau 
Department et al. v. Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe et al., 209. 

Eastern Shore of Virginia Produce Evchange v. 
New York, Philadelphia &: Norfolk et al., 

Frankfeld, B. & Co. v. New York Central et al., 

Galloway Coal Company et al. v. Alabama 
Great Southern et al., 168 

Graham & Gila County Traffic Association v. Ari- 
zona Eastern et al., 472 

Greater Des Moines Committee v. Chicago, St. 
Paul, Minneapolis & < imaha et al., 1107 

■Gunderson, Andreas, v. Gulf & Ship Island, 168 

[*See Also General Index.] 

Hubinger, J. C. Brothers Company v. Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 167 

Indiana Transportation Company v. Grand Rap- 
ids, Holland & Chicago, 40 

In re Ashtabula-Port Maitland car-ferry service, 

In re Delaware & Hudson boat lines, 167 

In re export grain products from Missouri 
River points (No. 2), 167 

In re lumber rates from Helena, Ark., and other 
points to Omaha, Neb.; Des Moines, la., 
and other destinations, 1106 

In the matter of rates applicable on grain from 
points in Illinois, via Chicago, to inter- 
state destinations, 82 

Interstate Packing Company v. Chicago & North 
Western, 1212 

Lake Superior Paper Company, Limited, v. 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie 
et al., 1212 

Lewis, F. J., Manufacturing Company v. Chi- 
cago. Burlington & Quincy et al., 1212 

Louisville Board of Trade v. Louisville & Nash- 
ville, 254 

Lutcher & Moore Lumber Company et al. v. 
Texas & New Orleans et al., 1212 

Maine Central Boat Lines, 207 

Malone, Lott B., v. New York Telephone Com- 
pany et al., 126 

Mechanical & Chemical Pulp Division of the 
American Paper & Pulp Association v. Bal- 
timore & Ohio et al., 1064 

Minneapolis Traffic Association et al. v. Ann 
Arbor Railroad et al., 1212 

Nashville Abattoir, Hide & Melting Association 
el il \ I ouisville & Nashville et al., 81 
tile Lumbermen's Club v. Louisville & 
Nashvile et al., 82 

National Society of Record Associations et al. v. 
Aberdeen & Rockfish et al., 168 

Oklahoma Cottonseed Crushers' Association v. 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas et al., 40 

Platts, Charles, v. New York, New Haven & 
Hartford et al., 387 

Procter & Gamble Distributing Company v. Ala- 
bama & Vicksburg et al., 168 

Public Service Commission of Washington v. 
Alabama & Vicksburg et al., 1106 

Railroad Commission of Louisiana v. Arkansas 
Harbor Terminal Railway et al., 302 

St. Louis, Mo. -Illinois Passenger Fares, 1107 
State Corporation Commission of the Common- 
wealth of Virginia v. Chesapeake & Ohio 
et al., 40 
Swift & Co. v. Union Pacific et al., 81 

Tennessee Copper Company v. Southern Railway 

et al., 867 
Traffic Bureau of the Sioux City Commercial 

Club v. American Express Company et al., 

Traffic Bureau of the Sioux City Commercial 

Club et al. v. Chicago, Burlington & 

Quincy et al., 1064 

United States v. Alabama & Vicksburg et al., 

Vulcan Iron Works Company v. Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe et al., 473 

Wiscorsin & Arkansas Lumber Company et al. 

v. St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 

et al.. 1106 
Wyeth Hardware & Manufacturing Company v. 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe et al., 40 


Alabama & Mississippi. 89, 173 

Alaskan Railroads, 923 

Alcolu Railroad, 619 

Alexandria & Western, 434 

Amyville Railroad, 875 

Anthony & Northern, 89, 570 

Arizona Extension Railway, 619 

Arkansas Roads, 1071 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 308, 349, 619, 

825, 1115 
Atlanta & Anderson (Electric), 349 
Atlantic Coast Line, 213, 773 
Aurora, Mendota & Western (Electric), 1218 

Baltimore & Ohio, 260, 875, 1017 

Belle Fourche & Northwestern, 479, 530, 773 

Big Blackfoot, 47 

■ n Railway, 1017 

iville & Bowman, 349 

o & Depew (Electric), 1017 
Buffa irgh, 967, 1218 

Cambria & Indiana, 1017 

Canada & Gulf Terminal, 1017 

Canadian Northern, 89, 349, 773 

Canadian Pacific, 89. 349, 667, 1017 

Carolina Southern, 570 

Central Florida Interurban, 89, 260 

Central of Georgia, 479 

Charleston & Summerville Interurban, 825 

Charleston Interurban, 434 

Charleston Southern, 391 

Chatham Terminal Company, 260 

Chattahoochee Valley, 825 

Chesapeake & Ohio, 719, 1115 

Chesapeake & Ohio Northern, 719 

Cheyenne Railroad, 1071 

Chicago & North Western, 173, 773 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy. ^23, 1115 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 133, 570 

Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, 1115 

Clarksdale Municipal Railway, 173 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 1071 

Cleveland, Southwestern & Columbus (Electric), 

Colorado, Kansas & Oklahoma, 173, 1162 
Columbia & Nehalem River, 1071 
Columbia Railway & Navigation Company. 1071 
Cowlitz, Chehalis & Cascade, 47 
Crosbyton-South Plains, 89 
Cumberland & Manchester, 213, 1071 
Cumberland & Westernport (Electric), 875 

Deep Creek Railroad, 719, 773 

Denton-Krum Line, 89 

Denver & Ephrata, 1017 

Denver & Rio Grande, 391 

Dover, Millersburg & Western (Electric), 719 

Eagle Pass & Arkansas Pass, 47 

East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, 349, 

Edmonton, Dunvegan & British Columbia, 213 
Klectric Short Line, 1071 

[July 1— Dec. 31. 191', 


Electric Standard Railways Company, 89 
Ettrick & Northern, 619 
Evansville & Indianapolis, 349 

Fairmont Helen's Run Railway, 719 

Fernwood & Gulf, 1071 

Florida & Alabama, 875 

Florida Central & Gulf, 213 

Florida Roads (Electric), 133, 434 

Fort Dodge, Des Moines & Southern (Electric). 

Ft. Smith, Subiaco & Eastern, 133, 1071 

Glendale & Montrose, 260 

Grand Trunk, 47 

Grand Trunk Pacific, 1115 

Great Northern, 47, 89, 133, 875, 923, 1017, 1071 

Guelph Junction -Railway, 667 

Guelph Radial Railway, 667 

Gulf & Ship Island, 571 

Gulf Coast Line, 967 

Gulf, Plainville & Northern, 570 

Gulf, Texas & Western, 967 

Hampton & Branchville, 349 
Hillsborough-Pinellis Interurban, 213, 391 
Holston River Lumber Company's Line, 47, 875 
Houston-Richmond Traction Company, 1017 
Hugo & Oklahoma, 1218 

Illinois Central, 133, 213 
Indian Valley, 1218 
Irwin-Herminie Traction, 619 

Kansas & Oklahoma Southern, 1071 

Kansas City, Kaw Valley & Western (Electric). 

Kansas City, Ozark & Southern, 825 
Kellys Creek Railroad, 825 
Kentucky Roads, 619, 1071 
Kettle Valley, 479 
Kewanee & Eastern, 825. 1218 
Knoxville Interurban, 773 
Knoxville, Sevierville & Eastern, 349, 719 

Lakeland, Bartow & Winterhaven Interurban, 133 

Lehigh & New England, 308, 719 

Lehigh Valley, 773, 967 

Lewiston, Nezperce & Eastern, 875 

Lindsay Lumber & Export Company (Logging 

Long Fork Railroad, 260 
Los Angeles & Salt Lake, 619 
Louisville & Nashville, 479 
Lubbock & Great Northern, 213, 530 

McConnellsburg & Fort Loudon, 89 
McDonald & Burgettstown (Electric), 667 
Marengo, Lake Geneva & Northern. 571 
Marlin-Temple Interurban, 213 
Martinez & Concord Interurban, 89 
Medford (Ore.) Line, 213 
Methow Valley & Eastern. 1218 
Mexican Roads, 308 
Midland Pennsylvania. 1115 
Minkler Southern, 173 
Minnesota Transfer, 1017 
-sjppi Roads, 133, 349 

Mississippi Valley Rail .,n Co., 

Missouri, k | cxaSj 349 

'acific, 825 
Mobile & Baldwin County, 571 


Montana Ea 

mpany, 571 
Morel,. Fork, 434 

Morgani 1017 

Interurban, 923 
Murphysboro & South , (Electric), 


Nashi m Electric, 434 

Nevada-California-Oregon, 875 

New Jersey Roads, 213 

New York Roads, 825 

New York Subways, 47, 133, 173, 308, 391 434 

479, 571, 667, 923 
Niagara & Eastern, 719 
North Carolina Roads, 21 479 

North Texas & Santa Fe, 173, 825, 1116 
Northern Montour Railroad. 308 

Co. (Electric), 

Northern Pacific, 90, 308, 719, 923, 1017, 1162 

Northwestern Pacific, 173 

Northwestern Pennsylvania (Electric), 1017 

Oakland, Antioch & Eastern (Electric), 1017 
Ocean Shore, 1162 
Ocklawaha Valley. 133 
Ogden, Logan & Idaho, 434 * 
Ohio Electric. 1017 * 

Oklahoma & Northern (Electric), 825 
Omaha, Lincoln & Beatrice (Electric), 1071 
Oneida & Western, 1162 
Oregon Short Line, 90 
Oregon Trunk, 719 

Oregon-Washington Railroad & Navigation Com- 
pany, 619 
Ouachita & Northwestern, 1218 
Ozark &• Arkansas Midland, 967 

Pascagoula-Moss Point Northern, 90, 173 
Pennsylvania Lines West, 133, 213, 479, 571, 

619, 1072 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 213, 260, 349, 434, 773, 

Pennsylvania Roads, 213 
Pennsylvania Roads (Electric), 47, 875 

mra & ^noomattox (Electric), 434 
Philadelphia & Reading, 434 
Philadelphia, Baltimore & Washington, 719 
Philadelphia Roads, 667, 719 
i'-, 'in mm & Northern CElectric), 1017 
Pigeon River Railroad, 349 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, 667 

Shawmut, 825 
PocatclL> Traction & Interurban, 1116 
Port Boliver Iron Ore, 133 
Port Jervis & Delaware Valley (Electric), 47 

Quebec Central. 1 

Rapid Railroad, 1072 


:■ , 875 
Roach (Lumber Road), 667 

Rome & Northern. 924 

Southern Illinois CElectric), 667 
; 33 
St. Paul Southern CElectric). 

Salt Lake & trie), 1018 

Salt Lake, Garfield . 1018 

San .'• Interurbai . 

San 'i 

Santa Creek Western, 924 

Savannah & Atlanta, 134 

Savannah & ' .134 

Savannah. Hinesville 479 

Savannah Western, 349 

Schuylkill 1' -panv (Electric), 875 


Smith I )072 

South Carolina R 

South Flo! <\3 

Southern Pacific, 134, 391, 434, 571 

Southern Railway, 90, 391, 719 

Southwest Missouri CElectric), 1018 

Sudbury Copper Giff Electric Railway, 571 
Sugar Land Railway, 571 

Tamp.. . . 213 

Tennessee & Carolina Southern, 90 

Tennessee Railway, 667 

Tennessee Roads, 391, 875, 1072 

Terre Haute, Indianapolis & Eastern Traction, 

Texas Roads, 719, 1072 
Tidewater Southern, 1018 
Toxaway Western, 213 

I iaho. 1218 

Van Buren Railroad, 435 
Virginian Railway, 667, 719 
Virginia Railway & Power Company, 1018 
Virginia Roads, 213, 435, 825 

Washington & Lincolnton, 825 
Washington-Newport News Short Line, 350 
Washington, Westminster & Gettysburg, 213 
Wayne-Hardin, 571 
West Coast Electric, 391 
West Virginia Roads, 571 

West Virginia Traction & Electric Companv, 668. 
Western & Atlantic, 773 
Western Maryland, 719, 774 

Western Pine Lumber & Mill Companv (Lum- 
ber Road), 620 
Wheeling & Lake Erie. 173 
Wheeling Coal Railroad, 213 
Winchester & Western, 479, 967 
Winston-Salem Southbound, 90 
Wisconsin & Northern, 173 

Yazoo & Mississipi Valley, 90 ■ 
Yelhille, Rush & Mineral Be 


Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 214 
Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, 214 
Atlantic Coast Line, 968 

Baltimore & Ohio, 1018 
Boston & Lowell, 1218 
Boston & Maine, 90, 134, 309, 392, 435, 480, 572, 

620, 668, 924, 968, 1116 
Buffalo & Susquehanna, 48, 1072 
Buffalo & Wellsville, 876 
Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, 214 

Canadian Northern, 310, 1218 

Chesapeake & Ohio, 968 

Chicago, Anamosa & Northern, 1218 

Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 572, 620, 876 

Chicago & North Western, 1162. 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 261, 876 

Chicago Great Western, 1018 

Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville, 392, 572 

Chicago. Rock Island & Pacific, 48, 261, 310, 392, 

480, 620, 720, 924, 968, 1018, 1116, 1162 
Chicago, St. Paul. Minneapolis & Omaha, 774 
Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific, 1018 
Clarksville Railway, 876 

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, 1116 
Colorado & Southern, 572 

Connecticut River Railroad, 392, 435, 620, 668 
Cripple Creek Central, 261 

Dallas Union Terminal, 134 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 968 
Denver & Rio Grande, 90, 876 

Erie, 530 

Evansville, Mt. Carmel & Northern, 1116 

Fitchburg, 48 

Ft. Smith & Western. 774 

Georgia Coast & Piedmont, 134, 174 
(irand Trunk, 392, 572 
Great Northern, 90, 720, 876 
Gulf, Mobile & Northern, 1116 

Idaho Southern, 1018 
International & Great Northern, 90 

Kanawha & Michigan, 435 
Kanawha & West Virginia, 435 

Leavenworth & Topeka, 214 

Lehigh Vallev, 134, 261 

Los Angeles & Salt Lake, 392 

Marietta, Columbus & Cleveland, 620 
Memphis, Dallas & Gulf, 620 
Michigan Central, 1116 
Minneapolis & St. Louis, 435, 826 
Minnesota Transfer Railway, 261 

exas, 174, 620. 
Missouri Pacific, 90, 174, 310, 720, 1072 
Muscatine, Burlington & Southern, 826 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, 134 

New Orleans & Lower Coast, 1072 

New Orleans &• Northeastern, 924 

New Orleans, Ft. Jackson & Grand Isle, 1072. 

New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago, 1116 

New York Central, 174, 720, 924. 1018, 1218 

New York, Chicago & St. Louis, 90. 530 

New York, New Haven & Hartford, 310, 392, 

480. 668, 720, 774, 968. 
Norfolk & Western, 134 
Paducah & Illinois, 1218 

lvania Company (see Pennsylvania Rail- 
Pennsylvania Railroad, 48, 90 

! irquette, 480, 668. 720, 826. 121S 

Philadelphia. Baltimore & V. 530 

Pittsburgh & Lake Er 


Pittsburgh. Cincinnati, I St. Louis, 48, 

Rio Grande, 876 
Rome & Northern, 924 

St. Louis & San Franc .0, 826, 

876, 1072 
St. Lo 121$ 

Saline Vallev 1116 
Salt La! -. 1018 

Salt Lake, Garfield & Western, 1018 
San Pedro, Los Ai . It Lake, 392 

Seaboard Air Line . 
Southern Railway, 668, 826. 1018 
Spokane International, 968 

Tennessee Central. 968 

Texas & Pacific. 90, 174, 826. 924, 1162 

Toledo & Ohio Central. 668 

Toledo, St. Louis & VY 

L'nion Pacific, 620. 


Vermont Valley Railroad, 435 
Yicksburg, Shrcveport & Pacific. ■ 
Virginian Railw.v. 

Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal. 310. 480, 1162 
Wellsville & Buffalo, 774, 
West Tersev &• Scasnon 
•viand. S2f.. 
Western Pacific, 4S. 214 
Western Pacific Railroad Corporation, 435 
Wheeling & Lake Erie. 90. 480. 572. 826 


July 1— Dec. 31, 1916] 


Africa, 618, 826 

Argentina, 81, 391, 815, 860, 1014 
Australia, 151, 202, 232, 261, 274, 391 
Austria, 171 

Belgium, 474 
Bolivia, 588t 
Brazil, 476, 651, 1054, 1093 

Central America, 1034, 1116 
Ceylon, 1162 
Chile, 464, 468, 1185 
China, 290, 381, 794, 1129 
Colombia, 398, 427, 1018, 1162 
Cuba, 1106 

East Africa, 106 
Ecuador, 1116, 1160 

England, 22, 66. 102. 115, 147. 232, 288, 314, 
6i 167, 368, 427, 444, 449, 468, 
47''. 618, 641, 801, 800. 924, 1137, 1160 

France. 134, 435, 557, 635, 809, 953, 1004, 1014, 
1018, 1037, !03o, 1093, 1207 

German South-West Africa, 159 

Germany, 144, 202, 301, 326, 332, 474, 558, 564, 

572, 591, 620, 635, 644, 704, 715, 801, 921, 

1018, 1092, 1106, 1162 
Greece, 45, 552, 1100 
Guatemala, 1116 

Holland, 1148 

India, 132, 143, 527, 668, 1034 
Ireland, 572, 850, 1194 
Italy, 328, 569, 846 

Japan, 564 

Mexico, 1072 

New South Wales, 620 
New Zealand, 1070 
Nicaragua, 497, 934, 1175 
Norway, 278, 667, 1072 

Paraguay, 720 
Peru, 530 

Prussia, 529, 1144 

Russia, 54, 65, 77, 334, 346, 350, 455, 497, 557„ 
559, 635, 774, 801, 846, 996, 1132, 1206 

Scotland, 342, 1218 

Serbia, 506 

Siberia, 391, 1096 

South Africa, 81, 703 

Southern Manchuria, 568 

Spain, 306, 334, 389, 510, 511, 569, 809 

Sweden, 172, 326, 350 

Switzerland, 288, 527, 1124 

Turkey, 564, 1072 

Uruguay, 109, 171 

Venezuela, 557 

Western Australia, 538 


Volume 61 

July 7, 1916 

Table of Contents 

No. 1 


Railway Clearing House 1 

Alloy Steel in Locomotive D( >i^n 1 

Waste of Time in Convention'- 1 

The Investigation of Government Regulation 2 

Association of American Raiiuay Accounting Officers 3 

How the Strike Vcte Is Taken 3 


Economical Use of Team Tr?cks 4 

Why I. org Trains Are Hard to Start; Wm. Bailey Thomas 4 


'American Railway Accounting < tffk-ers 5 


The Proposed Congrc ..21 


•Operatioi J3 

Freight Claim nut. n 

* A Tractor for I ie 28 

'Transportation Officer-' Convention at 

The Wage Controversy with the Train Employees 33 


' Illustrated. 

At the annual meet'ng of the Association of American Rail- 
wax- Accounting Officers the question of establishing a cen- 
D .. tral clearing house for the settlement 

Kailway f a greed balances as between railway 

Clearing companies was again brought up. The 

House association had invited T. H. B. 

McKnight, treasurer of the Pennsyl- 
vania Lines West and a member both of the accounting 
officers association and of the Society of Railway Financial 
Officers to be present, and he made a short address, going 
over in outline the plan which he and some of his associates 
among the financial officers had worked out some years ago 
for a central clearing house. These plans have been de- 
scribed at some length in the Railway Age Gazette and com- 
mented on. The objection which has been fatal to their 
adoption was outlined, in reply to Mr. McKnight. by C. B. 
Seger, vice-president and comptroller of the Union Pacific. 
In substance this argument is that about the only thing which 
a railway company has left to it to manage in its own way is 
its cash. The management of this cash is a responsibility 
and a duty that peculiarly belongs to the executive powers 
of the company. The adoption of a central clearing house 
for railways by enforcing uniformity would deprive each 
company of the freedom of action which it now enjoys. This 
argument will in all probability prevent the establishment 
of a central clearing house in the immediate future. 
Whether or not it will be sufficiently strong five or ten years 
from now to counterbalance the advantages that would re- 
sult from a central clearing house is a matter which will 
depend to a large extent on the trend taken by the public 
regulation of railways in this countrv. 

The past few years have seen considerable progress made 
toward improved engineering as regards locomotive pistons, 
crank pins, etc. Locomotive designers 
have gradually come to see the ad- 
vantage of using heat-treated and alloy 
steels in reducing the weights in the 
reciprocating parts but there is still 
much educational work to be done before mechanical railroad 
■men in general are brought fully to realize the advantages 
to be obtained by the use of special steels. It therefore 
seems unfortunate that more time could not have been given 
to the paper on Alloy Steel in Locomotive Design by L. R. 
Pomeroy, which was prepared for the recent convention of 

Alloy Steel in 



the Master Mechanics' Association and an abstract of which 

was published in the Daily Railway Age Gazette of June 21. 
The author of this paper lias had a great deal of experi- 
ence both in locomotive design and work connected with 
steel manufacture and there are points brought out in the 
j taper which should prove enlightening to locomotive de- 
signers. For example, the reduction in the weights of fin- 
ished parts in a 2-10-2 type locomotive, accomplished by the 
use of special steels, may very easily be made to exceed 
4,000 lb. and in a Pacific type locomotive- 2,000 lb, both 
of these figures including the saving made by reducing the 
weight of the counterbalances. The use of hollow axle- alone 
in a 2-10-2 type locomotive would save in the neighborhood 
of 1,000 lb. Aside from other considerations the value in a 
direct way of the saving effected by the substitution of alloy 
steel for carbon steel in the piston rods, crossheads and pins, 
side rods, crank pins and valve gear, and the use of hollow 
driving axles, will be readily seen when it i- considered that 
the resultant reduction in weight would permit an addi- 
tional weight in the boiler which would add fully two 
inches to its diameter. Moreover, the increases in power 
which are being made in American locomotives should prompt 
designers to look into the future, when it may be necessary 
to use these special steels in other parts than those named in 
order to keep the weight within reasonable limit-. It there- 
fore behoove- railway mechanical men to familiarize them- 
selves with the possibilities of improved design by the use of 
such material-. 

Waste of Time 


A Lire. tt deal of lime' i- wasted at conventions by the chairmen 
of committees or the authors of papers reading the report- in 
their entirety. These report- are almost 
invariably printed and distributed to 
the members in advance so that they 
may familiarize themselves with their 
content- and conic to the convention 
prepared to discuss whatever portion of them they may be in- 
tere-ted in. When it i.- the intention that the members -hall 
be familiar beforehand with the content- of paper-, why take 
up the time that might he given to discussion or other work in 
the convention by reading reports that the member- are' per- 
fectly capable of reading themselves? The railway mechanical 
associations could very well profit by the example of the 
American Society for Testing Materials. This society has 
definite rules governing the presentation of papers and re- 


Vol. 61, No. 1 

ports and these rules are printed in the program of the 
convention. The following is taken from the first page of 
the program for the nineteenth annual meeting held last 
week in Atlantic City: 

Presentation of Papers. Papers by members in attendance at the mi 
shall take precedence over papers by absent members. The latter may, 
at the discretion of the chair, be presented only by title. Authors will be 
expected to confine themselves to brief references to the principal features 
of their papers. In general, the time allotted to the presentation of a 
paper shall be limited to ten minutes. The time may be extended, how- 
ever, for special reasons, at the discretion of the chair or by a vote of 
the meeting. 

Presentation of Committee Reports. — Committee reports shall also be 
limited in their presentation to a brief summary of their principal features; 
but matters which are to be referred to letter ballot of the society shall 
either be read in extenso, or acted cm as printed without reading, according 
to the expressed sense of the meeting. 

As an example of the way this procedure works out in 
the conventions the report of the Committee on Steel, which 
constituted a book of 100 pages, was presented in about 
15 minutes and the time which would have otherwise been 
taken in the unnecessary reading of this report was em- 
ployed in a brisk and instructive discussion of C. D. Young's 
paper on Heat Treatment of Axles. This waste of time in 
conventions has been called to the attention of the officers 
before this and it is high time that something definite was 
done to make better use of the time spent at conventions, par- 
ticularly as the number of subjects which demand attention 
is constantly increasing. 


THERE is pending in Congress a resolution introduced by 
Senator Newlands providing for an investigation by a 
joint committee of Congress of our entire system of govern- 
ment regulation of railways. When it was introduced the 
financial position of the railways had just begun to show 
improvement. If it had continued to be bad, or after a 
slight improvement had grown bad again, probably the res- 
olution already would have been passed. But earnings have 
continued to be good; and doubtless this is one of the main 
reasons why the resolution has not been adopted. There are 
many other subjects of importance pressing upon the atten- 
tion of Congress, and probably it feels that while the rail- 
ways are prospering the railway question can wait. 

It will be very unfortunate, however, if Congress adjourns 
without passing this resolution. It is true that the railways 
are doing better now than they have for some years, but the 
improvement easily could be, and in fact is being, overesti- 
mated. The statistics of earnings and expenses for the Class 
1 roads — those earning more than $1,000,000 per year — for 
the first 10 months of the fiscal year 1916 are now available. 
These show that the net operating income per mile in these 
months was 43 per cent greater than in the corresponding 
months of the fiscal year 1915. But this relatively great 
improvement is due as much to the fact that the year ended 
on June 30, 1915, was an extremely bad one as to the fact 
that the year ended June 30, 1916, was a very good one. The 
last preceding fiscal year in which the railways had large 
earnings was that which ended on June 30, 1913. In that 
year their net operating income on theii property investment 
was 4.87 per cent. The fiscal year just ended will be found, 
when all the statistics are available, to have made a better 
showing than 1913, but not much better. The comparative 
earnings and expenses per mile for the first 10 months of the 
fiscal year 1913 and the first 10 months of the fiscal year 
1916 are as follows: 

Earntncs «nd Operating Expenses fob Ten Months of Fiscal Years 
1913 and 1916 

Total Operating Net 

earnings expenses operating 

per mile per mile revenue 

Ten months fiscal year 1913. .$11,508 $7,928 $3,581 

Ten months fiseal year 1916. . 12,207 7,974 4,233 

Increase 1916 over 1913 6.1% 0.6% 18.2% 



Taxes income 

$464 $3,124 

524 3,709 

12.9% 18.7% 

It will be seen that the increase in net operating income 
per mile in 10 months was 18.7 per cent; but allowance must 
be made for the increase in investment on which a return 
must be paid from this increased income. On June 30, 1913, 
the cost of road and equipment per mile of Class 1 roads was 
$73,700, and the net operating income of the 10 months on 
this was 4.24 per cent. It is safe to assume that the invest- 
ment in road and equipment has increased as fast in propor- 
tion during the last year as it did during the preceding four 
years. If this is the case it amounted on June 30, 1916, to 
$79,559, and the net operating income earned per mile dur- 
ing the first 10 months of the fiscal year 1916 would pay a 
return on this of 4.66 per cent. In other words, the net re- 
turn which was earned in the fiscal year just closed probably 
was greater than that earned in 1913 or 1910, but probably 
was smaller than that earned 10 years ago, and certainly 
cannot be held to have been excessive. 

Besides, this return was earned in a year when gross earn- 
ings broke all records. It cannot be assumed in view of past 
experience that these large earnings can be continuously 
maintained for a long period. There are bound to be fluctua- 
tions in the future as there have been heretofore. Further- 
more, the increase in the net return earned has been due not 
only to a large increase in earnings but also to the fact that 
the railway managements have been extraordinarily success- 
ful in holding down operating expenses. While the increase 
in total earnings per mile over the same period in 1913 was 
6.1 per cent, the increase in operating expenses was only 0.6. 
This relationship of increases in earnings and in expenses 
cannot be maintained. The managements recently have had 
to make numerous advances in the wages of their unorgan- 
ized employees and are confronted with demands for enor- 
mous advances in those of their organized employees. There 
have been unprecedented increases in the costs of materials 
and supplies. Many expenditures on the maintenance of 
way and of equipment have been deferred, but are now being 
made and will have to be included in the operating accounts. 
The efficiency of labor, which always reaches its maximum 
in bad times, always declines in good times. The figures are 
certain, therefore, to show in future large increases in ex- 
penses. In fact, they have already begun to. During the 
last six months of the calendar year 1915 the increase in 
operating expenses was very small. Since then it has been 
large, and is rapidly growing larger. 

The recent statistics regarding railway earnings and ex- 
penses are to a large extent the expression of abnormal con- 
ditions, and, should not in large measure influence the de- 
cision of Congress regarding the proposed investigation of 
regulation. The broad, general influences and tendencies are 
what determine the results of railway operation in any con- 
siderable period of years, and are, therefore, the things with 
which Congress should familiarize itself and by which it 
should be governed in shaping the policy of regulation. Now, 
the broad, general and controlling influences and tendencies 
are still adverse to the lasting prosperity and satisfactory 
development of our transportation system. At least, this is 
the almost unanimous opinion of those who have devoted 
themselves to special investigation of the subject. 

If the managements were free, like those of other business 
concerns, to deal with the conditions they encounter in their 
field as they might think fit, or as their competitive relation- 
ships might permit, they would be able to maintain in bad 
years and in good a satisfactory average margin between in- 
come and output. But their freedom of action is narrowly 
restricted. They are subjected to 49 masters — to the national 
government and 48 states. A large majority of these masters 
are not intelligent or fair. Even if they were they might dif- 
fer in the policies of regulation followed, with results harm- 
ful to both the railways and the public. Our policy of reg- 
ulation is extremely defective. It needs to be simplified, 
unified and made more constructive. The legislation re- 

July 7, 1916 


quired can be determined only by thorough investigation. 

Every day this is postponed the situation tends to become 
worse and the loss inflicted upon the public to grow greater. 
Congress should not adjourn without adopting the resolution 
for an investigation of railway regulation. 


A MOST interesting and encouraging sign of the >pirit 
*^ in which railway regulation in this country i- being 
accepted was given by the proceedings at the twenty-eighth 
annual convention of the Association of American Railway 
Accounting Officers held at Detroit last week. While it 
is true that in quite a number of individual cases the comp- 
troller of a railroad company has been the right-hand man 
of the controlling and managing interest in the company, 
it has too often been the case that the comptroller or gen- 
eral auditor was treated as the confidential bookkeeper for the 
controlling interest whose only duty was to his employer 
and whose theories of the general underlying principles 
which ought to govern sound accounting had to be entirely 
subordinated to the wishes of the employer. With a company 
whose securities are held by savings banks and by a great 
number of dependent individuals the accounting officer of a 
railroad ought to have a higher conception of his powers of 
having a voice in the determination of proper accounting 
principles and the interpretation of these principles than 
that of the mere bookkeeper. With the further extension 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission's minute regula- 
tion of railroad accounts the accounting officers, more par- 
ticularly through their association, have necessarily had to 
assume responsibilities to the commission as well as to their 
companies. This change was probably viewed with a good 
deal of suspicion, or at least distrust, by many railway 
executives or railway boards of directors when its trend 
first became apparent in 1907. 

The Association of American Railway Accounting Officers 
has so ably conducted itself in this somewhat dual capacity 
which was thrust on it that it is probably safe to say that 
the great majority of railroad directors as well as railroad 
executives recognize their obligation to the efforts of the 

With the amount of publicity which the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission enforces in regard to railroad companies' 
accounts there is no excuse for a railroad comptroller to be 
less than perfectly frank in the annual statement rendered 
to stockholders. The old air of secrecy which was thought 
necessary in regard to the work of the railroad accounting 
officer has become an anachronism. The accounting officer 
can be of great help to his board of directors by inspiring 
both in the commission and in the general public, and also 
in the minds of investors, a feeling of confidence in the 
frankness of the reports to the commission. 

The New York Central has not always been the leader 
in matters of frankness with its minority stockholders and 
with the general public, but it has been under the president- 
ship of the general auditor of the New York Central that 
the accounting officers' association has made most progress 
toward a conception of its responsibilities and powers. The 
emphasis that is laid by President White, in his address 
before the Detroit meeting, on the necessity for discussing 
principles, not details, is a sign of the progress which is 
being made by the association. There are probably many 
members of the association who, because of the views of 
their executives, necessarily had to follow a narrow course 
in their discussion and practice of accounting principles 
who will be inwardly very glad of the changes which are 
taking place. There are probably others in whom the older 
principles are so deeply ingrained that their personal opinion 
will be strongly against some of the changes which are 

being made. Nevertheless, the assot iation as an association 
is putting itself on record as recognizing progress and as 

iil' and aiding in this prog] 


A LI Il< >l (ill -(attend report- from various parts of the 
**• country indicate that many of the engineer.-, firemen, 
conductors and other trainmen art not in favor of a -trike, 
it i- evident that the officers of the- brotherhoods of train 
employees are not neglecting any precautions to m-ure the 
result they want from the -trike vote the;, are taking. 

After having so worded the strike ballot a- to give the 
employees no opportunity to vote on the question of arbitra- 
tion, and a- almost to preelude a negative vote regard 
-trike. the executives of the organization;- have issued in- 
structions for the purpose of preventing any of their mem- 
ber- from indicating that they are satisfied with their jobs 
by refraining from voting. The circular letter of in-truc- 
tions for the taking of the strike vote, i--ued to the general 
chairmen, local chairmen, lodges and divisions of the four 
brotherhoods, and signed by their thief executive-, includes 
the following (the italics are ours) : 

"It will be the duly of all general and local chair best 

efforts in securing a full and complete vote. It ••hould be understood that 
all members holding seniority rights or actually employed in service affected 
by this movement will be required to vote. 

"In taking the vote the local chairmen will insist that the person voting 
read the ballot before signing same, but under no circumstances mil he be 
permitted to take it away with him. After signing the ballot, have him 
detach it, j'lace in envelope, seal same and deliver it to the person author- 
ized to take the vote, who shall write the name of the person voting on 
the outside of the envelop. No influence should be used to induce him to 
-ign one way or the other. 

"Members will undoubtedly be approached by officials and others for the 
purpose of gaining information. All members are cautioned against giving 
out information or discussing the guest td." 

In spite of the naive instruction against using influence, 
it is not strange that strike votes taken under such conditions 
usually demonstrate such remarkable unanimity. The bal- 
lots on which the employees are asked to .-ign a promise 
to throw up their jobs, in the presence of a committee chair- 
man and without discussing the questions involved, read as 
follow- : 

"I have personally read the foregoing statement and believe the request 
tor an eight hour basic day with time and one-half time for all overtime 
worked in all except passenger service a just demand, and hereby authorize 
the chief executives and general chairman of the B. L. E., B. L. F. 
O. R. C. and B. R. T. to act as my agents or attorneys in dealing for a 
settlement of these questions, and if the said chief executives and general 
chairmen are unable to otherwise effect a settlement satisfactory to them, 

I hereby cast my vote a STRIKE." 

(for or against) 

While it is, of course possible for an employee to vote 
that the demand is "just'" and to authorize the leader:- to 
represent 1dm, while at the same time casting his vote against 
a -trike, it is apparent that no such result was contemplated 
when the ballot was written. 

The Order of Railway Conductor- at it> recent convention 
al-o took action to make it easier to obtain a vote for a strike 
by amending it- laws to provide that in the counting of 
vote- its territorial associations -hall be taken as the units, 
instead of lines of railroad. If two-thirds of the members 
in an association vote in favor of a strike, all of the lines in 
that territory will be counted as having voted in favor of it, 
although on some individual railroad less than two-thirds 
may have voted for the >trike. The employees on a road 
under this provision would be called upon to participate in 
a strike which, they had voted against. 

The spokesman for the brotherhood.- at the conference 
with the railway committee in New York said that the offi- 
cer- of the organizations had no power "to declare war" un- 
til the men had rendered their verdict, but those who write 
the ballots believe in so writing them that thev will have 
some influence on the verdict of those voting. The expres- 
sion of the true views and wishes of the members of the 
brotherhood- is rendered impossible by the wording of the 
ballot and the instructions issued regarding the voting on it. 


Vol. 61, No. 1 

linn ii mi nmiinimiiiiii nun mill.. ■ 

Letters to the Editor 

of premiums — applicable to places where cooperation is 
needed, hut not applicahle to hig industries, with extensive 
private tracks — would aid in energizing such a campaign. 

G. M. D. 

r)jimiiMiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiihiiiiiiiiiiiiiimi!ifiii iiiiiniiiin iiiiimt 



Newark, N. J. 

To the Editok or i in Railway Age Gazette: 

Your editorial of June 16, telling how the New Haven 
Road can earn and deliver freight twice as fast as consignees 
can unload it, calls up an evil as old as your oldest subscriber 
and one which, nevertheless, no one seems to worry ahout. At 
least nobody has done any serious constructive thinking on 
the subject. Freight cars should, indeed, be unloaded at one.', 
on arrival at destination, as you say. The ideal shipment in 
this respect is a car of cattle; the animals walk out as soon 
as you give them the opportunity. Reciprocal demurrage is 
no remedy; two wrongs do not make a right. The "average 
agreement" of some of the demurrage bureaus was right in 
principle, but nobody seems to have tackled the problem in 
business-like fashion. This rule was necessary in the begin- 
ning, to get the demurrage principle started ; it was necessary 
to sugar-coat the pill very thickly to get receivers to swallow 
it at all; but the rule has worked to the benefit of sharp and 
■selfish and short-sighted consignees while the railroads have 
not only lacked sharpness and selfishness; they have been 

Why should not the railroad offer a premium for cars un- 
loaded the first day? Nothing could be more reasonable, in 
principle, during periods of stress; and the idea would not 
be without reason even in dull times; such a rule would tend 
to simplify switching and to induce receivers to provide them- 
selves with adequate facilities. The average railroad officer 
would have to revise his whole theory of life to pay out 
actual money in premiums at a time when he had thousands 
of cars idle- but he should remember that the consignee is 
wrenched with equal violence when he pays demurrage on a 
car that he knows will not be used for a month after he re- 
leases it. The premium theory has been too long neglected. 
It is true that its development might involve a good many 
difficulties; but difficulties do not deter the determined. 

The average agreement does not provide a true prem'um; 
the benefit derived by the consignee is so obscured that he 
does not appreciate it; while the loss to the carrier — the detri- 
ment to truly economical transportation — is actual and seri- 
ous. The business of large industries should be dealt with 
by itself. Make a separate study of each individual plant, 
if necessary. It would pay. But the miscellaneous receivers, 
users of team tracks, should be aroused by a premium scheme. 
In many a case it would accelerate business to pay for sav- 
ing a half day in unloading a car. We have been too easily 
satisfied with an average detention of cars amounting to 1.62 
days per car — or some such apparently attractive figure — 
when very likely the delays, with proper effort, could be 
reduced far below that. 

The true standard to work to is that wherein cars are never 
used as motionless storehouses. To accomplish this com- 
pletely would be too costly. To neglect it entirely is also 
costly. The golden mean should be sought, not by provid- 
ing more cars and more track room; that course has been 
pursued too far already, but by providing better unloading 
facilities. This includes many things; larger coal bins, 
more and better derricks in team yards, and improvement 
in team yards. A general movement might show the need 
in many cases of relocating a team track. Cooperation 
between teamsters and all proprietors of freight-wagon 
facilities so as to provide for helping each other in times of 
Stress would accomplish great things; but it could be brought 
about only through a persistent campaign. A suitable scheme 


Jacksonville, Fla. 

To the Editor or the Railway Age Gazette: 

When air brakes first appeared in the South about 25 years 
ago no difficulty was experienced in starting any train which 
an engine could pull unless the start were made on a hard hill. 
In those days we had a great many of what were called "bare- 
foot" cars, this term being applied to cars with no brakes. 
Nearly all brakes hung from the car body with only one lever 
in the center of the car. When the brakes were released every- 
thing fell clear of the wheels and we never had to pull the 
brakes except when they were left set. For the past several 
years the conditions have been just the reverse. In handling 
long trains on level track or when the grade is in my favor it 
is necessary to hold the brakes until a full stop is made to 
keep from pulling in two. And in no instance after doing so 
can the train be started until I have taken slack one or more 
times to knock the brakes loose from the wheels. This is done 
time after time each trip and, of course, is hard on draft rig- 
ging and the contents of the cars. The average engineer, after 
finding that his train has got to be started roughly, doesn't 
fail to put plenty of energy in his movements, for he wants to 
avoid the necessity of making a second trial — the reverse 
lever gets harder to handle every time it is put down in the 

After some thought relative to the difference between condi- 
tions now and years ago, I began to investigate. I found that 
on making a hard, full stop, unless I gather up 10 or more 
cars out of 50 in taking slack, there is no chance of starting 
the train. With the air fully released the brake shoes will be 
tight against the wheels in the rear part of train, held by the 
weight and friction in the rigging until shaken loose by the 
movement of the cars. I have made a careful inspection of 
many trains of 30 to 40 cars each, after a 20-mile run at 25 
miles an hour in which the brakes were applied only at the 
stopping point and for a few seconds only. I have found the 
brake shoes hot and smoking. Several trains pulled so hard 
that I simply closed the throttle and let them stop without 
applying the air, after which I went back and found car after 
car with hot brake shoes. One car I found not only had hot 
brake shoes but the wheels were warm as well. This was not 
due to sticking brakes as there was no air in the brake cylin- 
der. I thought the car might be adjusted too tight but by 
pushing one of the levers with my foot I found a movement 
of four inches and was able to loosen all the shoes from the 

On freight equipment there are no springs such as are used 
to release the brake beams on passenger cars. The result is 
that thousands of brake shoes are grinding day and night, not 
only wearing the face of the brake shoe and the wheel, but re- 
ducing the coal pile, the tonnage rating, the earnings, the life 
of the cars. Last, but not least, they are increasing the strain 
on the engineer, for no matter how many brake shoes are 
grinding he is expected to get results — and he often does 
when he tries to get a long train started. The remedy seems 
to me to be simple — a coil spring to make the brake rigging 
follow the piston rod back into the cylinder. Then we shall 
be able to save coal, draw heads and time. We shall also be 
able to increase tonnage. I have noted for years that in 
pulling tonnage on comparatively level track, there is a 
difference in the pull as of much as one hour per 100 miles 
and on hilly parts of the road I have sometimes doubled 
with less than tonnage simply because the brake shoes were 
dragging against the wheels. Wm. Bailey Thomas, 

Locomotive Engineer. 

American Railway Accounting Officers 

Members nrui Gu, Officers at the Annuo' 

THK twenty-eighth annual meeting of the Association 
of American Railway Accounting Officers was held 
at the Hotel Statler, Detroit. Mich.. June 28, 29 and 
.SO. There were 280 members present, and th< 

■it, including guests and ladies, was 700. This i> the 
greatest number of members and guests that ever attended 
a meeting of the association. The meeting was tailed to or- 
der shortly after 10 Wednesday morning b) K. A. White, 
general auditor of the New York Central Railroad. presi- 
dent, and after the invocation by Rev. Dr. E. H Pence, the 
members and guests listened to an address of welcome made 
bv the commissioner of police of Detroit, representing the 
mayor. The meeting was then addressed by Paul Kim:, op- 
erating receiver of the Pere Marquette, Mr. King laid stress 
on the need for a full understanding of the railroad situa- 
tion by the public, and pointed out how necessary it was that 
the auditor who stood in a dual relation to the publii 
especially the public a- investors, and to tlu- executive offi- 
if the railroads, use their besl efforts to brum about 
such an understanding. 

After Mr. Kin g's address, in memorium resolutions un- 
adopted for William Lewi- Greenhalgh, Charles Linnaeurs 
Loop. Joseph L. Kirk, fame- A. Pfouts, James Newton 
Bailey. George Cater Arnold. Llewellyn Snowden, and M. 1 
Molloy. J. A. Taylor, comptroller of the Central of 

. and second vice-president, paid a special tribute to 
Mike Molloy and to the esteem and love which was felt for 
him by the members of the association. 

President R. A. White then made the following address: 


The famous -crap of paper known a- the Declaration of 
Independence starts with the word.-. "When in the course of 
human events, etc.." and we have now readied that point 
when in the course of the order of business the president's 
address is listed. There i- a gratifying breadth in the simple 
phraseology "President*.- Address" which leave- each presi 
dent free to determine the exact form which hi- address -hall 
take, whether it shall be a message, a valedictory, a eulogy, 
an apology, or an elegy. I am going to combine tlu features 
of a message and a valedic+ory by covering briefly the things 

whicb have impressed me most during tin- pasl y< 
what ha- been accomplished in the past, and what should, 
in my judgment, be accomplished in the future. A- to the 
things which hav< complished: 1 he reports of the 

committees -how that the member-hip ha- inci 

The question of tlu change in the fiscal year has 
carried to the court of final re-ort : the publications of the 
.ition have been put into a more permanent form; the 
.it ion ha- co-operated vigorously with otbi 
in many important move.-, and all the commitl 
unusually active and, a- usual, efficient I want to lay partic- 
ular stress upon .i comparatively new line undertake] 
the first time, and to plan- the credit where it beloi 

No member of tlu- assoi i at ion 1; 
affection than 1 for our former secretary, Mr. Ph 
man could work more earnestly, faithfully or ably than he in 
fulfilling tlu- duties of his position, and hi- mantle In- fallen 
on worth\ shoulders. Mr. Woodson, realizing tin 

For him in the splendid rc<ord made by Mr. Phillips 
■ worlds to i onqui r. and h 
my judgment is a ven important feature, viz.: that of pub- 
My name, a- president, appears at the bottom of two 
( ■ re ulars whic h w< tioo 

with the association, but Mr \\ thought in- 

both. The results have- been ven, gratifying not only in the 
increased membership, but in the increased interest shown bv 
the members in the work of the assot iation. 

I hi- bring- up one of the point- which, in my judgment, 
could with advantag omplished for the futun Many 

of the communications which wen received in response to the 
second circular contained subjects which could narurallj be 
referred to the committees already established, but there were 
a number of important suggestions and communications tor 
which no committee hi stablished; the circular re- 

issued in the name- of the Executive Committee will 
give an idea of the ven interesting nature of the communica- 
tions. It i- in connection with the subject matter of that 
circular and similar suggestions, and communication- which 
are- likely to ' 1 from time to time, thai I offer for 

the consideration of the association the question of establish- 
ing a standing committee which mighl be designated 


Vol. 61, No. 1 

Committee on Organization, Methods and Efficiency — the 
idea being that such a committee could be used as the medium 
for interchanging among the members of the association im- 
portant suggestions or outlines of organization, methods, 
forms, problems and studies. If a committee of that character 
was established, in my judgment, the membership should be 
principally selected from the auditors of the so-called small 
roads. Such men have to be familiar with practically all the 
branches of accounting work, while on the so-called big roads 
the very volume of work forces a tendency to develop spe- 
cialists in the different lines. The auditor of a small road 
has to "cut his cloth to fit his conditions," and it is in meet- 
ing such conditions that the greatest ingenuity and the 
greatest efficiency is developed. 

Another point which has occurred to me is that at the 
annual conventions it would be well if the chairmen would 
come equipped with minutes of the proceedings of their com- 
mittees so that if any question arises as to the exact meaning 
of the recommendation of a committee the chairman could, as 
spokesman for it, explain how the conclusion was reached. 

Another very important matter, in my judgment, is the 
constant need of proving that our annual conventions are for 
business purposes only. Naturally a committee on arrange- 
ments desires to justify its selection and to make its work 
memorable by inserting somewhere in the program an enter- 
tainment feature. This is absolutely necessary so far as the 
wives and other members of the families are concerned. The 
convention would not be complete without the presence of 
those who inspire the members to their best efforts, nor would 
our duty be well fulfilled unless the social side was thought- 
fully considered for the benefit of those who must endure but 
cannot participate in the technical discussions. Still, busi- 
ness should take precedence, and entertainment, except that 
for the wives and families, should take a secondary place, 
restricting the entertainment features as far as possible to 
those hours which are not available for business. We do not 
assemble for any junketing purposes; serious problems are 
handled, discussed, decided and reported upon by the con- 
vention and, while it is true that "All work and no play makes 
Jack a dull boy," it is equally true that business must take 
precedence over pleasure, or the value of our annual occasions 
where we get together will be lost and a wrong impression 
created as to the object of the association. Of course, it is 
essential to differentiate carefully so as to know what is busi- 
ness and what is pleasure, and no one who has watched our 
golf played at any convention would dream of classifying golf 
under any other head than "business." 

The fact that the Agenda is so admirably prepared, and so 
voluminous in its reports might lead to the opinion that our 
conclusions are cut and dried and our discussions only pro 
forma, but a study of our past history will show that recom- 
mendations of the committees are not invariably adopted, and 
that sometimes its own father would not recognize the Agenda 
after its details had been passed upon by the convention. 

When you did me the honor to elect me to this position, the 
highest in the railroad accounting profession in the United 
States, and, therefore, the position most to be desired in that 
profession in the whole world, I just touched upon one 
thought that is always upermost in my mind, and that is that 
principles and not practices should govern our decisions. 
The underlying thought is this: Many cases that are sub- 
mitted to the various committees of the association present 
conditions that surround the particular problem which has 
confronted the member presenting, and the decision is apt to 
be rendered on the basis of the facts, as presented while a 
slightly different presentation of facts in an almost identical 
case might lead to a somewhat different or inconsistent deci- 
sion. If those who are presenting problems could present 
them in a general rather than a specific way so as to indicate 
clearly the underlying principle and if the committee of the 
association in preparing its reply would establish, first of all. 

the principle which should govern, the answer ought to be 
applicable not only to the individual case, but also to any 
other cases that are in any way analogous. On the other 
hand, if the question is asked only upon circumstances sug- 
gested with the individual case, and the decision is influenced 
by individual practices or methods, it may meet the individual 
case, but be totally inapplicable to other similar cases. Prac- 
tices and methods are almost invariably the result of hard 
work and study, but, nevertheless, they are liable to be within 
more or less limited lines and based upon individual condi- 
tions. Occasionally a method is a patchwork, contingency 
after contingency having been met as each has arisen, without 
an effort to fit each into somewhat analogous methods previ- 
ously established. Sometimes the method seems to have been 
hewn out with an axe and rarely, but occasionally, it looks as 
if the wielder had an axe which he desired to grind. But the 
work of this association will not so appear if the underlying 
principle is made the foundation of its decisions. Methods, 
practices and personal preferences can always be moulded to 
fit a principle, but a principle can never be changed to fit 
individual views. Further, if principles alone govern our 
conclusions, our recommendations will be automatically 

Asking you to bear with me if I put a little personal touch 
into these remarks, I want to confess that I have two idio- 
syncrasies which have shown in some of our committee meet- 
ings. I do enjoy trying to drive home a point with an illus- 
trative story, knowing that a laugh or even a chuckle often 
clears the atmosphere, and I also have a bad habit in the 
meetings of setting down my ideas, such as they are, in rhyme, 
such as it is, and at one of the meetings I condensed such a 
thought in rhyme which I have taken the liberty of amplifying 
in this connection, as follows : 

When the last dread trump is sounded 

And all come trooping in, 
Some with a confident swagger 
And some with a sickly grin, 
And we stand 'fore the Judge of Actions, 

For whom naught can be hid, 
This question will be asked of each 

"Now, what are the things you did?" 
And some will tell of the fights they made, 

And the victories they won, 
And hope to hear from the Judge's lips 

The verdict of praise "Well done!" 
But if the fight was for selfish gain 

And not for the right alone 
The verdict of praise will not be heard 

Though the victory be won. 
But those who fought for a principle, 

Though their views may have not prevailed. 
Will get the credit of having tried 

Not blame for having failed. 
Let us surely find on that honor list 

Where the names of the praised will go 
All we have known and fought beside 
In the A. A. R. A. O. 
This is not the place to discuss any of the current problems 
of the day which are not associated with our work, it is not 
the time to talk of peace or party or preparedness, but the 
air tingles everywhere with the spirit of "preparedness," al- 
though so far, thank God! we face only the merest shadow 
of the hell-cloud that blackens the great nations across the 
Atlantic; and it is not out of place to voice the thought that 
is uppermost in the mind of each one here, that here, where 
a great Detroiter has let his heart get the better of his head 
in his hatred of war and love of peace; here, just across a 
narrow stretch of water which separates us from a wonderful 
nation that is making a glorious record in supporting the 
mother country's fight; here, where the citizen soldiery of a 
sturdy state are awaiting the call from the northern border of 

July 7, 1916 


our land, where our neighbor is true and ambitious, and 
civilized, to the southern border of our country, where <mr 
neighbor is treacherous, lazy and barbarous, here and now we 
cheer for those of our as who have 

answered the call, we welcome the end of watching and wait- 
g ind we raise a standard of loyalty, loyalty to the rail- 
roads: loyalty to our principles; loyalty to tl ■ ition 
and loyalty to the Stars and Str. 


Following the president's addre^ the executive i ommittee, 
R. A. White, chairman, made its report, of which the follow- 
ing is an abstract of the more important points: 

Your committee has held hve meetings <ince the last an- 
nual meeting of the association. 

Your committee is of the opinion that, under the supervi- 
sion of the Executive Committee, there should be issued, from 
time to time. "Executive Committee Circulars'* embodyinu the 
advices or queries received from members as to accounting 
methods, forms, etc.. which would not properly come within 
the scope of any of the present standing committees of the 

:nges in I .r. — It will be recalled that the 

ciation at its annual meeting in Atlanta. Ga.. April 28 
1915, adopted resolutions stating that it is desirable that the 
fiscal year for reporting to federal and >tate railroad commis- 
sions be changed as rapidly as possible to terminate on 
December 51 instead of June 50. and empowering the Execu- 
tive committee to deal with the federal and >tate commis- 
siens regarding the matter. 

Your committee informally placed this subject before two 
of the Interstate Commerce Commissioners, who indicated a 
desire to know the attitude of the state commissions and also 
to learn what proportion of the chief executive railway officers 
were in favor of this change. Your committee has ascer- 
tained that the suggested change of the fiscal year is: 

Favored by the chief executive officers and the 

accc . ays operating. .. .236,868.26 miles, 85.3 per cent 

live officers and the 
accounting railways operating.... 40,784.37 miles, 14.7 per cent 

With the approval of your committee, the president is now 
actively engaged in obtaining expressions on this matter from 
the various state railroad commissions. The replies so far 
received would indicate that the sunge-ted change is looked 
upon favorably by quite a number of the state commissions. 

Under date of April 6. 1916, the president. R. A. White, 
wrote the chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 
Hon. Balthasar H. Meyer, in part as follow;- : 

Ear, replies [in regard to the change of the fiscal year to end De- 
cember 311 have been received from 31 state railroad commissions, 21 of 
which are in favor of the suggested change, 6 will make the change if the 
Interstate Commerce C nd the other state commissions do like- 

wise, 2 will advise further at a later date, 2 are opposed to the suggested 
change. In the case of those states where alteration of the statute would 
be required to accomplish the suggested change, the state railroad com- 
missions have indicated that they would be glad to recommend to the 
legislature that such an alteration be made. 

The following arguments have been submitted in favor of changing the 
period for reporting to the various commissions to end December 31: 

(1) It ought not to be necessary to define what is meant by a year or 
a date, and when reference is made by the commission to 1915 or the 
year 1915, it ought not to be necessary to use the paraphrase, "the twelve 
months ending Tune 30, 1915." The word "year" has a definite meaning. 
Many carriers are required to make extensive reports to state com- 
z a calendar year period, for purposes of taxation; thus 
largely duplicating the work included in the fiscal year report. The two 
reports may present more or less apparent variance, which would be over- 
come by having both cover the same period. 

(i) Many carriers make a complete report to the stockholders, covering 
the calendar year. The suggested change would be a decided convenience 

(4) On the majority of the railways of the United States, the logical 
business year coincides more consistently with the calendar year than with 
a year ending Tune 30. 

(5) On most railways, the program of maintenance work conforms nat- 
urally to a calendar year; and in reporting the details of such 

year ending December 31 has decided advantages over a year ending 
Tune 39 The maintenance forces are at the maximum and the heavy 
work is in June 30, while December 31 is the natural close of 

the year. 

(61 The suggested c ai _ enable more direct comparisons between 

the rail ind other -■ hich 

variou' be more easily prepared during the •■ 

than '1 - the jumn. 1 for 

vacations in the general oft 

(8) The outlook for the future seem* to indicate that the calendar year 
will present new advantages from time to time rather than new disad- 

The following reasons have been advanced by the interests opposed to 
the changing of the pr- :ig period: 

A change would necessitate one partial report covering the trar. 

-irisons would be disturbed. 

■ ■ember 31 the crops have not been moved, and the eno 
crop-moving period for a year is better represented by June 30 than by 
December 31. 

-.iry to have stockholders of various carriers change 
the fiscal ft reporting for some period other than Decern; 

to that - ier that the annual repor's to stockholders might conform 

to the fiscal year of the regulating boo 

ng compac- 
t's invito . t that the commission has from time to time char. 
accounting classifications, which has, of course, resulted in disturbing com- 
parisons unless the figures were re-worked or the conclusions drawn from 
the figures modified to conform to the changes made. The suggested changes 
in the reporting period would not disturb comparisons to any serious extent 
for the reason that the commission might for the first period require one re- 
port covering the twelve months ending June 30, and one report covering the 
twelve months ending December 31. In this way the co: a the 
June 30 basis would be maintained through the fin 

and also there would be established a new basis for comparison thereafter 
for the twelve months ending December 31. 

The programs of maintenance and improvements conform naturally to the 
calendar year, as such programs are commenced during the early pi 
the calendar year and are completed during the latter part of the calendar 
year. This is particularly true upon such roads as lie m f the 

country which is particularly affected by climatic C' : heavy 

snow falls or other seasonal storms. Under such c is the 

busiest part of the work; neither the maintenano 

projects have been completed; the amount of material taken out of the 
track, for c known, but until the work is completed it 

what, if any, part of this will be put back. Where both ii ; 
■ment and maintenance work are involved, the exact amount of each 
known until the work is completed. Therefore, a r- 

ending June 30 will contain the closing transactions and the adjustment 
of a program of one year with the commencement of a perh.>; 
program of the following year. On the other hand, a n 
ending December 31 will include both the commencement and tern, 
as well as any adjustment that may be necessary in carrying out the 
accounting in connection with the -Ive months 

ending June 30 may be inaccurate and will be incomplete, while a report 
for a year ending December 31 must be both accurate and com; 

In regard to tl ■ r changing the period I 

ing reports to stockholders for the calendar year instead of the year ending 
June 30, in case the commission should make the suggested change 
reporting period: This is a feature which has been borne in mind by jl! 
those who have considered this subject, and it is my understanding that 
most of the railways are prepared to take the necessary action. 

I should like to emphasize the following humanitarian reason for chang- 
ing the period of reporting to the commission: Nearly all of the officers 
and as ma: the clerical force like their annual vacv 

a time of the year when it really counts for something. Few men can really 
have a good time in winter: most of them want to get away during the 
summer for rest and recrea: S ne would maintain that a \ 

should take preference over re]>orts to the various com- I with 

the fiscal year closing on June 30, the heaviest work for the c' 
of a railroad occurs in Juiy, August and September, during which time the 
weather conditions are most enervating and during the very time when 
these men would like to have vacations. During the period of the prepara- 
tion of annual reports, it is necessary for the clerks to work overtime more 
or less, and the officers who have to supervise the preparation of the reports 
must perform such supervision in addition to their regular duties during the 
heated season of the year. If the fiscal year closed at December 31, this 
uld come during January, February and March, a time of the 
year when the weather conditions inspire vigor and actr. 

have courteously offered to present this matter, which had been 
discussed informally with you, to your associates on the commission, and 
I very gratefully take advantage of your offer. The Association of Ameri- 
can Railway Accounting Officers respectfully urges that the Inl 
Commerce Com:: an order changing the closing of the 

year from June 30. as at present established, to December 31. Sec- 
of the act to regulate commerce provides that the commission may require 
annual reports and may fix the time and prescribe the manner in which 
such reports shall be made, so that it is the understanding of the associa- 
tion that the commission has it in its own power to make this alteration. It 
is understood from the replies received from the various state commissions 
that their action depends only upon that taken by the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. In many instances the change will be welcomed, and in all 
•ices will be followed. 
If the association can be -tance in the matter or if u 

the points brought out in the foregoing can be amplified or further ex- 
plained, please advise me, as president, and the association will I 
glad indeed to i 

Your committee respectfully recommends that the su 
be left with it for further handling. 

Interline Wo h ordance with the resolutions 

ssociation at its Atlanta meeting, your com- 
mittee has endeavored to obtain a greater extension of through 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

waybilling and has also endeavored to present forcefully to 
traffic organizations the necessity for practicable, economical 
means of apportionment of revenues between carriers. To 
this end, at the request of your committee, the president has 
appointed separate committees to meet with each freight traffic 
organization in North America, and each of such committees 
was particularly urged to agitate the subject of extending 
interline waybilling and obtaining percentage division bases. 

Your committee recommends that all members of the asso- 
ciation be requested to place before their traffic departments 
the advantages of obtaining, individually and through the 
traffic organizations, the promulgation of joint through rates 
and the production of proper percentage division bases for 
apportioning the revenue among the interested carriers. 

Your committee also recommends that inasmuch as the 
American Railway Association is concerned with this subject 
from a loss-and-damage-to-freight standpoint, the attention 
of that association should be called to the service in this mat- 
ter which might be rendered by the traffic people, particularly 
in connection with inaugurating through rates and producing 
percentage division bases therefor. 

Publicity. — Apparently it has been the policy of the asso- 
ciation to let its work speak for itself, and in the past no 
systematic effort seems to have been made to inform railroad 
people generally with regard to what the association is ac- 
complishing. It seems to your committee that inasmuch as 
the association is maintained by the railways, it would be 
eminently proper to have railway people in general fully in- 
formed as to what is being done by the association. Your 
committee feels that this is for the best interests of the asso- 
ciation, as well as the common good of the railways. 

In line with this thought and with the sanction of your 
committee, the president and the secretary, during the past 
year, have from time to time issued pamphlets and circulars 
which might inform the new members and remind the old 
members regarding the opportunities offered by the associa- 
tion. The efforts made in this direction have met with en- 
couraging responses from the members, have stimulated 
interest in the work of the association, and have resulted in 
a material increase in the association's membership. 

Distribution of Association's Publications. — In its report 
to the twenty-seventh annual meeting your comnr'ttee recom- 
mended a liberal policy with regard to furnishing the associa- 
tion's publications to other than members, which recom- 
mendation was approved by the association. It seems de- 
sirable that the association specifically indicate its wishes on 
this matter, and your committee therefore respectfully recom- 
mends the adoption of the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That honorary members shall be furnished with only agendas 
for and reports of annual meetings; that the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission and the state railroad commissions, upon proper request, may be 
furnished, without charge, with copies of reports or other A. A. R. A. O. 
publications; that libraries, universities or schools may be furnished, gratis, 
with copies of reports or other A. A. R. A. O. publications, if it should 
appear to the executive committee that such libraries, universities or schools 
may utilize the publications for a useful purpose; that railway periodicals, 
approved by the executive committee, may be supplied, free of cost, with 
copies of the A. A. R. A. O. publications, reports, etc.; that persons not 
eligible to membership in the association may be furnished with copies 
of its reports and other publications at the stipulated price. 

Invitation to Governmental Representatives. — Your com- 
mittee authorized the president to invite the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission and representatives thereof, including the 
valuation division of that commission, to attend the twenty- 
eighth (1916) annual meeting, and also authorized him to 
extend invitations to the interested governmental departments 
of the United States, Canada and Mexico to have representa- 
tives attend the twenty-eighth (1916) annual meeting of the 

Honorary Members. — The following former members of 
the association were severally presented by two members for 
honorary membership: H. G. Waters, O. H. Nance, J. E. 
Denison, Theo. F. Brown. 

Your committee, acting under Article III of the constitu- 

tion, unanimously accepted such persons as honorary mem- 
bers, and directed that their names form a part of the report 
of your committee. 

Making Rulings of the Association Mandatory. — In ac- 
cordance with the instructions of the association, your com- 
mittee has given consideration to the matter and is of the 
opinion that the proposed amendment to the constitution of 
the association should not be adopted at this time; but that 
it be suggested that when members do not comply with the 
findings of the association, such specific cases should be 
brought to the attention of the Executive Committee. 

Bills for Car Repairs. — Your committee considered the fol- 
lowing letter of August 18, 1915, from Joseph W. Taylor, 
secretary, Master Car Builders' Association, Chicago, ad- 
dressed to secretary Woodson : 

I send you under separate cover a copy of our code of rules for the 
interchange of cars and would refer you to Rule 9\, page 49, which is 
practically a rule of your association. 

The question has been raised quite frequently by members of this asso- 
ciation as to fixing a time limit in which to submit bills for repairs to cars 
under these rules. It is not an infrequent occurrence to have bills rendered 
in which are charges running back for periods of a year or a year and a half 
and possibly longer, which means a considerable addition to the clerical 
expense in order to properly check up these charges. It would seem that 
a reasonable time in which to present such bills could be agreed upon, 
and all charges not submitted within this time should be cancelled, as intro- 
ducing them into the accounts tends to distort the operating figures and 
destroy the value of comparisons. 

I am directed by the executive committee to ask whether your associa- 
tion would approve of the introduction of a rule when bills for car repairs 
are not presented within six months from the date the repairs were made 
that such bills should be considered as outlawed. 

Your committee does not favor the introduction of a 
rule that when bills for car repairs are not presented within 
six months from the date repairs were made, such bills shall 
be considered as outlawed. Your committee is of the opinion 
that this is a matter which each company should handle for 

Your committee is of the opinion that the association 
should have a committee for conference with the Master Car 
Builders' Association. 

Committee for Conference with the American Railway 
Association. — It appears that the association has for several 
years had a committee for conference with the American 
Railway Association, and that such committee has never had 
a subject referred to it. As there do not seem to be any sub- 
stantial results to be accomplished through such a committee, 
the executive committee is of the opinion that the standing 
committee for conference with the American Railway Asso- 
ciation should be abolished. 

Revision of Freight Synopsis. — Being informed that there 
is in course of compilation a revised synopsis relating to 
freight accounts, your committee discussed the question of 
issuing the synopsis in permanent form. 

Membership Changes. — During the current year your com- 
mittee has admitted into the association 64 new members. 
As of April 21, 1916, the association has 643 active members, 
representing 291,360 miles of railroad, also certain express 
companies and water carriers — an increase (as compared 
with April 21, 1915) of 46 active members and 15,300 miles 
of railroad. 

There are 72 honorary members. 

The report was signed by R. A. White, president. 

All of the above recommendations were adopted by the 


Costs on Account of Betterment Regulations. — The sub- 
committee appointed to consider this subject having reached 
the opinion that it is impossible even for the future to de- 
termine the additional cost incurred by the railways on ac- 
count of reports required under governmental regulation, 
referred back to your committee for further instructions. 

Since the sub-committee reached its conclusions the chair- 
man of your committee has received a letter from Frank 

July 7, 1916 


H. Dixon, chief statistician, Bureau of Railway Economics, 
dated December 9, as follows: 

I am in receipt of a letter from I.. E. Johnson, chairman of our genera 1 
executive committee, in which he quotes from a letter of Frank Trumbull, 
chairman <>f the president's advisory committee. Mi. Trumbull 
thing is clear to me — that we should not ask the railways to compile the 
cost of making these reports. I think the resolution of the accountants' 
committee demonstrates this conclusively." 

In view of this decision of Mr. Trumbull's, Mr. Johnson has requested 
me to write to you, stating that we will not call upon you for any further 
work in connection with the compilation of the cost of making these n 
I assume that the sub-committee has not yet presented the resolutions re- 
ferred to to the committee of twenty-five, and that it will at the next 
meeting follow that procedure. 

Mr. Trumbull had a copy of the resolutions in advance of their adoption 
by your committee, and so had reached his conclusion in advance of the 
formal submission of the resolutions to him. I am, therefore, writing this 
letter to you rather as a matter of information, in order that you may 
know that the formal adoption of the resolutions by the committee of 
twenty-five will finally end the matter. 

Permit me to express my own personal gratification and appreciation of 
the disposition which the committee has made of this question. 

Your committee approved the report of the subcommittee; 
but in view of the letter from Mr. Dixon your committee 
is of the opinion that the matter should be considered as 
closed without further action. 

Railroad Clearing House. — Your committee referred this 
subject to a sub-committee, of which A. H. Plant was chair- 
man, which sub-committee held a joint meeting with a com- 
mittee of the Society of Railway Financial Officers — T. H. 
B. McKnight, treasurer of the Pennsylvania Lines West, 
chairman — and this joint committee adopted the following 
resolution: This joint sub-committee reaffirms its belief 
in the general principle of clearing house settlements for 
agreed balances, but is not prepared at this time to recom- 
mend the establishment of a general railway clearing house. 
The joint sub-committee suggests that the various railroads 
should follow the principal family or neighboring lines with 
the hope that the experience thus gained will offer sufficient 
information to determine the desirability or undesirability of 
a central clearing house. 

Your committee recommends approval of the foregoing 

Separation of Expenses Between Passenger Service and 
Freight Service. — The introduction to the "Rules governing 
the separation of operating expenses between freight service 
and passenger service on large steam railways, effective July 
1, 1915," issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission, in 
reporting the proceedings of the hearing before the com- 
mission on May 21, 1915, contains the statement "There 
was apparent acceptance generally of the necessity for such 
division of expenses." 

The representatives of the Association of American 
Railway Accounting Officers did not, at that hearing, 
argue against such division only and solely for the reason 
that the Interstate Commerce Commission had previously 
announced its decision to demand that the carriers make 
such division and had, thereby, made that question a closed 
issue, not open to further argument. 

It is therefore resolved that this association regrets that the 
introduction to the order contained the statement above 
quoted, which, in the association's judgment, does not cor- 
rectly reflect the views so frequently expressed by the Associa- 
tion of American Railway Accounting Officers; namely, "that 
the results produced by the application of the formula are not 
to be considered as accurate or authoritative, knowing that 
no uniform basis can be adopted which will be fair to all 
railroads or to the same road under all conditions and that 
cost as a measure of specific rates cannot be accurately estab- 
lished by a separation of all expenses." 

Amplification of Monthly Reports to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. — The following is a letter dated Sep- 
tember 10, 1915, from W. J. Meyers, statistician for the 
Interstate Commerce Commission, addressed to the chair- 
man of your committee : 

I shall very much appreciate i statement of the views of your committee 

regarding several n in the divisi 

1- I nonthly report of railway earning* 

il include il now required a 

■•crating rates ind One showing the chan; 
accoun- improvemei 

railway property, capital ~t"ck actually outstanding and unmatured 
funded debt actually a Several < form 

are submitted herewith f r the purpose of showing in detail what is under 

from the committee in 
case it i^ f \ I amplifying the comtn, 

requirements in .sith the monthly repo- 

2. The inclusion in the ai schedules requiring a 
detail o I, ills receiv- 
able." and No. 715, "M' milar in character 
to the details now requ n with accounts No. 758, "Loans 
and bills payable," and No. 761, " payable.'' 

3. The standardization of the methods of reporting for various affiliated 
companies. The rules under c on are as follow-: 

01 that files or (oncurs in a tariff on file 
with the interstate Commerce Commission shall be considered to be a 
common carrier engaged in interstate or foreign commerce and shall 
to file an annual operating report. 
(b) Every railway company owning but not operating a railway used 
in intersi ign commerce shall be required to file an annual 

non-operating report. 

Vny actually existing inactive corporation coming within the 
scope of rule (b) given above may be relieved from the requirements 
of that rule if it has no outstanding stocks or obligations not held 
by or for it-, controlling corporation, and such controlling cor|>oration 
reports for the inactive corporation such facts as the commission may 
require to be reported. 

(d) Reports of a controlling corporation and its controlled corpora- 
tions must exclude duplications in respect of investment in railway 
plant and equipment and in respect of securities outstanding. 
While the matters suggested under this third head are essentially legal 
in character, it may be that your committee will feel that the accounting 
officers are also affected by them and that their views should have considera- 
tion in the matter. 

Your committee took the following action (the numbers 
refer to the numbered paragraphs in Statistician Meyers' 
letter) : 

1. Your committee recommends that no change be made 
in the present form of monthly report to the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission. 

2. Your committee is of the opinion that the suggested 
information should not be requested, as the detailed informa- 
tion would reach the public at such a late date as to be of 
no practical value to it. 

3. Your committee is of the opinion that these matters are 
of a legal character and would not come within the province 
of the committee. 

Fines in Connection with Operating Features. — Your 
committee recommends that the following action of the as- 
sociation be reaffirmed: Resolved, that it is the opinion of 
this association that fines and penalties in connection with 
operating features are charges to an appropriate account in 
operations rather than in profit and loss.* 

Mileage Statistics. — A letter was received, dated May 30, 
1916, from W. J. Meyers, statistician for the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, asking for the consideration by this com- 
mittee or sub-committees of definitions or rules for defin- 
ing the procedure to lie followed in counting tons of freight 
carried, number of passengers carried, ton-miles of freight 
transported, and passenger-miles of passengers transported. 
Your committee is having a canvass made to ascertain the 
practices of various carriers and hopes to be able later to 
submit for the consideration of the association a uniform 
method of handling these matter.-. 

Expenses of Seperate Operating Divisions. — A letter was 
addressed to the committee by W. J. Meyers, statistician for 
the Interstate Commerce Commission, enclosing a tentative 
draft of a circular asking for information relative to expenses 
of transportation by operating divisions. This matter is 
still under consideration by your committee and the commit- 
tee expects to be able to make a report on it later. 

Industrial Sidings. — A letter was received from Fred W. 
Sweney, chief examiner of accounts of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, enclosing a discu-sion of typical cases 
of the accounting practice followed in connection with the 
construction of industrial tracks. Your committee is of the 

'The Interstate < "tnmerce Commission's present classification provides 
for the charging of these fines to profit and loss. — Editor. 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

opinion that case 183 covers the principles applicable to such 
cases. Where title to the land is in the name of the industry. 
but where and so long as exclusive use rests with the carrier, 
the land should not he considered "of the industry" but 
the property of the carrier. 

Index to Annual Reports to the Interstate Commerce ( 'om- 
niissiou. — Your committee is of the opinion that the index 
to the commission's form of annual report should be carefully 
revised and amplified, and Statistician Meyers, of the com- 
mission, has indicated that he would he glad to have the 
views of any accounting officers as to the improvement of 
the index. 

The report was signed by A. H. Plant, chairman. 

The above recommendations and resolutions of the com- 
mittee were adopted by the association. 


This association has made the following recommenda- 

(a) Section 14, Freight Synopsis, 1912. — Responsibility 
for Through Rates and Correctness of Charges. 

Shipments Destined to Agency Stations 

"1. The destination carrier is responsible for the correct- 
ness of through rates and must collect the full amount of 
charges due, in accordance with correct weight and rate, and 
account to each carrier in interest for its proportion. 

"2. While it is the generally accepted rule that the des- 
tination carrier shall be responsible for the collection of 
proper charges accruing to all carriers in interest, this rule 
should not be so construed as to relieve the initial, billing 
or intermediate carrier from responsibility for its errors 
which lead to loss of revenue and are impossible of de- 
tection by the delivering carrier. 

Shipments Destined to Non-Agency Stations 

"3. The initial or billing carrier is responsible for loss 
of revenue resulting from failure to waybill shipments des- 
tined to non-agency stations fully prepaid. 

"4. When such shipments are billed collect or insufficiently 
prepaid they should be accepted from connecting carrier and 
forwarded to destination or to nearest agency station, as 
the destination carrier may elect. 

"5. The destination carrier shall make reasonable effort to 
collect the amount due, but if unsuccessful, may correct the 
waybill to read fully "Prepaid" if the shipment is waybilled 
through from point of origin to destination; when rebilled 
en route the adjustment shall be made through Freight Claim 
Channels, and in such cases the Freight Claim minimum 
should be waived." 

(b) Section 4, Paragraph 6, as corrected, on Page 92, 
Thirtieth Report (1914). 

"6. All corrections, including those based on joint or local 
rates, miscellaneous transportation charges, weight, etc., shall 
be accepted by junction agents at any time before or after the 
month's account has been closed, and included in current 
settlements; provided, however, that when it is impossible for 
destination carrier to detect undercharge by a proper re- 
vision of waybills or junction transfer, and such undercharges 
are uncollectible, they shall be borne by the carrier at fault 
and adjusted through Freight Claim Channels." 

(c) "That a thorough revision of waybills at stations and 
in the general office be provided for." (Section 13, Page 
4<S, Freight Synopsis, 1912.) 

(d) Section 13, Paragraph 3, Freight Synopsis, 1912. 
"When it is impossible for destination carrier to detect 

undercharges by a proper revision of waybills or junction 
transfers and such undercharges are for any reason uncol- 
lectible, they should be borne by the carrier at fault, and 
if settled by destination carrier shall be adjusted through 
Freight Claim Channels, When the delivering carrier fails 

to collect undercharges for which it is responsible, it should 
assume the loss.'' 

Your committee recommends that the association approve 
the following resolutions: 

This association recognizing the importance of this sub- 
ject reaffirms its previous recommendations with respect to 
revision of waybills, acceptance of corrections at junction 
points for immediate settlement, and the assumption of re- 
sponsibility for adjustment of the charges to tariff basis. 

Sections 13 and 14 of the freight synopsis, 1912, be con- 
solidated and revised to embody not only the recommendations 
of this association with respect to the responsibility for col- 
lection of tariff charges, and immediate settlement of cor- 
rections, but also to provide for a definite plan for the 
adjustment between carriers of the many troublesome features 
in connection therewith. 

This association approves the revised section 13, as sub- 
mitted herewith, and recommends immediate adoption by all 
carriers of the plan of procedure contained therein. 

The secretary be directed to furnish the Freight Claim 
Association a copy of these resolutions with request that 
their rules be amended to conform therewith. 

section no. 13. 


1. When through rates and percentage divisions are published, freight 
should be waybilled through from point of origin to final destination, 
thereby minimizing over and under charges, and facilitating the adjust- 
ment of differences. 

2. The number of undercharges and overcharges would be greatly re- 
duced by a thorough revision of waybills at originating or receiving sta- 
tions, or in the accounting department. When shipments are to be re- 
billed at junction points the charges accruing to the junctions should be 
revised by the inbound carriers before the transfer freight bills are ten- 
dered to the rebilling carriers. 

3. It shall be the duty of the destination carrier to collect all tariff 
charges from original point of shipment to final destination, regardless ot 
bases for the charges or whether the shipment is rewaybilled en route or 
waybilled through or billed to a non-agency station, and shall promptly 
account to each carrier in interest for its proportion. 

4. It being the duty of the destination carrier to collect all tariff 
charges, it shall collect all undercharges and refund all overcharges dis- 
covered after original settlements have been made with consignees or 

5. Undercharges or overcharges detected by the initial or intermediate 
carriers shall be promptly tendered at junctions, accepted for immediate 
settlement and passed to destination agent for collection or refund. When 
refund cannot be made it shall be disposed of in accordance with the rules 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 

6. Overcharges or undercharges in "Advances" or "Prepaid" shall be 
disposed of by correction notices, "Advances Only" or "Prepaid Only" 
waybills, or through Freight Claim Channels, subject to the association 
minimum of twenty-five (25) cents. 

7. The adjustment of differences arising from interline freight settle- 
ments between carriers parties to the interline waybill is a matter of 
accounting and should not be referred to the claim department for settle- 

8. The initial carrier shall be responsible for the failure to collect all 
tariff charges from original point of shipment to final destination, for ship- 
ments, carloads and less carloads, destined to prepaid or non-agency sta- 
tions, and shall assume all uncollectible undercharges on such shipments. 
When such shipments are billed collect or insufficiently prepaid, they 
should be accepted from connecting carrier and forwarded to destination. 
The destination carrier shall endeavor to collect the amount due, but if 
unsuccessful may correct the waybill to read fully "Prepaid," if the ship- 
ment is waybilled through from point of origin to destination; when re- 
billed en route, the adjustment shall be made through Freight Claim Chan- 
nels, and in such cases the Freight Claim minimum shall be waived. (See 
Rule 226 of the Freight Claim Association.) 

9. While accepting the principle that the destination carrier shall 
assume the duty of collecting all tariff charges, this will not relieve the 
initial or intermediate carriers from responsibility for their errors that 
are impossible of detection by the destination carrier. (See Paragraph 10.) 

10. While recognizing the difficulty of enumerating all of the various 
classes of undercharges, the following are some of the losses which should 
not be borne by the destination carrier: 

(a) Miscellaneous charges for switching, demurrage, storage, icing or 
feeding, detention or stop-off charges, etc., omitted from billing and not a 
pari of or included in the through rate. 

(b) Undercharges due to error in rates published in tariffs to which 
destination carrier is not a party. 

(c) Undercharges due to failure to collect tariff charges on shipments 
destined to prepaid or non-agency stations. 

(d) Undercharges due to the insertion of incorrect rates in export bills 
of lading issued by initial or intermediate carrier. 

(e) Charges waybilled as prepaid, subsequently changed by correction to 

(f) Demurrage chaipes accruing at point of origin and not noted on 
bills of lading. 

(g) Undercharges due to failure of weighing carrier to state correct 

July 7, 1916 



gross carload weight on waybills when charge* are collectil li 
scale or shippers agreement weights. 

11. Destination carrier shall receive all possible assistance from initial 
or intermediate carrier in its efforts to make collections or ret 

12. When destination carrier is unable to collect tariff charge- due to 
errors of the initial or intermediate carrier, 

tection on the part of the destination carrier, the d 

submit all papers in the case and request authority to charge the 

responsible or to resort to legal means to enforce collection, i 

of failure to make collection, the carrier responsil must 

assume the amount uncollectible and the cost of the legal procedure, the 

adjustment to be made through Freight Claim Channel. li 

carrier cannot secure the authority of carrier responsible, then adjustment 

shall be made through Freight Claim Channel. 

13. It must be recognized that these recommendations are made to cover 
only the disposition of undercharges and overcharges as between carriers, 
and should not be construed as defining the policy of a carrier with respect 
to its relations with the public. 

Assignment of Special Numbers to Carriers. — Becau- 
its many disadvantages, it is thought that carrier- using 
tabulated machines would not generally adopt numbers 
signed by this association to carriers. It was resolved that 
assignment by this association of a number to each carrier 
for freight accounting purposes is not advisable. 

Auditor's Rn-isio>i of Billing iu Local Offices at I 
Terminal Points. — This association has previously recom- 
mended that a thorough revision of waybills at stations and 
in the general offices be provided for. It is resolved that 
this association recommends the establishment at principal 
stations of bureaus under joint jurisdiction of the account- 
ing department for the purpose of effecting a complete re- 
vision of both inbound and outbound waybills, and that at 
stations where no accounting department revision bureau is 
located the station forces should be required to revise both 
outbound and inbound waybills, and that this plan should 
be considered supplementary to the general office revision 

Unit Waybill. — It is resolved that this association recog- 
nizes that conditions of different carriers vary so widely that 
a plan of unit waybilling, manibilling and combining of re- 
ports and records cannot yet be recommended for general 
adoption. The committee recommends that the various 
blanks and methods be submitted for further consideration 
of carriers for study and development. 

Shipping Orders, Preparation of. — It is the sense of this 
association that when shipping orders or straight bill- of 
lading are prepared at the same time by the carbon process 
the shipping order should be on top and that on an order 
bill of lading the number of packages be spelled out as well 
as given a numeral* 

Settlement Between Carriers for Undercharges. — Your 
committee recommends that section 14 of the 1912 -ynopsis 
be changed to read as follows: 

1. When the destination agent discovers an undercharge in the advances 
of a waybill, he shall send the waybilling junction agent a prepaid-only 
waybill or a correction notice for the amount of the undercharge. 

2. Freight accounting officers are morally obligated to correct any tend- 
ency on the part of their agents to absorb these undercharges instead of 
refunding them to the creditor roads. 

3. At the junction, the waybilling agent when he receives the prepaid- 
only waybill or the correction notice shall promptly refund the amount of 
the undercharge to the agent of the cohnecting line. 

4. In the event all cr a part of the undercharge belongs to a road beyond 
the said connecting line, then the agent of the connecting line shall refund 
it to the junction agent of the road beyond, proceeding as in Rule 1. 

5. When the freight accounting officer of either the destination road 
or of an intermediate road discovers an undercharge in the advances of a 
waybill, he shall notify the freight accounting officer of the creditor road, 
using therefor A. A. R. A. O. Standard Form No. 118, Notice of Under- 
charge in Advances, sending copies to accounting officer of all In 
terested, and shall indicate on the form whether settlement shall be made 
through freight claim or junction account. 

6. It should be recognized that, inasmuch as carriers are dependent on 
one another as to collection and apportionment of transportation charges, 
each freight accounting officer is morally bound to exert himself to refund 
undercharges to the roads that the undercharges belong to. 

7. Upon receipt of a notice of undercharge in advances, the freight 
accounting officer of the creditor road shall collect the undercharge, either 
through claim channel or through the junction agents, according as the 

*The importance of this resolution lies in the fact that the waybill is 
made out from the rhipping order, and where heretofore the bill of lading 
has been the original and the shipping order a carbon, errors due to the 
slipping of the carbon were carried into the waybill. ler the 

method now adopted by the association errors due to slipping of the 
would not be carried into the waybill. 

• lercharge in Advances, 

51 indard Form No. 118. 

8. At the junction, the agent of the creditor road shall present the said 

notice to the agent <>i y pay 

the undercharge to the former, using the notice itself t< relief 

claim or the credit due him for the money so paid 

Waybill to Show Information as to Weighing of Freight. — 

recommended that the association approve an amend- 
ment to it- former recommendations to provide that waybills 
ansfer freight Kill- to connecting carriers for all freight 
should show in the weight column how obtained, u-ing 
U inr railroad .-tale, "A" for weighing bureau or agree- 
ment, "T" for tariff, classification or minimum, "S" for ship- 
pers' agreement or tested weight, "E" for estimated— weigh 
and correct. 

Manibill. — See recommendations in regard to unit bill. 
The report was signed by Bertram Young, chairman. 
All of the recommendation.- and resolutions of the commit- 
tee a- shown above were approved by the association and the 
president announced that more subjects had been covered 
this year in the report of committee and there- had 
li-' ussion than at any previous meeting. 


Your committee has held two meeting- during the year. 

Interline Tickets Diverted or Exchanged En Route. — 
Your committee recommends that all exchanges en route of 
interline tickets should be made with the approval of the pas- 
senger traffic department, either under specific or general 
authority; lifted tickets to be sent by the agent to the auditor's 
office promptly. Where the exchanges are via the same routes 
on account of illness, insufficient coupons, error in limit, etc., 
the lifted coupons should be sent to the interested lines with 
a joint letter requesting them to look to the issuing line for 
a report of revenue; and where the exchange i> made on 
account of insufficient coupons, the coupon- covering two or 
more lines should be sent to the fir.-t connecting carrier. 
Where tickets with insufficient coupon- are honored without 
exchange, the terminal line should address a letter to the 
issuing earner requesting that revenue be reported the -ame 
as though proper coupons had been provided, sending a copy 
to all interested lines. 

Where exchanges were via different route-- on account of 
missing connections, etc., the lifted coupons should be sent 
to the issuing line, with the request that it report all revenue 
thereon beyond the point of exchange to the exchanging car- 
rier, with the understanding that in the acknowledgment ad- 
vising when the revenue will be reported it would show a 
division of the revenue via the route traveled. 

Adjustment of revenue to be made between lines inter. 
in optional joint route arrangement should be with the under- 
standing that if separate coupons are provided for the op- 
tional route only such portion of the ticket- will be exchai 
The adjustment of revenue on account of tickets diverted 
without exchange will also be made between the interested 

Excess Valuations, Collections — B<i. 1 he committee 

recommends the adoption of a resolution that each line shall 
retain the charges collected on account of tin exces> valuation 
iggage, except when such charges are covered by ('. O. D. 
i heck- of other companies' issues. The -ame -hall be re- 
ported to the issuing line in all ci 

Interline Tickets Reduced to Lower Grade in Contract, But 
Xot in All Coupons. — After correspondence with Fred W. 
Sweney, chief examiner of accounts of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, Mr. Sweney wrote that the Interstate 
Commerce Commission had amended conference ruling 481 
ad as follows: 

Tickets: Th< ,.j:tiit it' an initial 
carrier issues half-fare or lower-cJi ml properly punches contract 

• -. Inn f.iils tf punch the other c 
• the prim : Conference Ruli- 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

that initial carriers roust beat the ful] burden of the mistakes of th.-ir 
agents and settle with othei lines on the basi oi class of tickets honored, 
provided thai in cases oi this kind where the conductors oi ticket collectors 
of the carriers honoring the unmarked or unpunched coupons indicate 
,0 that the contract portion of the ticket was properl> marked or 
punched, and thai balf-fare oi lower-class transportation was furnished, 
such ca epl theii proportions of the fares applicable to the 

transportation furnished; otherwise the initial carrier must settle with other 
carriei ipplicable to class of transportation indicated 

en the coupon lifted. 

The following resolution is respectfully submitted: 

It is the sense of this association that where the selling 
agent in error fails to reduce any coupons of an interline 
ticket to conform with the contract and as a result passenger 
obtains transportation thereon in excess of the fare paid for 
the ticket, the initial carrier must bear the full burden of the 
mistake. The recommendation as contained in paragraph 21 
of the 1915 synopsis is hereby repealed. 

The report was signed by L. C. Esschen, chairman. 

The above recommendations and resolutions of the com- 
mittee were adopted by the association. 

Standing Committee on Disbursement Accounts. 

Your committee has held three meetings during the year. 

Standard Form of Voucher. — Your committee recommends 
that the association reiterate its previous action, which was in 
part that voucher check should be of standard size and in 
the standard draft form, which should be i l / 2 in. wide by 
& J / 2 in. long, and that voucher check should be in the form 
of a state check or draft and endorsement of the payee 
thereon be accepted as the only receipt required and that the 
voucher check be in negotiable form. 

Injuries to Persons. — The committee recommends that the 
association express the opinion that the general account under 
operating expenses chargeable with amounts for injuries 
to employees should be determined by the class of train caus- 
ing the injury where practicable; otherwise the account 
should be determined according to the class of service in 
which the employee is engaged at the time of the injur}-. 

Accounting for Fuel Used in Producing Power for Self- 
Propelled Motor Cars. — The committee recommends that the 
association suggest, in view of the more extensive use of self- 
propelled motor cars, that a separate account be provided for 
fuel used for producing power for such cars. 

Rebuilding Bridges and Maintaining Traffic During 
Progress of Work. — The committee recommends that the as- 
sociation adopt a resolution that it is the sense of this asso- 
ciation that the item of $1,000 representing the estimated 
increased cost of erecting steel under traffic over cost of erec- 
tion without traffic being maintained is not a proper charge 
to operating expenses; and further, that operating expenses 
should be charged only with the actual cost of special ex- 
penses incurred in maintaining and protecting traffic during 
the progress of additions and betterments work and not with 
any amounts estimated to be the increased cost of the addi- 
tions and betterments work due to the same being done while 
traffic is maintained. 

The report was signed by John Hurst, chairman. 

The above recommendations of the committee were adopted 
by the association. 


Your committee held two meetings during the year. Its 
recommendations and resolutions, which were of a detailed 
nature, were adopted by the association. The report was 
signed by H. D. Heuer, chairman. 


Your committee has not held any meetings since the last 
annual meeting of the association. 

Bill of Lading for Postal Service. — The committee has 
handled this subject by correspondence with the fourth as- 
sistant postmaster general and informally submitting some 

criticisms and suggestions on the proposed bill of lading. 
Government Transportation Requests. — The following let- 
ter was received dated February 9, 1916, from W. W. Gal- 
braith, commander United States Navy, Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, Washington, D. C. : 

The chief of bureau directs me to .advise you that the different govern- 
ment departments recently adopted a new form of transportation request, 

a sample of which is included in a circular issued by the comptroller of 
the treasury, copies of which were forwarded the different railroad com- 
Al! the departments will shortly be using an identical transporta- 
tion request, the only difference being that the name of the particular 
department or independent branch of the service issuing the request will 
appear at the top, the signatures will be different, and there will be a 
different letter to designate each particular service. 

The bureau is writing this letter to call particular attention to the dif- 
ferent letters preceding the numbers on these requests. These letters 
were placed on the request witli the object of assisting transportation 
companies in identifying the department issuing a request that may have 
been lost. Letters have been received in the past from transportation com- 
panies advising that a government request of a certain number has been 
ind asking if the department issuing it could be determined. With 
this letter it will always be easy to determine the department. 

In view of this fact it is requested that you notify all lines in your 
association to take particular care to always include the letter as well 
is the nuniber in every case on vouchers and in correspondence. 

The report was signed by W. H. Williams, chairman. 
The report of the committee was accepted by the associa- 


The committee, R. E. Berger, chairman, reported that 
prompt action was taken to arrange for joint meeting with 
the standing committee on methods, accounts and forms of 
the Freight Claim Association, but that these efforts were 
not successful and recommended that the collection of 
deficits in freight charges, a substitute for the present 
Freight Claim Association rule No. 226 covering prepay 
on shipments destined to non-agency stations, and the pro- 
posed change in rule 100 of the Freight Claim Association 
in regard to the handling of astray freight be left with 
it for further consideration. The association approved of 
this action. 

It was decided to appoint a special committee to attend 
the convention of the National Association of Railway 


The following address on Organization was delivered by 
W. E. Bailey, General Auditor of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, at the evening session on Thursday : 

The Association of American Railway Accounting Offi- 
cers was built upon the foundation of necessity. It came 
into existence at a time when increasing business demanded 
a closer co-operation between carriers. Railways were grow- 
ing in size by construction and by consolidations, and new 
and large lines were being built. Inter-railway transactions 
were increasing, calling for closer working relations among 
officials and especially in the accounting for these trans- 
actions. It was natural, therefore, that railway accounting 
officers should wish to organize for discussion of matters 
of mutual interest and benefit. 

During the life of the association the accounting depart- 
ment has assumed a more and more important position, 
not only in the internal affairs of the corporation but in 
the position it holds with the public — both the investor and 
the user. 

During this time material advance has been made in 
railway accounting practices and methods. Interline ac- 
counting has been improved and simplified, the ascertaining 
of revenues and profits, preparation of financial statements, 
development of statistical and other data for the use of 
the management in the operation of the property have been 
brought to a high standard. It has been said by one well 
qualified to speak that railway accounting has been brought 
to its highest perfection in this country. 

We all realize, nevertheless, that the final word has not 

July 7, 1916 



been said nor the last advance made, but that there is still 
much to be done by the association as a whole and its mem- 
bers individually. In casting about for a topic for an 
address it has occurred to me that it would be interesting 
to give some thought to one of the most important problems 
confronting the railway accounting officer, increasing at- 
tention to which has been responsible in a large measure 
for the position railway accounting has attained. It is a 
feature in which we are all very much interested — one that 
is present in all undertakings involving more than individual 
effort — I refer to the problem of organization. 

Organization is defined as the process of arranging con- 
stituent or interdependent parts into an organized whole, 
nnd the accounting executive would add to that, the main- 
taining and constant strengthening and improving of that 
organic whole, as well as the molding and remodeling of it 
to meet changing conditions. 

An organization is in reality a means for accomplishing a 
certain purpose. What that purpose is will depend upon 
the nature of the business. In accomplishing this purpose, 
however, it is the universal aim to make each organization 
efficient, and this is true of the accounting department. The 
closer its several units are co-operating and its continuous 
life and growth provided for the more perfectly will it ac- 
complish the purpose for which it was created. 

In recent years the claims for scientific management have 
received considerable attention. If the conclusions of effi- 
ciency experts are accepted without question, all that appears 
to be necessary to transform an inefficient organization is to 
secure some one skilled in the art of detecting waste and 
apply his suggested remedies. While fully recognizing the 
fact that no group of individuals can be molded into a 
working organization that is not susceptible of improvement, 
those experienced in matters of this kind know that an 
efficient organization is not a creation of a day. The ulti- 
mate efficiency depends upon the selections made at the re- 
cruiting station, supplemented by good training. The desired 
results can be obtained only by constant, hard work and 
not by the application of magic. The point to be empha- 
sized, therefore, is the necessity for a solid building up of 
the organization from the bottom, and the molding of it into 
a co-operative structure, taking care in doing this not to 
destroy individual initiative or the incentive for greater 

In every organization more or less change is going on 
in the personnel of its component parts. There is also in 
a varying degree, a natural growth due to increase in busi- 
ness or enlargement of the property. Both these conditions 
place upon the executive the important responsibility of 
providing new members. 

The ideal practice is to provide new members at the 
bottom, and train and educate them for advancement in the 
organization as opportunity, experience and ability permit. 
In actual practice this has been found to be the correct 
course to follow, although there are, and rightly will lie, 
exceptions made necessary by the exigencies of a particular 

The training of employees continues throughout their serv- 
ice with the department. Much of their education in the 
different branches of accounting work will be acquired 
through observation and assimilation while performing their 
assigned tasks. It should be the aim to arouse in every em- 
ployee the habit of studying his work. One of the gr< 
assets of an accountant is that of being a real student. It 
should be the endeavor to know that every employee under- 
stands what he is doing and the relationship of the task 
in hand to other work of the department. 

In the endeavor to maintain reasonable stability in the 
force there is a somewhat natural tendencv to continue em- 
ployees of more than ordinary ability too long in one posi- 
tion for the ultimate good of the organization. This prac- 

tice will not be harmful, either to the individual or tl, 
partment, during the early training period, but a> time 
goes on the individual's further training mu^t be 
rious consideration; otherwise the organization will suffer 
through failure to develop and Secure the full benefit of 
the potentialities of the individual In budding up and 
maintaining the force at a high Standard the head of an 
organization must be constantly on the alert for talent of more 
than ordinary ability and where he finds an employee who 
shows more than u.-ual activity and possibilities, it i.-> the part 
of wisdom to assign him to different classes of work as 
opportunity permits. 

Every individual should be anxious to secure a broader 
education than that which comes to him in the performance 
of his daily duties. Because of the more or less limiteJ 
education which employees as a rule have acquired on en- 
tering the service of the accounting department, they should 
be encouraged in every way possible to overcome their 
deficiencies by such means as may be available. Educational 
work of the sort which should be particularly encouraged i- 
that which is correlated with their life work — railway 
ice; not to the neglect, however, of the cultivation of knowl- 
edge. Such work as is undertaken should be with some 
definite aim and pursued systematically and intelligently. 

Young men as a rule when first starting work have no 
very definite ideas as to what they are fitted for or what 
occupation they would like to follow. Owing to this con- 
dition clerical work seems to appeal to many boys, and i- 
looked up by them with more favor than a trade because it 
it comparatively easy and offers a better immediate financial 
return. The accounting officer in making selections from 
among the large number seeking positions, has to choose as 
best he can the individuals who are likely to develop into 
satisfactory accounting department employees. The con- 
fining nature of clerical work demands good health and a 
robust constitution. The possession of these are essential 
for the reason that they are the bases of energy and mental 
activity. The nature of accounting work is such that it 
demands intelligence with evidence of possible mental 
growth. In the nature of things it is of course difficult for 
the employer to determine with any degree of satisfaction 
the fitness of these inexperienced young men for clerical 
work prior to their entering the service. Their employment 
is therefore largely a matter of experiment. 

Plans for examining applicants in the fundamentals 
an education are followed by many, with a further t< 
the close of a period of say a rvio These tests 

are of much help in selecting boys and in determining later 
on the advisability of retaining them if in other respects 
their services have been It is n< t often that an 

individual realizes until it is perhaps too late to make a 
change, that the 1 irk he is following is not that 

for which he is naturally fitted. Th. an organiza- 

tion should therefore feel no hesitancy in counselling a young 
man I er Une i sfie 1 

that he would not make even an or 
counting work. It irdship to make ai :e of 

ir which in later yeai 
may ! thankful 

In the handling < i" even organization involving as it 
the hum i n, intelligent d -• ipl a im- 

perat All employees should ted justly 

and problem of im- 

just entering business 1 fe They 
bring with them all the character their 

boyhood d re about to give up hut free- 

dom and it is to I ted that the restraint of obeying 

orders, performing prescribed tasks and keeping regular 
hours with otl dia pline, will nted. 

boyhood must be reckoned with in 
admn A discharge should not be forth- 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

coming ever) time some boyish break occurs. Through 
hasty action on such occasions the department may lose an 
employee of unusual promise. 

Responsibilities In organization work are not alone in 
the interests of the employer. Responsibilities towards the 
members of the force have to be considered. The difficulty 
in this connection is to determine to just what extent these 
efforts may be extended without having the appearance of 
undesirable paternalism. Care of health should be insisted 
upon. Education through study and reading should be 
encouraged, particularly in the line of their work, but not 
to the neglect of those subjects in which they may be inter- 
ested and which make for a better and broader view of life 
and its duties. 

The one incentive that can be held out to employees is 
that they will be given opportunities to advance as occa- 
sions offer and as they,, by their own efforts qualify themselves 
for promotion. To this end the salaries should be graded 
in harmony with the importance of the work, with opera- 
tions grouped and arranged in the order of time, inter- 
relationship, and difficulty. Natural paths or promotion 
lines should thus be established not only within a depart- 
ment but between departments by arranging the salaries in 
accordance with the demand for experience and ability in 
performing the duties of the various positions. 

There is probably nothing which works more for the 
loyalty and organization spirit, so essential for continued suc- 
cess, as the maintenance of these promotion lines and close 
adherence to the promotion principle in filling vacancies. 
When the rank and file becomes thoroughly satisfied that this 
is the policy of the management and that opportunity is 
open to each and all, this spirit is sure to prevail. While 
promotion lines will converge and extend to the highest 
positions it is natural that the requirements should become 
increasingly exacting. Other factors than being next in line 
or the employee's service record and experience must be 
considered. Executive possibilities will commence to be 
the important characteristic sought for when selecting a de- 
partment head or an assistant. 

For the accounting department employee every position 
to the highest is possible of attainment. There is probably 
no other profession in which so large a proportion of those 
holding executive positions have arisen from the ranks. 
Every employee therefore, when entering the service should 
have the right to hope ultimately to rise to the highest posi- 
tion the department offers. The executive head for his 
part, should aim to keep the door of hope constantly open 
before all employees. There can be nothing more discour- 
aging to any employee than to feel that opportunity for ad- 
vancement no longer exists for him. 

In the natural order of things there will be a tendency 
for the department at times to slacken up a little in effi- 
ciency, to stagnate or grow stale as it were, from causes 
not always apparent at the moment. This is one of the 
accounting officers' serious problems as it is with the head 
of every organization. There must be a reasonable amount 
of activity in every department if this situation is to be 
prevented. Energy and activity as well as ability must be 
recognized in advancing employees. The taking away from 
the department occasionally some of its finished products 
through demands from the outside affords opportunities to 
overcome such a situation at times by placing energetic em- 
ployees where they may be needed. 

One of the problems of the mechanical engineer is the 
so-called friction load. While this cannot be eliminated 
in its entirety the engineer can measure it with mathematical 
exactness and therefore has positive data for use in solving 
his problem of keeping it at the minimum. The head of 
every organization is confronted with a similar problem. 
While his friction load cannot be determined by the appli- 
cation of a mathematical formula it is reflected in the pay 

roll, and his problem, like that of the engineer, is to keep 
the non-productive energy at the minimum. Although the 
auditor is interested only to a Limited extent in the utiliza- 
tion of mechanical aids he is very much concerned in the effi- 
cient application of human energy to the end that results 
may be secured with the least possible loss of time and 
labor. In an accounting organization, as in other organiza- 
tions, the one in charge should have some "yard stick" for 
measuring the efficiency of the department as a whole, by 
groups, and by individuals. Just what form this should 
take will depend upon the nature of the work performed, 
as well as the judgment of the department head as to his 
need. This will govern the quantity and details. That re- 
quired by the head of an organization will naturally be 
more condensed and general than the information required 
by the department head. These measures will serve not 
only as a guide to the quantity and regularity of the out- 
put, but also as indices to the department head or the 
auditor himself as to those features of the work which 
need personal investigation or as to those individual em- 
ployees who may be in need of particular attention. 

In the last analysis responsibility for results rests with 
the executive head of the organization. He is the one who 
must finally decide upon the selection and retention of mem- 
bers of the organization, the inauguration and carrying out 
of methods and practices. His value to his company is 
measured by his ability to operate his department so as to 
produce a first class output at a minimum expense. 

Naturally it is to be expected that he will have had the 
necessary experience and be possessed of the ability, energy 
and activity, as well as the other characteristics essential for 
such a position. While an executive head is a necessity for 
every undertaking, one test of success as such a head is 
to have so built up an organization that it will run effi- 
ciently without his assistance or direction as occasion de- 
mands, and that has within it the material for its perpet- 
uation. After all has been said there is probably nothing 
which so impresses the one in charge of an organization 
as that "eternal vigilance is the price of success." This 
is a modern version of an old saying but it is so appro- 
priate when applied to business that I am inclined to 
believe the originator of the expression must have had a 
long and varied experience in the handling of an accounting 


The secretary read the report showing the financial con- 
dition of the association. The report showed that there was 
a balance on hand at the beginning of the year of $2,189. 
The receipts during the year were $13,337, and disbursements 
$9,557, leaving a balance on hand at the end of the year 
of $5,971. 

The business meeting of the association closed with the 
election of officers. L. A. Robinson, comptroller of the 
Chicago & North Western, was elected president; J. A. 
Taylor, comptroller of the Central of New Jersey was elected 
first vice-president; R. E. Berger, assistant auditor of the 
Wabash, was elected second vice-president, and E. R. Wood- 
son was re-elected secretary. The executive committee was 
elected as follows: F. O. Waldo, H. H. Laughton, H. D. 
Foster and E. S. Benson. 


On Wednesday afternoon at two o'clock an automobile 
ride for the ladies was arranged by courtesy of the automo- 
bile owners and manufacturers of Detroit. On Thursday 
the members and guests were taken on two trips made by 
the steamer Pleasure which had been chartered for the 
occasion. The first trip was through St. Clair lake and St. 
Clair flats, and the second trip, which started at nine 
o'clock in the evening, was a moonlight ride on the De- 
troit river. On Friday parties were made up for the inspec- 
tion of various automobile factories. 

American Society for Testing Materials 

A Brief Report of the Proceedings of the Nineteenth 
Annual Meeting Held Last Week in Atlantic City, N. J. 

THE nineteenth annual meeting of the American Society 
for Testing Materials was held at the Hotel Traymore, 
Atlantic City, N. J., June 27-30, 1916. The proceed- 
ings included committee reports on Wrought Iron, Methods of 
Sampling and Analysis of Coal, Steel, Heat Treatment of 
Iron and Steel, etc., with a number of interesting individual 
papers. The president, Mansfield Merriman, addressed the 
convention on the Work of Committees. 


The Committee on Steel, C. D. Young, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, chairman, presented recommendations for revisions of 
a number of the present standard specifications, among these 
being those for carbon steel bars for railway springs, struc- 
tural steel for locomotives, quenched and tempered carbon 
steel axles, etc., carbon steel forgings for locomotives, cold 
rolled steel axles, lap welded and seamless steel boiler tubes. 
safe ends and arch tubes, boiler and firebox steel, wrought 
solid carbon-steel wheels, and steel tires. Seven of the pres- 
ent tentative specifications were recommended for adoption 
as standard. These include specifications for chrome- 
vanadium steel bars for springs, helical springs for railways, 
elliptical springs for railways, alloy steel forgings and 
quenched and tempered alloy steel axles, shafts and other 
forgings for locomotives and cars. Tables for the permissible 
variations in weight and thickness of sheared plates were pre- 
sented for adoption as standard. 

Rails and Accessories 

The sub-committee on steel rails and accessories consisting 
of E. F. Kenney (chairman); C. S. Churchill, A. L. Colbv, 
J. C. Crawford, P. E. Carhart, F. E. Abbott, H. B. Mac- 
Farland, F. N. Speller, F. A. Robbins, Jr., J. P. Snow, M. H. 
Wickhorst, and J. B. Young, presented specifications for 
steel track spikes, steel screw spikes and steel tie plates which 
are given below. A brief report of the rail situation was also 

Specifications for Steel Tie Plates. 

1. The steel shall be made by the open-hearth process of 

2. The steel shall conform to the following requirements 
as to chemical composition: 

Phosphorus not over 0.05 pel 

3. An analysis from each melt of steel shall be made by the 
manufacturer to determine the percentages of carbon, man- 
ganese, phosphorus and sulphur. This analysis shall be 
made from drillings taken at least % in. beneath the surface 
of a test ingot obtained during the pouring of the melt. The 
chemical composition thus determined shall be reported to 
the purchaser or his representative, and shall conform to the 
requirement specified in Section 2. 

4. An analysis may be made by the purchaser from a fin- 
ished tie plate representing each melt. The phosphorus 
content thus determined shall not exceed that specified in 
Section 2 by more than 25 per cent. 

5. (a) Except as specified in Paragraph (/>). the tie plates 
shall conform to the following minimum requirements as to 
tensile properties: 

Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in 64,000 

Yield point, lb. per sq. in 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent 18 

(b) Tie plates in which the material required to be 
punched is ^g in. or greater in thickness, shall conform 

to the following requirements as to tensile properties: 

Tensile strength, lb. pet sq. in '. 

Yield point, miii . lb. per sq. in 

Elongation in I in., min., per cent 

6. The bend test specimen specified in Section 7 shall bend 
cold through 180 deg. around a pin the diameter of which 

is equal to twice the thickness of the specimen, without crack- 
ing on the outside of the bent portion. 

7. (a) The tension and bend test specimens shall be taken 

from the finished tie plates. They shall be cut so that the 
sides of the specimens are parallel with the direction in 
which the tie plates have been rolled. 

(b) Tension test specimens may conform to the essential 
dimensions shown in the drawing. In this case they -hall 
have filleted shoulders, or threaded ends, to fit into the hold- 
ers on the testing machine in such a way that the line of ac- 
tion of the force exerted by the testing machine shall coincide 
with the axis of the specimen. 

Or, tension test specimens may be rectangular in section, 
in which case they shall be not less than J 2 in. in width be- 
tween the planed sides, and shall have two parallel faces as 

(c) Bend test specimens shall be rectangular in section, 
not less than : / 2 in. in width between the planed sides, and 
shall have two parallel face- a- rolled, with the corners 
rounded to a radius not over 1/16 in. 

(d) When the tie plate- are of such a design that the 

not less 
than g.. 


h * 

-. 1 



Shoulders or 
Threaded Erjs 


: 0"'505 L y • 

f , Y 

f<--- 2 Gage Length- 

, > 


Note • — The Shoulders required when Threaded Ends are not Used 
may be Formed by the Fillets Terminating the Body or by other 
Fillets Continuing these, or may be Formed in the Ends beyond 
these Fillets . 

Tension Test Specimen 

rectangular specimens cannot be obtained without projecting 
ribs, these shall be planed off before the tests are made. 

8. (a) One tension and one bend test shall be made from 
each melt. 

(b) If any test specimen show- defective machining or 
develops flaws, or if it break- outside the gage length, it may 
be discarded and another specimen sub-tituted. 

9. (a) If the percentage of elongation of any tension test 
specimen is less than that specified in Section 5, a retest 
shall be allowed. 

(6) If any tension te-l specimen breaks more than ; 4 in. 
from the center of the gage length, a retest shall be allowed. 

10. The tie plates shall be smoothly rolled, true to templet, 
and shall be straight and out of wind on the surface which 
will form the bearing for the rail. They shall be sheared 
to the Length and punched to the dimensions specified by the 
purchaser, with the following permissible variations: 

(a) For plate- with shoulders parallel to the direction of 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

rolling, a variation of 1/32 in. in thickness, and J /& in. in 
width and length will be permitted. 

(b) For plates with shoulders perpendicular to the direc- 
tion of rolling, a variation of 1/32 in. in thickness, */& in. in 
width and Y\ in. in length will be permitted. 

11. The finished tie plates shall be free from burrs and 
other surface deformations caused by the shearing and punch- 
ing; they shall also be free from other injurious defects and 
shall have a workmanlike finish. 

12. The name or brand of the manufacturer, the section 
and the year of manufacture shall be rolled in raised letters 
and figures on the outside of the shoulder of the plate, and a 
portion of this marking shall appear on each finished tie 

13. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have 
free entry, at all times while work on the contract of the pur- 
chaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufacturer's 
works which concern the manufacture of the tie plates 
ordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free 
of cost, all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the tie 
plates are being furnished in accordance with these specifica- 
tions. All tests (except check analyses) and inspection shall 
be made at the place of manufacture prior to shipment, unless 
otherwise specified, and shall be so conducted as not to inter- 
fere unnecessarily with the operation of the works. 

14. (a) Unless otherwise specified, any rejection based on 
tests made in accordance with Section 4 shall be reported 
within five working days from the receipt of samples. 

(b) Tie plates which show injurious defects subsequent to 
their acceptance at the manufacturer's works will be rejected., 
and the manufacturer shall be notified. 

15. Samples tested in accordance with Section 4, which 
represent rejected tie plates, shall be preserved for two weeks 
from the date of the test report. In case of dissatisfaction 
with the results of the tests, the manufacturer may make 
claim for a rehearing within that time. 

Specifications tor Steel Track Spikes 

1. The steel may be made by the Bessemer or open-hearth 

2. The full-size finished spikes, or the full-size bars from 
which the spikes are made, shall conform to the following 
minimum requirements as to tensile properties: 

Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in 55,000 

Yield point, lb. per sq. in 0.5 tens. str. 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent 25 

3. (a) The body of the full-size finished spikes shall bend 
cold through 180 degs. flat on itself, without cracking on the 
outside of the bent portion. 

(b) The head of the full-size finished spikes shall bend 
backward to the line of the face of the spike without cracking 
on the outside of the bent portion. 

4. (a) One tension and one bend test of each kind shall 
be made from each lot of 10 tons or fraction thereof. 

(b) If any test specimen develops flaws, it may be dis- 
carded and another specimen substituted. 

5. If any tension test specimen breaks at a point more than 
24 in. from the center of the gage length, a retest shall be 

6. The spikes shall conform to the dimensions specified 
by the purchaser. A variation of 1/64 in. under the specified 
dimension of the body of the spike, measured from the face 
to the back, and a variation of 1/32 in. over the specified di- 
mension of the body of the spike, measured across the face, 
will be permitted. A variation of 3/32 in. over and 1/32 in. 
under the specified dimensions of the head of the spike will 
be permitted. A variation of */& in. from the specified length 
of the spike, measured from the under side of the head to the 
point, will be permitted. A variation of 1 deg. in the speci- 
fied angle of the under side of the head of the spike will be 

7. The finished spikes shall be free from injurious defects 
and shall have a workmanlike finish. 

8. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have 
free entry, at all times while work on the contract of the 
purchaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufac- 
turer's works winch concern the manufacture of the spikes 
ordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free 
of cost, all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the spikes 
are being furnished in accordance with these specifications. 
All tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manu- 
facture prior to shipment, unless otherwise specified, and 
shall be so conducted as not to interfere unnecessarily with 
the operation of the works. 

9. Spikes which show injurious defects subsequent to their 
acceptance at the manufacturer's works will be rejected, and 
the manufacturer shall be notified. 

Proposed Tentative Specifications for Steel Screw 


1. The steel may be made by the Bessemer or open-hearth 

2. The heads of the spikes shall be formed and the threads 
rolled at a temperature not less than 750 deg. C. 

3. The full-size finished spikes shall conform to the fol- 
lowing minimum requirements as to tensile properties: 

Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in 60,000 

Yield point, lb. per sq. in 0.5 tens. str. 

Elongation in 2 in., per cent 20 

4. The full-size finished spikes shall bend cold through 
90 deg. around a pin the diameter of which is equal to three 
times the diameter of the spike, without cracking on the 
outside of the bent portion. 

5. (a) One tension and one bend test shall be made from 
each lot of 100 kegs or fraction thereof. 

(b) If any spike tested develops flaws, it may be dis- 
carded and another spike substituted. 

6. (a) If the percentage of elongation of any tension test 
spike is less than that specified in Sec. 3, a retest shall be 

(b) If any tension test spike breaks more than 24 i n « 
from the center of the gage length, a retest shall be allowed. 

7. The spikes shall conform to the dimensions specified by 
the purchaser. The head shall be concentric with, and firmly 
joined to, the body of the spike. The threads shall be sharp 
and true to gage and of the pattern specified by the pur- 
chaser. A variation of 1/32 in. over and under the specified 
diameter of the unthreaded portion of the body of the spike 
will be permitted. A variation of 1/32 in. over the specified 
diameter of the threaded portion of the spike will be per- 
mitted. A variation of 1/16 in. under and l /$ in. over in the 
reach of the head of the spike will be permitted. A variation 
of % in. from the specified length of the spike will be 

8. The finished spikes shall be free from injurious defects 
and shall have a workmanlike finish. 

9. A letter or brand indicating the manufacturer shall be 
pressed on the head of the spike while it is being formed. 

10. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have 
free entry, at all times while work on the contract of the 
purchaser is being performed, to all parts of the manufac- 
turer's works which concern the manufacture of the spikes 
ordered. The manufacturer shall afford the inspector, free 
of cost, all reasonable facilities to satisfy him that the spikes 
are being furnished in accordance with these specifications. 
All tests and inspection shall be made at the place of manu- 
facture prior to shipment, unless otherwise specified, and 
shall be so conducted as not to interfere unnecessarily with 
the operation of the works. 

11. Spikes which show injurious defects subsequent to 
their acceptance at the manufacturer's works will be rejected, 
and the manufacturer shall be notified. 

July 7, 1916 




By C. D. Young 
Engineer of Tests, Pennsylvania Railroad, Altoona, Pa. 

The investigation reported in this paper was made in 
order to show the difference between the physical properties 
of a large forging quenched in water and those of a similar 
forging quenched in oil. 

The results obtained indicate that there is an advantage 
in the use of water as a quenching medium, as might be 
expected from its physical properties. Results obtained at 
a large heat-treating plant, which has turned out thousands 
of tons of quenched and tempered carbon steel, indicated 
that no disastrous effects on the forgings are to be antici- 
pated from the use of water as a quenching medium, pro- 
viding proper care is taken in the handling of the steel 
throughout the process. 

The forgings used for this experiment consisted of two 

-* L 1 


1 — 1 — ■ 



< 6" •■> 

. L". 


< U 


(— f J 



— i— 



J . 

" h 







Number. Distance (rem Center. 

A 1,4.7 ff - i" 

A Z.S.8 K + r . 

A 3,6,9 r* + 

2R<-0t/ts,ttlDiorr,el,r . W 
Zr~D;om?rarcf Bore - Z' 

Diagram Showing Positions of Test Specimens in the Axles 

ten-inch locomotive driving axles having a center bore two 
inches in diameter extending the entire length. Both axles 
were from the same melt of steel, and preliminary chemical 
analysis indicated the same chemical composition. One 
axle was treated at the Juniata shops of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad by water quenching, and the other axle by a steel 
company which makes a practice of oil quenching. 

Water Quenched. — The axle was heated to 1,550 dcg. F., 
and at that temperature quenched in water at about 60 deg. 

in a heavy oil from the same temperature (1,550 deg. F.) 
and drawn in a furnace to 1,200 deg. F., the cooling being 
done in the air the same as in the case of the water-quenched 

The object aimed at in the above treatment was to have 
the tension tests on both axles show an elongation in 2 in. 
of about 22 per cent. 

After treatment, the axles were laid off for cutting up 
into tension test specimens as shown in the diagram. It will 
be noted in effect that out of each axle there were cut — 
axially and for the full length, 120 deg. apart — three 
radial and straight slabs of the overall-thickness of a test 
specimen, and out of each slab five 6 -in. lengths, each 
identified as to its original location in the axle, whether cut 
from the end and from which end, or whether from the cen- 
ter, or from midway between center and end, and from which 
slab; and then each 6-in. length was cut lengthwise into 
three specimens and their location further identified as to 
whether cut from the inner or outer circumference or from 
the middle of the wall. The identification marks for the 
five 6-in. lengths, in order from one end, are respectively 
A, B, C, D, and E. It is also shown that the specimens from 
length A, for example, are numbered radially from the out- 
side of the axle toward the axis, the three specimens from 
the first slab being numbered, as described, 1, 2, 3 through- 
out; second slab 4, 5, 6; third slab 7, 8, 9, respectively. The 
specimens from lengths B, C, D and E also have the same 
numbering as those of length A. The letter W applies only 
to the water-quenched axle and O only to the oil quenched. 
Altogether there were 45 specimens per axle, 15 specimens 
from the three longitudinal planes through the axle, and 9 
specimens from all three slabs from each of the five 6-in. 

The test specimens were turned up to the standard 2-in. 
gage length, */2 in. in diameter. The elastic limit was 
determined by means of a strain gage. All tests were con- 
ducted on the same 100,000 lb. tension testing machine 
using a machine speed of }i in. per minute for both the elas- 
tic limit and the tensile strength. 

The results are summarized in Table I, in which it is 
shown that the average results are more nearly uniform with 
respect to the length of the axle than with respect to distance 
from the axis. This is probably due to segregation, as it was 
found by chemical analysis that the carbon content was not 
uniform throughout the section. Segregation is perhaps to 
be expected in the ordinary output of commercial forgings, 





Results of 

Te ts 


from End 

Location from 

Specimen Marks 



sq. in. 

Tersile Stn 
Lb. i>et sq. hi. 


lion in 2 in. 
I i r cent 


Reduction of Area. 
Per cent 


t ^ 
End Axis 







Qui nched 

( hed 


Que idied 

Oil A 
















51. IIS 




9 _ ,304 

■>2. 1 









. 54,509 




Location j 

rom Center 

R— y 2 in. 

W 1,4,7 

O 1,4, 7 









R + r 


W 2, 5, 8 






24 4 




W 3,6,9 

O 3,6,9 







R + r 

Minimum permitted 

by A. S T. M. 






F. Then, in a furnace maintained at 1,175 deg. F., it was 
heated to that temperature and cooled therefrom in the air 
on a dry ground ' Moor. That is, this axle, after being 
quenched from 1,550 dcg. F. in water at about 60 deg. F., 
was "drawn" to a temperature of 1,175 deg. F. 

Oil Quenched. — Similarly, the other axle was quenched 

but not to the extent found here. (See Table II for chem- 
ical segregation.) 

A comparison of the average physical properties of all 
test specimens from both axles shows that with an elongation 
4.5 per cent less than that of the oil-quenched axle, resulting 
from the difference in treatment, the water-quenched axle 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

gave an elastic limit 6.6 per cent greater, about the same 
tensile strength and nearly the same reduction of area. 

Table I gives the average results from all test specimens 
located equidistant from the axis in each axle. The average 
results from the outer test specimens at the location R — l /2 in. 
show the water-quenched axle to have about the same elonga- 
tion as the oil-quenched axle, 7 per cent greater elastic 
limit, 5 per cent greater tensile strength and 6 per cent 
greater reduction of area. 

The test specimens from the middle of the wall show 
lower elastic limit and tensile strength than either the outer 
or inner test specimens, except that the strength of the water- 
quenched axle at the middle of the wall was found to be 
somewhat higher than in the outer specimens. It is evident 
that this mid-region of the section was less affected by the 
heat treatment. The water-quenched axle, however, shows 
higher elastic limit and tensile strength in this region than 
the oil-quenched axle, although, as already stated, the av- 
erage strength of the entire section came out . very closely 
the same for both. 

The results obtained from test specimens from the inner 
surface of the wall are not so consistent; that is, they show 
a higher elastic limit and a lower tensile strength, elongation 
and reduction of area for the water-quenched axle. 

All of the forgings tested meet the requirements of the 
specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, 
except that the elastic limit found in the middle of the 
wall in the oil-quenched axle is somewhat low. 

Table TI — Chemical Composition of Specimens 
Specimen Marks 


IV A 4 

IV A 5 

WA 6 

WE 4 

WE 5 

WE 6 

WD 3 










Per cent 

Per cent 

Per cent 

Per cent 

Per cent 



































































Table II gives the chemical analysis of representative test 
specimens taken from each axle. The water-quenched axle 
samples, taken from the A end, show that the outside and 
midway specimens WA4 and MM 5 have the same carbon 
content, but when compared with analysis from specimen 
WA6 of the inner wall there appears a segregation of 15 
per cent. The same is true of the samples taken from the 
opposite end of this axle. 

In the oil-quenched axle also, the same segregated condi- 
tion is present, the outer and middle test specimens having 
about the same carbon content, while the specimens OA6 and 
OE6 taken close to the inner surface, show a segregation 
of 14.5 and 11 per cent, respectively, when compared with 
the corresponding samples taken from the middle of the wall. 

The segregation found in both of these axles indicati 
condition which increases the difficulty of securing a sat- 
isfactory treatment of the forgings, and points to the desir- 
ability of including in all specifications for forgings which 
are to be heat treated, a clause to govern the allowable amount 
of segregation; otherwise it may be expected that extreme 
segregation will be found, as in the forgings here discussed . 


The committee on cement, lime, gypsum and clay products 
submitted a draft of a proposed American specification and 
Method of Tests for Portland Cement which are given below: 

These specifications represent several years' work of special 
committees representing the board of direction of the Ameri- 
can Society of Civil Engineers, the United States Govern- 
ment department committee and the American Society for 

lesting Materials. It is considered highly desirable for 
both domestic and export trade that there be a single uniform 
American specification for Portland cement. 

A proposed revised standard specification for drain tiles 
covering farm drain tiles, standard drain tiles and extra 
quality drain tiles was also submitted. 

Specifications and Methods of Tests for Portland 


1. Portland cement is the product obtained by finely pul- 
verizing clinker produced by calcining to incipient fusion, 
an intimate and properly proportioned mixture of argillaceous 
and calcareous materials, with no additions subsequent tc 
calcination excepting water and calcined or uncalcined 

2. The following limits shall not be exceeded: 

Loss on ignition, per cent 4.00 

Insoluble residue, per cent 0.85 

Sulfuric anhydride (SO3), per cent 1.75 

Magnesia (MgO), per cent 4.00 

3. The specific gravity of cement shall be not less than 
3.10. Should the test of cement as received fall below this 
requirement, a second test may be made upon an ignited 

4. The residue on a standard No. 200 sieve shall not ex- 
ceed 22 per cent, by weight. 

5. A pat of neat cement, after 24 hrs. in moist air, when 
immersed in steam, shall remain firm and hard, and show no 
signs of distortion, cracking, checking, or disintegration. 

6. Initial set shall develop in not less than 30 min. when 
the Vicat needle is used or 45 min. when the Gillmore needle 
is used. Final set shall be attained within 10 hr. 

7. (a) Test pieces of standard mortar composed of one 
part cement and three parts standard sand, by weight, shall 
give tensile strengths equal to or higher than the following : 

Age at test, Tensile strength, 

days Storage of test pieces lb. per sq. in. 

7 1 day in moist air, 6 days in water 200 

28 1 day in moist air, 27 days in water 300 

(b) Each value shall be the average of the results of tests 
from not less than three test pieces. The tensile strength of 
standard mortar at the age of 28 days shall be higher than 
the strength determined at the age of 7 days. 

8. The cement shall be delivered in suitable bags or bar- 
rel^ with the brand and name of the manufacturer plainly 
marked thereon unless shipped in bulk. A bag shall contain 
94 lb. net. A barrel shall contain 376 lb. net. 

9. The cement shall be stored in such a manner as to per- 
mit easy access for proper inspection and identification of 
each shipment, and in a suitable weather-tight building 
which will protect the cement from dampness. 

10. Every facility shall be provided the purchaser for 
careful sampling and inspection at either the mill or at the 
site of the work, as may be specified by the purchaser. At 
least 10 days from the time of sampling shall be allowed 
for the completion of the 7 -day test, and at least 31 days shall 
be allowed for the completion of the 28-day test. The cement 
shall be tested in accordance with the methods hereinafter 
prescribed. The twenty-eight-day test may be waived if 

11. The cement may be rejected if it fails to meet any of 
the requirements of these specifications. 

(a) Cement shall not be rejected on account of failure to 
meet the fineness requirement if upon retest after drying at 
100 deg. C for one hour it meets this requirement. 

(b) Cement failing to meet the test for soundness in steam 
may be accepted if it passes a retest using a new sample at 
any time within 28 days thereafter. 

(c) Packages varying more than 5 per cent from the speci- 
fied weight may be rejected; and if the average weight of 
packages in any shipment, as shown by weighing 50 pack- 

July 7, 1916 



ages taken at random, is less than that specified, the entire 
shipment may be rejected. 

Methods of Tests 

12. Each sample tested, whether individual or composite, 
should weigh about 8 lb. and shall represent not more than 
200 bbl. 

13. A car test sample from cement shipped in pack 
shall consist of at least : 2 lb. of cement taken from 1 sack in 
each 40 sacks (or 1 bbl. in each 10 bbl.), combined to make 
one sample. 

A it tesf -..niple of cement shipped in bulk shall con^i-t 
of at least ] 2 lb. of cement from approximately each 40 cu. 
ft., combined to make one sample. 

Cement may be sampled at the mill by any of the follow- 
ing methods, as may be agreed upon: 

(a) From the conveyor delivering to the bin. 

(b) From filled bins by means of sampling tubes. 

(c) From filled bins at points of discharge. 

(d) From packages ready for shipment. 

14. Samples preferably shall be shipped and stored in 
airtight containers. 

Samples shall be passed through a sieve having 20 meshes 
per linear inch in order to thoroughly mix the sample, break 
up lumps and remove foreign materials. 

(Chemical analysis omitted.) 

Specifications f -r Compressive Strength of Portland 
Cement Mortar 
1. (a) A test piece of standard mortar composed of one 
part cement and three parts standard sand, by weight. 
shall give compressive strengths equal to or higher than the 
following : 

Age a - ■ Compressive strength, 

days - eces lb. per sq. in. 

in water : . 

n moist air. . vater 2,000 

(b) Each value shall be the average of the results of tests 
from not less than three test pieces. The compressive strength 
of standard mortar at the age of 28 days shall be higher than 
the strength determined at the age of 7 days. 
The Strength of Clamped Splices in Concrete Rein- 
forcement Bars. 
By E. L. Lasier 

U-Bolt clamped splices of both 17 and 21 -in. lengths of 
splice, were tested to determine the load at first slip, and the 
maximum load the splice would resist. The splices tested 
were: Lap splices not embedded in concrete, butt splices not 
embedded in concrete and lap splices embedded in concrete. 

The reinforcement steel in all cases consisted of 1-in. 
square cold-twisted bars. 

The loads necessary to produce first slip had a range of 
from 7,000 to 50,000 lb. The maximum loads which the 
splices withstood varied from 23.000 to 69,000 lbs. The 
ratios of load at first slip to yield point of bar for clamped 
splices not embedded in concrete varied from 12 to 21 per 
cent, and for splices embedded in concrete from 53 to 83 
per cent. Ratios of maximum load to tensile strength of bar 
ranged from 31 to 61 per cent for unembedded splices, and 
from 79 to 95 per cent for embedded splices. 

It was found that clamped lap splices embedded in large 
masses of concrete undoubtedly can safely withstand a unit 
load equal to the unit stress in the steel reinforcement. 


The preparation of a steel or iron surface for painting 
should be such as will secure proper adhesion of paint to 
that surface. It is improbable that paint ever acts chemically 
on these metals: and the persistence of paint on iron is. 
primarily a matter of adhesion, which may be lessened or 
destroyed by i 1 i any unsatisfactory surface, and (2) by the 

entrance or intrusion of .-olid or fluid material between the 
paint film and the metal. 

Recently-rolled steel or iron is covered with a mill scale 
of anhydrous oxide, and if painted at once, the paint never 
touches the metal, but is applied to the mill scale. If thi- 
mill scale ever comes off, the paint comes with it, sometimes 
in scales. If the metal begins to rust by access of air and 
moisture, the rust penetrates under the mill scale and lo 
it. Ordinary ru-t is hydrated oxide, and stimulates further 
ccrrosion, but the anhydrou> mill scale does not, and it is 
objectionable because it may crack off by unequal expansion 
or from other cau- 

In addition to mill scale and rust, other objectionable -ur- 
face coatings which are frequently encountered are dirt. 
- ■. oil, water and frost. 

In considering methods for preparing these sur 
painting it is well to take account of the methods used to 
secure the adhesion of substances other than paint to iron or 
steel. Such cases are, for example, the electrodeposition of 
copper or other metals: the plating of iron by molten metal: 
the coating of steel or iron with a vitreous enamel, which i? 
practiced in making enameled vessels for cooking and the 
like: and the application of varnish enamels, such as an 
on bicycles and many other metal surfaces. In all these 
processes it is essential that the adhesion should be perfect: 
that is, that the coating should wear off from the outside, not 
peel off from the metal; and this is what is desired with 
paint. In all these cases, it is universally believed to be 
necessary that the coating material should come in actual 
contact on all parts of the surface with the actual metallic 
surface of the iron or steel : the latter must be freed from all 
dirt and grease, and from all scale and rust, before the coat- 
ing is applied. This is done by (1) cleaning the surface with 
chemically active liquid, such as sulphuric acid: (2) by the 
sandblast, and (3 ) by other mechanical means, such as filing 
or polishing with an emery belt, and the like. Unless this is 
done, it is found that the superimposed coating is likely to 
scale or flake off. 

The thorough methods of cleaning by sand-blasting and 
pickling can be and sometimes are applied to structural and 
car steel for painting and for repainting, and undoubtedh 
are the best methods known for the purpose. They are. 
however, much more expensive than the ordinary method, 
which consists in scraping, wire-brushing and wiping grease 
and oil spots with gasolene or benzine. 

The sand-blasting method has the advantage over the 
pickling method in that it is more general of application, the 
pickling method being confined to the shop and generally tc 
the material before assembling. It may, however, be of in- 
terest to know that good authorities maintain that iron or 
steel cleaned by pickling holds a coating more securely than 
that which is sand-blasted, and that this is owing to the 
rougher surface, viewed with a microscope, of the acid-etched 

The scraper and wire brush do not remove the firmly ad- 
hering mill scale, in consequence of which most of the struc- 
tural and freight-car steel is painted over mill scale. Il 
must be remembered that all platers and enamelers insist 
lutely on the complete removal of mill scale; therefore il 
must not be regarded as harmless, it certainly is less danger- 
ous than ordinary rust. 

Builders of ships for sen-ice in sea waters have frequenth 
required the pickling or sand-blasting of the steel parts which 
are to be submerged, in order to remove the mill scale, and il 
is the common practice to do likewise for steel passenger-cai 
bodies. The removal of mill scale at the expense of incipiem 
rusting is also sometimes attempted by the erection of steel 
structures without paint and allowing them to stand exposed 
to the weather for several months before painting. 

In addition to cleanliness of surface, freedom from damp- 
ness, severe cold and frost is considered essential to the 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

proper adhesion of paint. This may be accomplished by 
painting outdoors only in warm, dry weather, or by keeping 
the material under cover in warm dry air during the process 
of cleaning and painting. Heating of surfaces is also re- 
sorted to. 

While for some purposes, such as seagoing ships and pas- 
senger-car bodies, there seems to be little question as to the 
final economy of incurring the additional first cost of the 
more thorough methods of cleaning, the economy of such 
methods for ordinary steel structures and freight cars is not 
so certain. 

The report is signed by A. W. Carpenter, chairman. 



By Cloyd M. Chapman 

To be generally acceptable specifications for concrete aggre- 
gates should fulfill two requirements, namely: (1) they 
should insure the production of suitable concrete if the aggre- 
gates are properly used ; and ( 2 ) they should permit the use 
of materials found in the vicinity of the work, if such mate- 
rials are capable of producing concrete of the required quality. 

The present method of specifying may insure the quality 
of the material, but it does not permit the use of a wide choice 
of aggregates from which first-class concrete may be made. 

Concrete is a cheap building material because it is com- 
posed largely of inexpensive aggregates, and for economic 
reasons these aggregates should be secured from deposits in 
the vicinity of the point of use. The material at hand capable 
of making concrete of fair quality will generally be used in 
preference to a better material which must be brought from 
a distance at considerable cost for transportation. 

It is generally true that even a very poor sand, that is, one 
which compares very unfavorably with standard Ottawa sand 
when tested in 1 :3 mixtures with cement, will give a suitable 
compressive strength if sufficient cement is used. When the 
only available sand is of such a quality, it is necessary to 
increase the proportion of cement until the required strength 
is obtained. Our present specifications for sand require that 
it shall, when tested as prescribed, show a compressive 
strength approximately equal to that obtained with standard 
Ottawa sand. A rigid adherence to these specifications would 
mean that in many sections of the country no concrete work 
could be done without importing aggregates from a distance. 
The result is that the specifications are ignored in those lo- 
calities and the work done without them. 

On the other hand, where most excellent materials are 
available, the present specifications for sand do not permit 
of a variation of the proportions used, no matter how good 
the materials may be. For instance, some well-graded sands 
show strengths 40 per cent higher than that obtained with 
Ottawa sand in 1 :3 mortar, and in \:3y 2 or even 1 :4 mortar 
show compressive strengths equal to that obtained with 
Ottawa sand in the proportion of 1 :3. Yet tin's sand receives 
no credit for quality under the present form of specifications. 

By specifying the results required and permitting the use 
of such materials as will produce these results when tested 
under specified and standardized conditions, it is possible not 
only to properly safeguard the product but to permit the use 
of SU< h materials as are available in eai h lo< ality. 

It is also true thai in many cases the local materials 
of such poor quality and would require such a large propor- 
tion of cement to fulfill the specifications, thai it would be 
economical to bring in better material even from a consider 
able distance, the saving in cemenl paying the freight. Sped 
fixations of tins kind mighl take some such form as the fol- 
lowing, in which all figures arc purely arbitrary and in no 
proposed as standard : 

"I he materials used shall be of such quality, and shall be 

ii. led in SU< li proportions as to prodtlt e a i oik rete which shall 

show a compressive strength of 2,500 (or 2,000 or 1,500) lb. 
per sq. in. at the age of 28 days, when tested in accordance 
with the standard methods of testing." 

This form of specification is obviously susceptible to modi- 
fication to cover varying conditions and qualities. For in- 
stance, to insure against a material which sets or hardens 
slowly, and consequently requires forms being kept in place 
an unusual length of time, the specifications may require a 
certain minimum strength to be attained in three days. When 
compressive strength is not the prime requisite, as for in- 
stance, in sea wall or tunnel work, the requirements as to 
impermeability or density may be inserted, either in place of, 
or in addition to, the strength requirement. 

It would probably be desirable to add some further qualify- 
ing clauses to the specifications, such as the limit of size of 
particles, the character of the materials composing the aggre- 
gates, freedom from constituents liable to cause deteriora- 
tion, etc. 

The standard methods of testing referred to in these speci- 
fications would have to be very carefully worked out, as the 
value of the specifications is largely dependent upon the 
reliability of the test, just as is the case in almost all speci- 
fications of a like nature which are dependent upon tests. 

The method at present most commonly employed, except 
in the cases of some of the railroads and on government work 
where aggregates, particularly the sand, are systematically 
tested, is practically to ignore the quality of materials, except 
the cement, and to specify arbitrarily proportions that will 
give good enough results with almost any aggregates. By re- 
quiring that all concrete in a reinforced structure shall be 
made in the proportions of say, 1:1^:3 or 1:2:4, we are 
simply "playing safe." Mixed in these proportions all but 
the poorest material will produce good concrete. They, in 
principle, are the specifications under which thousands of 
yards of concrete are laid every year. 

In operating under such specifications, it is of great impor- 
tance that specimens of the concrete produced on the job be 
regularly made and tested. It is also of the greatest impor- 
tance that a close day-to-day check be maintained on the 
quality of the materials used, to insure a reasonable unifor- 
mity, and to know that these materials are at least equal in 
quality to the materials used in arriving at the proportions 
required to give the quality of concrete called for in the 

When the materials used on the job are from the same 
sources as those tested and from which tests the proportions 
to be used were determined, it is a simple matter to check 
up their qualities. Sand and stone from the same source 
do not vary much in quality, except in so far as quality is 
influenced by size of particles. Having once established by 
test the suitability of sand and stone for any grade of con- 
crete and having determined the proper proportions in which 
to use them to attain a certain desired result, it is only neces- 
sary thereafter to see that the size, grading and proportions 
of thee materials are reasonably constant to insure uniform 
quality of concrete. 

I he regular and systematic testing of the size 1 of the aggre- 
gates gives data which will permit the engineer to tell with- 
out further tests, whether the aggregates will produce a bet- 
ter or poorer concrete than thai produced by the original or 
standard sample. This is carried oul n practice by Westing- 
house, Church, Kerr & Co. in the following manner: 

The engineer in charge secures samples of the available 

Concrete aggregates, both fine and coarse, and sends them to 

the laboratory for test, The tests show that although the 
bi i available sand has a strength in 1 :3 mortar onl) To per 

cent of that of standard Ottawa sand, yet mixed in the pro- 
portions of 1 :1J4:3J4 with tin- cement and coarse aggregates 
to be used, the resulting concrete lias a compressive strength 

of 2,600 lb. per sq. in. al 28 days. Other proportions give 

July 7, 1916 



higher and lower strengths, depending on their richness, but 
as the design of the structure requires concrete having a com- 
pressive strength of 2,500 lb. per sq. in. the 1:1-34:324 pro- 
portion is used. For the foundations and footings, the de- 
signs being based on a compressive strength of 1,500 lb. per 
sq. in. in the concrete, the proportion of 1:2J4:4^, which 
gave in the test a compressive strength of 1,550 lb. per sq. 
in., is chosen. Under the present standard method of speci- 
fying sand, this particular sand could not have been used 
in concrete. 

Several granulometric-analysis charts are made on the 
sand in the laboratory with a sand tester with five screens 
having 6, 10, 20, 35, and 65 meshes per in. The charts 
are averaged and a special guide chart is prepared for the 
use of the inspector on the job. In making up this guide 
chart a permissible variation of about 2.5 per cent each way 
from the mean of the tests made on the sample, is allowed. 
As the sand arrives on the job the inspector makes tests and 
compares the resulting chart with the guide chart. By this 
method the quality of the aggregates is recognized and pro- 
vided for in the selection of proportions for the concrete, and 
enough cement is used to produce the desired quality. Ex- 
perience with this form of specification has shown it to be 
advantageous in localities where the available aggregates are 
not up to the standards now specified. 
Other Business 

A paper on "National Standard Specifications and Their 
Relation to Export Trade," was read by William R. Webster. 
The author stated that before foreign engineers will consider 
the adoption of these specifications for orders to be placed 
in this country, they will want to know how they were arrived 
at by the society, whether they are in general use here and 
how they compare with the specifications of the British Engi- 
neering Standards Committee. Instances were cited of the 
difficulties met in enforcing some of the requirements of for- 
eign specifications from the author's own practice. In con- 
clusion he indicated the advantages to be derived from the 
use of the American Society for Testing Materials standard 
specifications for export orders, and recommended a definite 
plan for keeping these specifications abreast of the best engi- 
neering practice. 

The following officers were elected for the coming year: 
President, A. A. Stevenson, vice-president Standard Steel 
Works, Philadelphia; first vice-president, S. S. Voorhees, 
engineer-chemist, Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C. ; 
members of executive committee, W. H Bassett, John Brun- 
ner, G. W. Thompson, and F. E. Turneaure. 

It was decided to publish what is now termed the Year 
Book of the Society, biennially in future. 


By W. L. Stoddard 

Washington, July 5. 

Senate joint resolution 60, providing for an investigation 
by a Congressional committee into the need for railroad 
legislation, is having a hard time of it. More than once in 
recent weeks it has come up in the House on what is known 
as the unanimous-consent calendar; but every time it has 
been objected to by Representative James R. Mann, of 
Illinois, minority leader of the House, and a sharp critic of 
legislative procedure. 

This resolution came up, for example, on the sixteenth of 
June and when the Speaker asked if there was objection to 
its consideration at that time, Mr. Mann replied, "I object," 
and the bill was necessarily set aside until in regular 
rotation it should again be placed before the House. Last 
Saturday the same procedure was gone through, and again 
Mr. Mann rose to say "I object." 

Last week a new resolution was introduced by Chairman 

Adamson of the House Committee calling for a special rule 
to bring the resolution to a vote. This has gone to the rules 
committee for a hearing and report. But the rules committee 
has no regular day of meeting and no one knows what will 
come next. 

Under the present parliamentary system of the House, it 
is almost impossible for a bill, no matter what its merits, to 
be passed without a special rule of some kind. The kind 
of rule proposed by Mr. Adamson is popularly known as a 
"gag" rule, for it absolutely limits debate to the time 
prescribed by its terms and makes it impossible to set aside 
the bill without definite action. The pending revenue bill, 
for example, was brought out to the floor of the House under 
precisely such a rule, and its prompt passage was thus 
assured. Mr. Adamson fully expects to see this resolution 
passed by the House before the next month or so shall have 


The twenty-ninth annual convention of the Train De- 
spatches' Association of America was held in Labor Temple, 
Toronto, Ontario, June 20 and 21, Charles Forrester, super- 
intendent of the Grand Trunk at Stratford, in the chair. 
The despatchers were welcomed to the city by Mayor T. L. 
Church, and U. E. Gillen, general superintendent of the 
Grand Trunk at Chicago, welcomed them to Canada, or 
behalf of the railways of that country. 

A. J. Hills, general superintendent of the Canadian North- 
ern, followed with an address of welcome on behalf of thai 
road, in which he gave some interesting information in re- 
gard to its extent and construction. 

President E. W. Weston, of the Train Despatchers' Asso- 
ciation, on taking the chair reported 81 members in attend- 
ance. Thirty-nine new members were elected. The asso- 
ciation at the end of the last fiscal year had 1,239 members 
to which were added during the year by election 96 and b> 
re-instatement 8, making a total of 1,343. There had diecj 
during the year 7, withdrawn 25, lapsed at close of the yeai 
229, leaving total present membership 1,082, of whom 305 
had failed to pay dues at the time the annual account closed 
The total receipts during the year amounted to $4,184; tota! 
disbursements were $3,770, leaving a balance of $414; bul 
the debit balance from last year ($507) left a debit balance 
to be carried to next year of $93. This balance, however 
was entirely wiped out during the convention, by contribu- 
tions from the members present. The secretary appealed t( 
members to use their best endeavors to increase the member- 
ship and to secure subscriptions to the official organ fron 
other than members, and also to individually subscribe sc 
that the official organ might, in future, be placed in a positioi 
to earn all that it costs the association. 

A paper entitled "Time and the Train Despatcher," bj 
Frank M. McCabe, a life insurance agent, at St. Paul, anc 
formerly a despatcher on the Northern Pacific, was read b] 
the secretary, and Paul E. Odell, chief despatcher of th< 
Illinois Central at Carbondale, 111., read one on "Efficiency.' 
These are given, in part, below. 

The constitutional amendment submitted to all member! 
in the May issue of the Bulletin was brought up for actioi 
and defeated. The convention ordered separate publicatioi 
of its proceedings. The Canadian Northern, through D 
Crombie, superintendent of transportation, invited the entin 
convention to take a steamboat trip to Port Dalhousie and ; 
trolley trip thence to Niagara-on-the-Lake, which trip wa 
originally designed for the ladies only. Mr. Crombie ex 
plained that a room on the steamer could be used for conven 
tion purposes and that in accepting this invitation there nee( 
be no interruption to the deliberation of the convention. Tb 
invitation was accepted with thanks. 

The Train Rules Committee presented its report througl 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

W. T. Quirk (A. T. & S. F.). This report cited a number 
of questions on train orders as to which the opinion of the 
members present was desired. One was in regard to the 
exclusive use of the "19" train order. This was unanimously 
approved after a statement by several members that this form 
of order was thus used on their roads with entire safety and 
that their experience had demonstrated its superior useful- 
ness as well as its safety. 

The change in Form "F" submitted a year ago by the 
Train Rules Committee was discussed by the convention and 
after debate was not approved. The positive meeting point 
as between trains of the same class, which was likewise sub- 
mitted by the committee a year ago, was unanimously ap- 
proved as desirable where conditions make it practicable. 
There was an animated debate on the caution indication of 
automatic signal practice, as to whether a train observing 
the signal should reduce speed at once and throughout the 
block, or simply prepare to stop before reaching the next 
signal. The majority favored reduction of speed. 

The question of allowing a flagman to except certain trains 
when out flagging was debated, but no vote was taken; also 
the question of what are the objections to the 19 train order 
for orders under form "F." The opinion of the majority was 
that the 19 order was quite as safe as the 31. The question 
was also debated as to what roads use the clearance order 
and as to what roads use the "complete" severally or for all 
orders at one time. 

The election of officers resulted in the selection of Frank 
I. Felter (N. Y. C), New York City, as president; H. P. 
Riggs (C. G. W.), St. Paul, vice-president, and C. C. Bar- 
nard (St. Joseph & G. I.), St. Joseph, Mo., as a member 
of the executive committee in place of A. L. Crabbs. J. F. 
Mackie was re-elected for two years as secretary-treasurer 
and editor. Fresno, Cal., was selected as the next place of 
meeting, and June 19, 1917, as the date. There were pres- 
ent altogether 127 despatchers and 95 visitors and ladies. 

In view of the increase in the joint train rules committee 
representation of the Superintendents' Association by three 
members, it was ordered that the train despatchers' member- 
ship in this committee be also increased by the same number, 
making the whole number of members fifteen; and the presi- 
dent was authorized to appoint the additional members. The 
propriety of the creation of district committees to look after 
the interests of the association locally was debated, and the 
executive committee was directed to look into the matter 
and take proper action if found feasible, and define a plan 
of action. 

There was an evening luncheon on Wednesday, at which 
Mayor Church presided. The Canadian Northern steamer 
trip to Port Dalhousie on Thursday and the trolley trip were 
most delightful. The visitors were admitted to Camp 
Niagara, where some thousands of volunteers were being 
drilled for duty overseas. On Friday there was a trip by. 
special train over the Grand Trunk to Niagara Falls and 
dinner at the Clifton House 

Time and the Train Despatch kk 

By Frank M. McCabe 

Preparedness is the slogan of the hour. Suppose the call 
should come tomorrow, brother despatcher, for a superinten- 
dent, can you say honestly that you are prepared to step in 
and at once take care of the position in a manner acceptable 
to the company and satisfactory to yourself? If not, why 
not? Is it that the knowledge necessary for the proper 
handling of a superintendent's position is beyond you, or is it 
because you have neglected to prepare? 

Train despatchers, above all other (lasses of men. are in a 
position to know the value of time. It is an hourly occur- 
rence to plate train orders giving but a few minutes to an 
inferior train to aid it in makinj^ many miles for a superior 

train. The lesson of the wait-order should be patent to 
every train despatcher. Time is everything. It is more valu- 
able than money for money cannot buy it. 

The philosopher tells us there is a reason for everything. 
Why, do you suppose, a few years ago, promotions to super- 
intendencies and similar positions from the ranks of train 
despatchers began growing less frequent and the higher offi- 
cers of the various companies began drawing on the other 
departments to fill these vacancies? The answer is, gentle- 
men, that the employees of the other departments had suffi- 
cient foresight to see the need for preparedness and prepared. 

Outside of the Book of Transportation Rules and the 
current time-table, what do you study? What do you know 
about locomotives — the kind your company owns? What 
do you know about the roadbed over which these locomotives 
travel, stop and head-in day after day at your direction? 
What can you say, with confidence, in regard to the laws in 
force in your State governing the actions of railroads? 

A superintendent must have at least a working knowledge 
of these and many other phases of his job. He must have 
them before he takes the job. This knowledge is obtainable — ■ 
for the asking — for a little study. There is no reason why 
you should not be as completely informed as the civil engi- 
neer, the chief clerk, or the young passenger conductor that 
slips in ahead of you. 

The work of the train despatcher, it may be argued, does 
not place him in touch with these various things so necessary 
to his securing an efficient and accurate perception of the 
superintendent's work. How about those twelve, fourteen 
or sixteen hours you are off duty? Keep a tab on them. 
For one week, make a record in writing of how each and 
every half-hour is spent. The result will astonish you, as 
well it should. 

Transportation Efficiency 

By P. E. Odell 

In the attempt to secure a theoretical foundation for effi- 
ciency some people confuse efficiency with system, and there 
is always the danger that system will degenerate into red 
tape and that it will have a deadening effect on personal 
initiative and enthusiasm. The great motive in securing 
efficient human industry today is interest in the work. When 
we can come to feel more complete responsibility for our par- 
ticular tasks we create a driving motive of great force. 

The successful superintendent is the one who surrounds 
himself with a competent, experienced and loyal staff. His 
confidence, once established, relieves him of worry and the 
annoyance of detail, and fits him to handle the weighty prob- 
lems of a division. Contentment and peace of mind are 
essential to all railroad employees, but more especially to 
the superintendent, for he is the one man on a division to 
whom all look for precept and example. A grouchy super- 
intendent breeds discontent and chaos by his very presence. 
Trainmasters, roadmasters and road foremen of engines are 
the superintendent's outside men to whom he looks for the 
proper handling of affairs. The efficient trainmaster today 
lias his office in his grip, and is not burdened with corre- 
spondence. No man can successfully handle train and 
enginemen from an office. Personal contact is absolutely 
necessarj to determine whether or not the best service i^ 
I icing performed. Dissension and ill feeling among em- 
ployees have caused many an accident resulting in destruction 
of property and in personal injury. Trainmasters and trav- 
eling engineers who mingle with their men generally discover 
bad conditions and correct them before annoying grievances 
.ire broughl to the attention of the superintendent. 

British Rah. Exports. Total British exports of rails 

in 1915 were only 242,289 gross tons against 500,117 tons 
in 1913, a decrease of oxer 51 per cent.— iron Age. 

Operation of the St. Paul Electrification 



During Initial Operation on x the Mountain Divisions 
\ tfyie Jflfew Locomotives H$ve Been Thoroughly Tested 

Ore Train en the Butte, Anaconda & Pacific and Freight Tram on the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul 

WHILE a number of steam roads have electrified ter- 
minals or tunnels for the purpose of eliminating 
smoke, taking care of surburban traffic or other 
local conditions, the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul electri- 
fication* was the first project of the kind where electric loco- 
motives were installed to operate over several engine divisions. 

The Electrified Divisions 

The four steam engine divisions which were selected for 
electrification aggregate 440 miles in length. Steam engines 
were first abandoned on the Three Forks-Deer Lodge Divi- 
sion, 115 miles long, and crossing the Main Continental 
Divide, thus giving the electrical equipment its initial tryout 
under the severest service conditions of the entire system. 
The first electric locomotives were placed in regular service 
on December 9, 1915, and during the month of April, 1916, 
service was extended to Harlowton, Mont., making a total 
of 220 miles of electrically operated road. By the first of 
November, 1916, it is expected that steam engines will be 
superseded over the entire distance of 440 miles from Har- 
lowton, Mont., to Avery, Idaho. The length of track between 
Harlowton and Avery is approximately equal to that from 
New York to Buffalo or from Boston to Washington. 

In crossing the three mountain ranges included in the 
electric zone, there are several grades of one per cent or more, 
the most difficult of which is the 21 mile two per cent grade 
between Piedmont and Donald, and the longest is the 49 
mile one per cent grade on the west slope of the Belt moun- 

The curvature is necessarily heavy, the maximum being 

*An extensive study of the St. Paul electrification was published in the 
Railway Age Gazette of October IS, 1915, page 683. An article on its 
operation appeared in the Rail-way Age Gazette of April 28, 1916, page 957. 

10 degrees. There are also numerous tunnels in the electric 
zone, .S6 in all, of which the longest is the St. Paul Pass 
tunnel, over a mile and a half in length, through the ridge 
of the Bitter Root Mountains. 

The passenger service consists of two all-steel transcon- 
tinental trains in each direction, the "Olympian"' and the 
"Columbian," and a local passenger train in each direction 
daily between Deer Lodge and Harlowton. 

Freight traffic through the electric zone comprises from 
four to six trains daily in each direction. 'Westbound, the 
tonnage is made up of manufactured products and merchan- 
dise for Pacific Coast points and foreign shipment. East- 
bound tonnage includes grain, lumber, products of the mines 
and some live stock. 

As a larger part of the traffic is through freight, trains are 
made up of an assortment of foreign cars, including box and 
flat cars, coal and ore hoppers, stock cars, refrigerators, etc., 
varying in weight from 11 to 2S tons empty and as high as 
70 tons loaded. These cars being owned by many different 
railway systems are equipped with air brakes adjusted for 
different conditions of operation, and in accordance with dif- 
ferent standards as to braking power and type of equipment, 
thus making the problem of holding the long trains on the 
heavy down grades by air brakes a most difficult one. 

Electrical Operation 

Electrification promises a material reduction in running 
time. It has been found, for example, that on the 21-mile 
two per cent grade from Piedmont to Donald, the electric 
locomotive can reduce the running time of passenger trains 
from an hour and five minutes to approximately 40 minutes. 
On the run from Deer Lodge to Butte, which, under the steam 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

locomotive schedule, required an hour and 20 minutes, a 
saving of approximately 30 minutes can be made. 

In the freight service, it has been found that on the first 
division, where the steam locomotives have required 10 to 12 
hours to make 115 miles, electric locomotives can meet a 
schedule of from seven to eight hours for the same distance. 
The heavy grades and frequent curves at certain points offer 
serious obstacles to steam locomotive operation even in the 
summer time, but with winter temperatures as low as 40 deg. 
F. and heavy snowfalls in the Bitter Root mountains, serious 
delays have occurred, owing to engine failures or to inability 
to make steam. The capabilities of the electric locomotives 
are in no way impaired by cold weather or by inability to 
obtain fuel or water in case of snow blockades. During a 
series of record-breaking temperatures in December, 1915, 
Mallet engines were frozen up at different points on the sys- 
tem and the new electric equipment was rapidly pressed into 
service to replace them. On several occasions electric loco- 

locomotive is run through the 220 miles from Deer Lodge 
to Harlowton, changing crews midway. Passenger trains 
will travel over the entire electrified division in approximately 
15 hours, including all stops, and the tourist thus will have 
an opportunity of traversing by daylight some of the most 
beautiful scenic regions in the United States and without 
suffering the annoyance of cinders and smoke incident to 
the use of steam locomotives. The local passenger train 
operating in the electric zone between Deer Lodge and Har- 
lowton is handled by a half unit weighing about 150 tons 
with equipment similar to the main line locomotives. 

The Electrical Equipment 

The main line electric locomotives are constructed in two 
units permanently coupled together, the halves being dupli- 
cates and each capable of independent operation. The enor- 
mous tractive effort of these electrical giants will be appre- 
ciated when it is stated that the wood burning locomotive of 

Train No. 16 Descending Two Per Cent Grade on Eastern Slope of the Rockies 

motives hauled in disabled steam engines -and trains which 
would otherwise have tied up the line. 

During initial operation on the Rocky Mountain division, 
the capacity of the new locomotives has been thoroughly 
tested. Trains of 3,000 tons have been hauled east and 
2,800 tons west, using a helper on the heavy grades. From 
the operating data obtained on the first division, it is evident 
that much heavier trains can be hauled with the electric 
locomotives than with steam engines, and all passing tracks 
are being lengthened to take advantage of longer trains. On 
some of the runs where the grades are less than one per cent 
trains of as many as ISO cars and as heavy as 4,000 tons 
have been hauled with a single locomotive. 

The four through passenger trains, "Olympian" and 
"Columbian," are taken across the two mountain ranges by 
a single passenger locomotive. These trains at present c (insist 

of eight full vestibuled steel coaches, weighing approximately 

650 tons. Instead of changing locomotives at Three Forks, 
as has been the practice under steam operation, the same 

50 years ago weighed 20 tons and had a tractive effort of 
only 5,000 lb. The modern Mallet steam locomotive weigh- 
ing 278 tons with tender, which has been released, has a 
tractive force of 76,200 lb., while the electric locomotive, 
weighing 282 tons, has a running tractive force of 85,000 lb. 
and a starting tractive force of 136,000 lb. 

There are 42 of these main line locomotives (30 freight 
and 1 2 passenger) and two switching locomotives. The lo- 
comotives are the first to be used for railroad service with 
direct current motors operating at a potential as high as 3,000 
volts and the first to use direct current regeneration. The 
passenger locomotives are equipped with a gear ratio per- 
mitting the operation of 800 ton trailing trains at speeds of 
approximately 60 miles per hour on tangent level track. The 
average passenger train weighs from 650 to 700 tons and is 
hauled over the two per cent grade without a helper. The 
freight locomotives are designed to haul a 2,500 ton trailing 
train at approximately 16 miles per hour on all grades up 
in and including one per cent. On two per cent grades the 

July 7, 1916 



trailing load was limited to 1 ,250 tons, although this figure 
has been exceeded in actual operation. 

The switching locomotives are of the swivel truck type, 
weighing 70 tons each, and equipped with four geared mo- 
tors. A single pantograph of construction similar to that 
used on the main line locomotives is mounted on the cab and 
in other ways the locomotives represent the standard construc- 
tion commonly used with the steeple cab type of switcher. 
Many of the switching locomotive parts are interchangeable 
with those used on the main line locomotives; for example. 
the air compressors, small switches, headlights and cab 

Utmost precautions were taken by the railway company in 
making plans for this electrification to insure a reliable source 
of power. The Montana Power Company, with whom the 
contract was closed for electric power, operates a network of 
transmission lines covering a large part of Montana, which 
are fed from a main plant at Great Falls, and a number of 
other widely separated water power plants of adequate capac- 
ity at all seasons of the vear. A notable feature of this 

Overhead Catenary Trolley Construction on a Curve on a 
Two Per Cent Grade 

pioneer electrification is, therefore, the conservation of fuel 
consequent upon the utilization of water powers. The Mon- 
tana Power Company's transmission lines tap into the railway 
system at seven different points where the power i- most 
needed. The railway company- transmission line extends 
the entire length of the system on wood poles. With this 
completely inter-connected transmission system, each sub- 
station may be fed from either direction and also at the 
tie-in points from a third source of power. 

Electric locomotion has been adopted by the Chicago. Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul with the expectation of effecting a suffi- 
cient reduction in the cost of operation to return an attractive 
percentage on the investment required, as well as to benefit 
by all the operating advantages of electric locomotives. Ac- 
cording to statements made by the railroad officers, about 
SI will be expended, and with the work more 

than half completed there is every reason to believe that the 
cost of construction will come inside the estimates. 

Results of Electric Operation 

The results expected from electrical operation an 
follows : 

Marked reduction in cost of electricity as compared with 
cost of coal. 

Reduction in maintenance cost of locomotives. 

Elimination of delays due to coaling, taking water, oil, etc. 

Elimination of delavs due to natural causes, such as freez- 

Great Falls Dam and Power House at Volta, Mont. 

ing of locomotives, loss of steam in cold weather, bucking 
snow drift.-. 

Elimination of non-revenue trains hauling coal and water 
for steam locomotives. 

Increased tonnage per train. 

Increased train speeds on grade-. 

Greater reliability and certainty of maintaining schedules. 

Reduction in train crew hours per ton mile. 

Reduction in damage to rolling stock due to rough handling 
by steam engines. 

Greatly increased safety of operation on grades due to 
regenerative braking. 

Saving in power and reduction in wheel and track wear 
by use of regenerative braking. 

Improvement of tunnel conditions due to smoke and gas, 
absence of smoke and cinders which obscure scenic attrac- 
tion-, uniform speed and absence of grinding brake shoes on 
grades, all of which accrue to the benefit of the traveler on 
the transcontinental passenger trains. 

Harder Alloys of Copper. — An alloy of copper, having 
a degree of hardnes- not usually obtained, i- secured by in- 
corporating with the copper not more than 1 per cent of any 
one of the alkaline earth metals, calcium, barium, strontium 
and magnesium, according to a recent patent. The patentees 
assert that these alloys make sound castings, harder than 
pure commercial copper and of high electrical conductivity. — 
Iron Age. 

Measurement or Bolts. — Bolts are generally measured 
from beneath the head to the first thread at the end. There 
is usually a point about 1 16 inch beyond the first thread. 
Cap-screws with square and hexagonal heads are provided 
with a thread cut three-quarters of the length for screws one 
inch and less in diameter, when the screw is less than four 
inches long. For longer screws the tread is usuallv cut one- 
half the length. Fillister-head screws are threaded two- 
thirds of the length. Screws are classified as set-screws only 
when the head is not more than 1/16 inch larger in diameter 
than the body of the screw. When the head is larger they are 
classified as cap-screws. 



Vol. 61, No. 1 


The recenl animal session of the Freight Claim Associa- 
tion hold at the New Willard Hotel, Washington, May 17, 
lcS, 19, was more largely attended than any in the history of 
the association, there having been 220 of its 475 members 
present or represented by proxy. 

Address or Commissioner Harlan 

Hon. James S. Harlan, Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sioner, under whose direction have been conducted during 
the past several years the conferences between representatives 
of that body and the Conference Committee of The Freight 
Claim Association, was introduced by President E. Arnold 
(Grand Trunk), and made the opening address. He spoke 
of the various features of transportation in which the work 
of the Commission and of the freight claim agents are much 
alike. The railroad officer, like the government officer, is do- 
ing a public work; is administering a statute. Both must take 
broad views. 

"When the rates of a particular carrier are involved we 
endeavor to ascertain what influence a change in its rates may 
have upon the revenue of other lines serving the same general 
territory. With a growing frequency the Commission makes 
complaints as to individual rates or schedules the occasion 
for an order of general investigation, so that we may have a 
record that will give us a full view of the general rate struc- 
ture of which the particular rates are a part. We are deal- 
ing more with rate schedules and less with particular rates. 
Our findings in these broader cases, it is sincerely hoped, will 
have a tendency to remove the defects and inconsistencies 
often found in more or less extensive rate schedules 
and in the end may result in a reduced number of rate 

"The Interstate Commerce Commission has always had 
the most cordial and pleasant associations with the state com- 
missions. No member of a state commission, so far as I 
know, has ever accused us of reaching out and asserting 
jurisdiction over rate matters that are within the cognizance 
of the state authorities. We have troubles enough of our own 
without coveting the troubles of others. But since the de- 
cision in the Shreveport Case, it is the settled law of the 
land that the Interstate Commerce Commission is under the 
duty of protecting interstate commerce against the burdens 
of discriminatory state rates. Before the case arose rela- 
tively few instances were brought to our attention where there 
was a serious conflict, in their effect upon interstate commerce, 
between state and interstate rates. But since the decision 
was announced, judged by the complaints that have been filed 
with us, there seems to be an increasing number of such dis- 
criminatory rate adjustments. What the explanation of this 
may be I do not know. But it is a serious and a significant 
tendency that seems to be developing. 

"I have said that in some respects the work of the Com- 
mission is like the work daily performed by the members of 
the Freight Claim Association. An interesting case is now 
pending. While two carloads of coal were in transit a sub- 
stantial part of the load in each car disappeared. When the 
cars arrived at destination the consignee was called upon to 
pay freight charges upon the marked capacity of the car 
which was the minimum weight; and this he did. Unfortu- 
nately he did not file with the carrier his claim for the value 
of the coal lost in transit, until after the period of four months 
prescribed in the bill of lading had expired; for that reason 
the claim was declined by the carrier. Thereupon an action 
in court was brought to recover the value of the lost coal 
upon the basis of its price at the mine. That part of the 
shipper's troubles is still in the hands of the court. But to 
recover the freight charges on the weight of the lost coal he 
came to the Commission. He had paid charges on the whole 
shipment at the legally established rate based upon the only 

authorized minimum weight, which, as I have just stated, was 
the marked capacity of the car. There had been delivered to 
him, however, much less than that amount of coal. His com- 
plaint, therefore, attacked the reasonableness of the charges 
that had been exacted from him. In presenting the matter 
to us the carrier contended that it was bound to collect the 
charges on the basis of the legal rate and minimum weight, 
and that the shipper's demand for a return of the charges on 
the weight of the coal lost in transit was a part of the claim 
for the loss of the coal, which, not having been presented 
within the four months' period, was therefore outlawed. The 
view urged by the shipper was that the carrier, having deliv- 
ered to him only a portion of the coal shipped, ought not to 
have exacted freight charges on the whole of it; and he in- 
sists that his challenge of the reasonableness of the charges 
collected is, under the circumstances of the case, a rate ques- 
tion for the Commission to consider and dispose of, and not 
a loss and damage claim at all. The Commission is still 
wrestling with the problem, and I may say to you, paren- 
thetically, that helpful suggestions leading to a just and sound 
solution of it will be gratefully received. (Applause and 
laughter. ) 

"During my ten years of service on the Commission so 
many complaints had come to me of the delay in the pay- 
ment by carriers of the claims of shippers that I had come 
to think that the matter of claim adjustments was a very 
weak spot in our railroad administration. I was, therefore, 
particularly interested in the data gathered last year for the 
purpose of ascertaining the length of time taken in settling 
the claims of shippers. The results that were tabulated by 
the Commission on the answers returned by the carriers were 
so surprising to me and to my colleagues and were consid- 
ered by us of such importance that we at once reported the 
facts to the Congress as useful public information. I wish 
to congratulate the association on the showing made. The 
trouble with us was that we had made no distinction between 
claims that had been declined, or that, were without merit 
and therefore still pending, and claims that were well founded 
and had been promptly adjusted. The shipping public 
should know that instead of being a weak spot in the rail- 
road service, the work of your association has been so sys- 
tematized as practically to eliminate all reasonable and fair 

Response or Chairman Stanley 

Commissioner Harlan's remarks were responded to by the 
chairman of the Association's Conference Committee, W. L. 
Stanley (S. A. L.) He referred to the meeting in 1909 at 
Old Point Comfort, when it was first proposed to more fully 
co-operate with the Interstate Commerce Commission. There 
was some reluctance, but it was quickly dispelled and there 
has been great progress. There has not been a day that the 
friendship between the Conference Committee and the rep- 
resentatives of the Interstate Commerce Commission from 
1909 to this good hour has not grown. Long since all ques- 
tion of the good faith of either party has disappeared. We 
thank Commissioner Harlan and the commissioners in gen- 
eral for that courteous consideration that has at all times 
actuated negotiations with the Freight Claim Association. 
So far as I know, the Freight Claim Association is the only 
body in the railroad world that has ever stood the acid test 
of scrutiny of the Interstate Commerce Commission and come 
out with flying colors and with its commendation. 

Address of R. C. Wright 
Robert C. Wright, recently appointed to the new position 
of traffic manager of the Pennsylvania Railroad, made a 
brief address. He expressed appreciation of the work of the 
Association. "I can say that in our staff meetings, whereas 
a few years ago the constant matter of discussion was the 
dissatisfaction of our patrons on account of the claim situa- 

July 7, 1916 



tion. today we do not hear much about it. There has been 
a remarkable change in that respect, and I think the ma- 
chinery of your Association is largely to be credited with 
bringing about this betterment. When the Pennsylvania 
Railroad issued its circular, not long ago. asking for reasons 
why the public failed in its confidence in the railroads, a 
great many replies were in regard to claims — in spite of the 
improvements that have been made in that direction. We 
must make the public understand this claim situation. There 
are some people who never can understand that payment is 
often delayed because it is so difficult to decide who is re- 
sponsible for the loss and who should pay the claim. Your 
machinery has made a wonderful improvement in this respect. 
When you decline a claim, try and decline it in such a way 
that the man will understand why you decline it. I think 
that 99 business men out of 100 are satisfied with a good, 
fair, honest, business reason for the declination of a claim. 
Uniformity in the handling of claims is very desirable. That 
is to say. if one road in its honest opinion deals more liberally 
with the situation than another road, that is apt to cause 
odious comparisons. They both may be honest as to the 
merits of the case, but the more uniform the practice can be 
made the less chance there is of irritation. Do not hold a 
claim because you cannot decide whose fault it is. but if due, 
pay it. and settle the other matter afterwards." 

Annual Address of President 

The remarks of Messrs. Harlan. Stanley and Wright were 
responded to by President Arnold, who then spoke as follows : 
The past year has been a prosperous one for our Associa- 
tion. There have been 55 additions to our membership, and 
the principal express companies of North America have up- 
plied for membership and been admitted. We have started 
to make a study of claim causes and the application of pre- 
ventive measures, and the Cause and Prevention Committee 
has accomplished a start during the last year. Of course. 
we are all aware that in the final analysis, the matter of 
claim prevention rests largely with the individual carrier. 
It is quite possible there has been too much of the "help out'* 
prorate in the past, and that the Association in formulating 
our rules in the future should honestly endeavor to place 
more reliability on the initial or destination carrier in the 
distribution of proratable claims for loss or damage where 
the investigation warrants the belief that due care in the in- 
spection of cars or freight, etc.. was not given, or that the 
freight was not checked or handled as carefully as it should 
have been at either end. 

We have had some trouble during the year on account of 
a few members refusing to abide by the decision of the Arbi- 
tration and Appeal committees, several such members taking 
the stand that their opinions were better than the majority- 
opinions of those committees. Nearly all those difficulties 
have been smoothed over and all but one of the insurgent 
members have decided to abide by the final decision of the 
committees. I appeal to all members to be broad-minded and 
not let any such selfish view impair the usefulness of our 

It is our understanding that the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission will, in the very near future, approve our book of 
rules, and when this is done it will probably strengthen our 
authority and also increase our membership. 

Your president during the current year was admitted to 
membership in the American Railway Association and at- 
tended several interesting meetings of that body at Boston. 
New York and Chicago. During the vear the American 
Railway Perishable Freight Association appointed F. E. 
Winburn | A. ic W. P. >, H. C. Howe i C. & X. W. ) and your 
president, members of its Conference Committee with the 
view of getting our Association's opinion as to responsibility-, 
liability, etc.. in cases of claims presented by members. The 

information obtained by such bodies in connection with loss 
and damage claims and the handling of perishable and 
ile freight would be, in our opinion, of much value to our 
Association, and we believe such information, together with 
the proceedings of the New York, Chicago and South Eastern 
Claim Conferences should be available in printed form for 
the benefit of our members. I believe we might seriously 
consider the appointment of some of our members to attend 
the annual meetings of the Ma.-ter Car Builder.-' Association, 
the Superintendents' Association, and other association- 
whose line of work at times is along the line of claim pre- 
vention and the better loading and handling of freight. 

\\ e might also advantageously consider the matter of con- 
secutively numbering our Loss and Damage and Overcharge 
Rules. Some of our members have not as clear and correct 
ideas of the reading and meaning of the various numbered 
Rules as was the case previous to the new numbering s\>tem 
brought about by the recent re-codification of our Rul< 

On January 20. 1916. a special committee of your Con- 
ference Committee held a meeting at Washington with repre- 
sentatives of the coal and coke roads with the view to formu- 
lating a rule that would enable our Association to adjust 
coal and coke claims to the mutual satisfaction and advan- 
tage of all interested parties. Progress was made and we 
believe that possibly in the near future such a rule or rules 
will be adopted. 

It is to be sincerely hoped that in the near future all of 
our members will see their way clear to be governed by our 
rules in their entirety in the adjustment of all proratable 
claims. Our rules, we believe, are good. They have been 
amended from time to time to make them fair for all con- 
cerned from geographical and other standpoints, and our 
rapid growth in membership during the past few years prove.-. 
I believe, that they are justly appreciated by a large majoritv 
of our members. 

The arbitration work has been very heavy during the cur- 
rent year: no less than 1.556 claims having been handled 
by the three Arbitration committees. It is, as you are all 
aware, very essential that there should be as little delay as 
possible in the time required to reach a decision on the part 
of the Arbitration or Appeal committees. The Constitution 
and By-Laws Committee will make a recommendation to in- 
crease the number of the Arbitration committees. 

Reports of Standing Committees 

Reports of the following standing committees were pre- 
sented by their respective chairmen in the order named: 
Joint meeting of Committees on Loss and Damage Rules and 
Constitution and By-Laws: Committee on Constitution and 
By-Laws: joint meeting of Committees on Loss and Damage 
Rules and Overcharge Rules; joint meeting of Committee- 
on Loss and Damage Rules and Cause and Prevention; Com- 
mittee on Loss and Damage Rules: Committee on Overcharge 
Rule-: Committee on Cause and Prevention; Committee on 
Methods and Topics. 

Amendments to the Constitution were offered providing 
that the annual sessions shall be held on the third Tuesday, 
instead of the third Wednesday, in April. May or June, and 
increasing the number of Arbitration committees from three 
to six. 

Claims for Concealed Loss and Damage 

The rules dealing with claims for concealed loss and 
damage to freight had during the past year received special 
consideration at the hands of the Conference Committee, in- 
cluding a conference between that committee and representa- 
tive- of the National Industrial Traffic League and other 
similar commercial bodies and shippers, at which conference 
were also present representatives of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission. As a result forms were agreed upon and rec- 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

ommended by that conference to the two main organizations 
involved — the National Industrial Traffic League and the 
Freight Claim Association — for adoption, the understanding 
being that these forms, after being approved by those organ- 
izations, would be submitted to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission for its tentative approval. The National In- 
dustrial Traffic League having given its formal approval at 
its Spring meeting in April, the Freight Claim Association 
took similar action and the matter is now in shape for sub- 
mission to the Commission. 

This subject of claims for concealed loss and damage to 
freight is of particular importance to both shippers and car- 
riers and the verbatim proceedings of the conference above 
mentioned have been widely distributed to all interests. 

Election of Officers 

The following officers were elected: President, W. O. 
Bunger (C. R. I. & P.), Chicago; first vice-president, F. E. 
Winburn (A. & W. P.) ; second vice-president, H. C. Pribble 
(A. T. & S. F. ); secretary and treasurer, Warren P. Tavlor 
(R. F. & P.), Richmond, Va. 

On invitation of the Canadian Pacific it was voted to hold 
the next annual meeting at Banff, Alberta, June 19, 1917. 


An electric storage battery tractor truck to be used with 
trailers in freight handling service has been introduced 
recently by the Lansing Company, Lansing, Mich. This 
tractor embodies a number of interest ng features. It is 
designed solely for use as a tractor rather than a carrier truck, 
no space being available for loading freight on it. 

The frame is composed of 4-in. structural steel channels, 
stiffened and braced according to standard practice. An 

The Car, Showing Position of Operator 

upright portion in the front serves as a controller box and a 
seat for the driver. The battery compartment occupies the 
rest of the frame and is equipped with a wooden container 
for the battery cells mounted on rollers and securely 
anchored in place. The operator's platform and seat on the 
forward end are arranged for driving from either a standing 
or a sitting position. The position of the steering wheel and 

controller handle was established after continued trials to 
determine the position best suited for the average size man. 
The steering is accomplished either with a standard auto- 
mobile steering wheel, as in the accompanying photograph,, 
or with a steering lever operating in a vertical plane and 
placed on the left side of the operator. 

A special feature of this machine is an interlocking device 
making the operation of the controller dependent upon the 
position of the brake, which is operated by a foot pedal. If 
the brake is set, the controller cannot be moved from the 
shut-off position, and with the car running and the motors 
in operation the setting of the brake automatically shuts off 
the power. This arrangement eliminates the intermediate 
switch or circuit breaker and provides an effective emergency 
stop, since all that is necessary is to place the foot on the 
brake pedal. 

The tractor is also un'que in the design of the drive axle, 

The Drive Axle 

which consists of a single steel tasting enclosing the drive 
shaft, gears, differential and hearings in an oil chamber. 
This casting also includes a bracket which carries the motor, 
thereby giving the most direct connection between the motor 
and the gears, and facilitating the alignment, assembling and 

These tractors are made in two sizes. Model C and Model 
D. The former is for use with a maximum trailer load of 
5,000 lb. and the latter with a maximum trailer load of 
12,000 lb. The weights of these tractors are respectively 
2,500 and 5.000 lb. 

Iron Mining by Districts. — The principal iron mining 
districts in the United States, except the Adirondack dis- 
trict, are interstate, and statistics of production by districts 
are of more interest and importance than statistics by States. 
The Lake Superior district mined nearly 85 per cent of the 
total ore in 1915 and the Birmingham district about 8.5 per 
cent, or a little more than one-tenth as much as the Lake dis- 
trict. None of the other districts mine as much as 1,000,000 

Largest Iron Ore Minks. — There were 7 mines that 
produced more than 1,000,000 tons of iron ore each in 1915, 
First place in 1915 was held by the Mahoning mine at Hib- 
bing, Minn., second place by the Hull-Rust mine at the same 
place, and third place by the Red Mountain group near Bes- 
semer, Ala. The production of these mines in 1915 was 
respectively, 2,511,940 tons, 2,307,195 tons, and 2.158,015 
tons, compared with 1,212,287 tons, 458,468 tons, and 2,- 
008.465 tons in 1914. The increase' in production of the 
Hull Rust was more than 400 per cent. 

Transportation Officers' Convention at Boston 

Large Attendance of Freight Car Specialists. Con- 
tinuous Home-Route Card Enthusiastically Endorsed 

THE summer meeting of the Association of Transporta- 
tion and Car Accounting Officers was held at the 
Copley-Plaza Hotel, Boston, Mass., June 27 and 28, 
with President J. T. King (A. C. L.) in the chair and about 
150 members present, the largest or nearly the largest attend- 
ance on record at the summer meeting of the association. 

The members were welcomed to Boston Tuesday morn- 
ing by James H. Hustis, president of the Boston & Maine. 
Mr. Hustis not only gave a warm welcome to the city, but 
also invited the members to a two-day excursion to the 
White mountains for the two days following the convention, 
which invitation, later, was largely accepted. The speaker, 
by way of illustrating the importance of the association, 
gave some figures showing the magnitude of the service 
done by the freight cars of the country. Estimating the 
2,500,000 freight cars in the country as worth $900 each, 
the interest, depreciation, insurance and taxes on these cars 
will aggregate over 200 millions a year; and by adding 
the cost of repairs we double this sum. and have an amount 
equal to 7 per cent of the gross revenue of the railroads. 
"On you, the members of this association," said Mr. Hus- 
tis, "rests the primary responsibility of seeing that these 
cars earn their salaries. It is important to impress upon all 
interested, down to the lowest yard clerk, that even- time a 
car day is wasted. 45 cents is lost." Speaking of the value 
of the individual car, and the amount charged consignees 
for demurrage, Mr. Hustis said that at important yards in 
Boston and in other cities where real estate is costly, the 
ground occupied by a freight car, as, for example, on a 
team track, is worth S8,000; and the interest on this sum 
is more than SI a day — the usual demurrage rate. 

The principal address on Tuesday morning was by A. M. 
Schoyer, vice-president of the Pennsylvania Lines west of 
Pittsburgh, at Chicago. Mr. Schoyer is a member of the 
National Conference Committee of the Railways, which has 
been conferring with the brotherhood leaders in New York 
city concerning the requests of the employees for increased 
pay, and he gave a vivid account, in outline, of what was 
done at the conferences. The fundamental question whether 
the employers as well as the employees may bring their 
demands before the body which shall finally arbitrate or 
decide the present controversy is yet to be settled. In the 
case of the conductors' demands in the east four years ago, 
the railroads formulated their demands too late. In the 
subsequent case of the enginemen in the western states, the 
question was laid aside at the request of President Wilson 
because of the European war. Now. or rather in August, 

after the strike vote has been taken, the matter will come 
to an issue. If the strike does take place, it will be a 
calamity of calamities. The Mexican disturbance in com- 
parison will be insignificant. Whatever happens, the 
roads have their duties to perform as common carriers, 
and, said Mr. Schoyer, "you car service officers may 
be called upon to serve in the yards. Every railroad 
employee and officer who feels that the requests of the broth- 
erhoods are unreasonable, should use his influence with 
other employees to engender a suitable and right public sen- 
timent. It looks as though the time had come when the 
companies should take a definite stand." 

The executive committee reported that the membership 
of the association, active and associate, now numbers .578; 
and the length of road represented is 244,540 miles. These 
roads operate 2,459,154 cars. The committees on freight 
transportation and passenger transportation have been 
abolished, and now there are three standing committees of 
six members each, those on car service, on office methods 
and accounting, and on conducting transportation. Auxil- 
iary committees, to aid standing committees, have been es- 
tablished in different parts of the country; in the 
west E. E. Betts (C. & X. W.), chairman; in the west 
and southwest O. C. Castle (Southern Pacific), chairman, 
and in the southeast, E. W. Sanders (A. & W. P.), chair- 

The Per Diem Reclaim 

The first general discussion was on the method of deter- 
mining the arbitrary allowance to be made under per diem 
rule 5 in allowing reclaims to switching roads. Switching 
roads, moving cars to or from side tracks for carrier roads, 
must be allowed something by the carrier because of the 
excessive per diem charge resting on the switching road; 
and, for convenience, this allowance is based on the average 
actual number of days that the car is in the possession of 
the switching road. In computing this average, there is 
a limit; on cars standing too long, the full time must not 
be counted. The question was whether this limit should 
be 10 days, 7 days, or some other figure. The committee 
on car service. G. H. Alexander (X. V. C), chairman, at 
a former meeting, had recommended that it be 10 days. 
The association changed this to 7, and recommended that 
the rule, with this limit, be approved, for transmission to 
the American Railway Association. The resolution came 
over from the last meeting. 

There was a long discussion on the inequitable working 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

of the rule. Where the actual detention is low, the carrier 
objects to using a high arbitrary in averaging the number 
of days; where it is high, the switching roads object to the 
low average which satisfies the carrier roads. This subject 
lias been before the association so many times that to 
some of the members it has become tiresome, and there 
was a motion to lay it on the table; but this was lost by 
a vote of 25 to 35. 

W. T. Aylesbury (T. R. R., St. Louis) made a vigorous 
argument against the adoption of a single rule for use 
everywhere. The amount of the reclaim should be settled 
locally, as it has been in the past. It is not businesslike to 
settle this important matter, in a meeting of this kind, by 
a vote of 35 to 25; that is to say, by a small majority and 
by what may in reality, considering the views of the whole 
membership of the association, be a minority. E. C. Tom- 
linson (C. N. O. & T. P.) and L. M. Betts (Belt Ry., 
Chicago) supported the argument for local action. Illus- 
trations were given of large numbers of cars on which a 
switching road paid per diem of 10, 15 or 20 days, and 
yet could reclaim only 5 days per car. Mr. Betts gave 
figures showing a loss, on a moderate number of cars, on 
his lines, of $1,717 a month. The discussion was finally 
closed by a unanimous vote referring the question back to 
the committee. 

Committee on Car Service. 

The Committee on Car Service reported concerning its 
conferences with the Freight Claim Association and the 
action of that association in changing the rules for appor- 
tioning the loss when freight bills which are uncollectable 
include demurrage charges. In general the whole of the 
uncollectable bill is to be pro rated, among all the carriers, 
on the basis of transportation revenue. 

The report of the committee concerning proposed changes 
in car service rule 10, after brief discussion, was referred 
back to the committee. 

Committee on Office Methods 

The committee on office methods reported a revised list 
of accepted assignments of reporting marks for cars owned 
by the railroads, and a separate list for private cars. These 
lists were approved and will be transmitted to the American 
Railway Association. In the discussion of this report ref- 
erence was made to errors in repair bills, and elsewhere, 
because of inefficient marking of cars. Members were 
urged to report to their superior officers all cases where 
money or time is lost in detecting errors. 

This committee made a report giving data, collected 
from 135 roads, for a period of five months, showing the 
number of unreported per diem items detected, and how 
many of the claims of this nature made for losses had 
a reasonable basis. Out of about 600,000 claims, 41 per 
cent were made properly and 59 per cent improperly. It 
was proposed that further investigation should be made, 
with a view to action by the committee which should show 
each road its faults or weaknesses, and thus induce an 
improvement; but it was finally concluded that individual 
action rather than association action would be the best 
course in this matter. In the discussion J. D. Altimus 
(C. P.) reported that by careful investigation of errors 
and direct appeals to connections the cost of his clerical 
work in this connection had been reduced from $260 a 
month to $18 a month. A revised form for a per diem 
adjustment report, presented by the committee, was adopted. 

Complaints having been made that junction cards are 
not transmitted daily as required by the per diem rule, this 
committee has taken up the matter. It is found that a large 
number of roads are forwarding junction cards weekly or 
semi-weekly, apparently to save postage and stationery. 
The committee was authorized to confer with the proper 

committee of the American Railway Association with a view 
to securing an improvement. Similar action was taken 
concerning complaints of missing junction reports. 

The general neglect in this feature of car-service work ap- 
pears in many cases to have become an abuse; and the 
meeting warmly approved the proposal of the committee to 
have the matter taken up by the American Railway Asso- 
ciation; but after considerable discussion the proposal that 
the committee should deal direct with the A. R. A. Commit- 
tee was rejected, and it was the sense of the meeting that 
this committee should report to this association. 

The committee made a recommendation for standard per- 
forations in letter heads, for use in filing, which was ap- 

Handling Railroad Business Mail 

The committee on handling railroad business mail, Guy 
Adams (U. P.), chairman, reported resolutions recommend- 
ing the installation of central mailing bureaus in general 
office buildings and recommendation that mailing lists be 
regularly checked to discover names which ought to be cut 
out. Both of these resolutions were approved and ordered 
transmitted to the American Railway Association. 

The committee presented photographs of envelopes, some 
with and some without "windows," designed to economize 
in this feature of railroad business mail. This matter was 
ordered sent to the American Railway Association as 
information. The Southern Pacific has a standard envelope 
of this kind 12 1-2 in. by 10 in. The Santa Fe has one 

11 in. by 5 in. with an. open window, the practice being 
to write the address on the exposed part of the letter after 
it has been put into the envelope. The New York Central 
has an envelope 9 1-2 in. by 4 1-4 in., with spaces for 

12 addresses. The Rock Island has an envelope 13 in. by 
10 in. with 12 spaces. The Illinois Central has a large 
envelope (14 3-4 in. by 9 1-2 in.), to be used between offices 
which have frequent exchanges of bulky correspondence, 
etc., the envelope being fastened with a string, and so 
designed as to be used with a flap one side cut for movement 
in one direction, and the other side out when sent in the 
opposite direction. The Baltimore & Ohio has an en- 
velope 5 in. by 11 1-2 in., which can be used 46 times; 
it has 23 lines for the address on one side, and 23 on the 
other. Each address, after being used, is to be scratched out. 

Committee on Conducting Transportation. 

The Committee on Conducting Transportation, C. B. 
Phelps (L. & N.), chairman, reported on light weight 
marks on freight cars, on the method of handling embargo 
notices and on rules for the interchange of passenger cars. 

The meeting approved the recommendation that $1.90 
be the charge of remarking cars on which rental is paid 
by the day and leaving the rate for stock cars ($1.25) and 
cars not in the per diem agreement the same as at present. 
Rule 20 would be eliminated. This action will be submit- 
ted to letter ballot. It is in conformity to action taken by 
the Master Car Builders' Association, June 15. The rules 
for the interchange of passenger cars were briefly discussed, 
and the subject was referred back to the committee. It was 
recommended that the Master Car Builders' Association be 
asked to make a rule to have the capacity of baggage cars 
and express cars marked on the inside of the car, and this 
was approved. 

The committee reported what it had done since the last 
meeting on the question of handling embargo notices, and 
this action was approved. The committee had sent to the 
American Railway Association, in May, the following reso- 

Resolved, That the first essential jn the handling of embargoes is that 
this duty shall be assigned only to thoroughly competent and experienced 
employees in the department of the designated officer. 

Resolved, That embargoes before being issued should be carefully ana- 
lyzed and transmitted only to interested direct connections. 

July 7, 1916 



Resolved, That provision should be made that lines originating em- 
bargoes shall confine the issuance of same to connections and not supply 
information relating thereto to shippers located on other lines through 
channels other than those prescribed by Per Diem Rule 15. 

The committee recommended to the American Railway Asso- 
ciation that the advanced demurrage rate be continued; that 
there be a rule providing that cars held short of destination 
should be placed constructively; and that when a car is 
placed on a public delivery track for a consignee who does 
not unload within the free time, all cars for him awaiting 
placement on the same tracks should be tendered by no- 
tice, and the time counted from the next morning after the 
notice is given. 

Continuous Home Route Cards 

The committee on this subject, M. B. Casey (D. L. & W.j. 
chairman, made no recommendations, as the former action 
of the association now awaits a formal vote in the American 
Railway Association; and the discussion therefore was 
wholly informal. J. W. Roberts (Pennsylvania Lines West 
of Pittsburgh) challenged those who do not wish to see 
the general adoption of the continuous home route card to 
give their reasons. What has delayed the adoption of the 
plan by the American Railway Association? Under ad- 
verse circumstances it has proved satisfactory to those road< 
which have had the courage to try it. Should not the 
deliverances of this association have weight with the 
American Railway Association? Nine-tenths of the effec- 
tive legislation which has been adopted by that association 
has originated in this one. Fifteen months' experience on 
the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh has verified the 
predictions which were made of the good results to be had 
from the home route card. Car efficiency has been increased, 
per diem expenses have decreased, switching expenses 
and the demands on the car record office for information 
have decreased and there has been a general awakening 
among all the men on the road who have to do with the 
prompt moving of freight cars. Still better results could 
have been accomplished if all roads had adopted the card. 
"I have made careful inquiry," said Mr. Roberts, ''to get 
the views of trainmasters, yardmasters, division car serv- 
ice men, clerks and everybody, and I have letters from all 
these giving unanimous and warm approval. G. W. 
Taylor, of the Southern Railway, says that our experience 
is the same as that of his road. This is the greatest reform 
in car service since the adoption of the per diem car service 
rate in 1902. 

"This association has a moral responsibility to promote 
its own proposal. A commonly heard objection to the plan 
is that cards are lost, especially in large terminals; but 
experience on the Southern Railway, the Baltimore & Ohio, 
the New York Central, and on the Pennsylvania System 
refutes this argument. As to the point that the questions 
connected with sending cars home should be decided at head- 
quarters instead of elsewhere, it is found that yardmasters 
and car distributors are better acquainted with the geography 
of the country than is the average car record office clerk, 
I have studied this question of car movement since 1896, 
and I have never had a substantial adverse argument." 

Mr. Roberts closed by moving that, inasmuch as the 
continuous home route card system is of great value, and 
since car service rule 5 provides for the compulsory adop- 
tion of the card by all roads on January 1, 1917, this asso- 
ciation, the originator of the plan, shall now give evidence 
of faith in its own work by agreeing to adopt by August 1, 
at latest, the continuous home route card; with the excep- 
tion that there may be only one card instead of three as 
provided in the former resolution; rule 19 to be changed, 
as necessary, and submitted to the American Railway Asso- 

The motion was seconded by F. Price (Grand Trunk). 
His road uses such a card, and is extremely desirous to 

see all roads come in. As long as its neighbors do not 
adopt the card, the good results can be seen ahead, but 
cannot be grasped. 

T. S. Bell (Pennsylvania Railroad; endorsed Mr. Rob- 
erts' position. The subject was fully investigated by a 
committee of the Pennsylvania Lines, East and West, five 
years ago, and the report of the committee, after a six 
weeks' study, was unanimously favorable. Before the use 
of the card on the Pennsylvania, the number of requests 
for information about routing cars coming to Mr. Bell's 
office amounted to 1,000 a day, but this has now been 
reduced greatly. Mr. Bell is now able to answer inquiries 
in from six to eight hours. Telephones have been put in 
at all of the larger yards so that prompt communication 
may be had with headquarters at any hour. The investi- 
gating committee found that the average delay, on hold 
tracks, of cars waiting for information as to how they should 
be sent home was two days, a loss in each case of at least 
90 cents, besides the cost of switching the car. To educate 
all of the men has been something of a task, but the work 
has been well repaid. 

J. E. Roberts (D. & H.): — Why do we come to con- 
ventions and agree on what ought to be done, and then 
go home and do as we please? We ignore or neglect a 
salutary rule because some little feature is disliked. With 
energetic treatment, the card effects marked savings. The 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, exchanging cars with 
us, made a perfect record for ten days. That is an example 
of the results of careful management; but if a large num- 
ber of railroads are going to stay out, we shall have to 
give up. 

W. T. Aylesbury (T. R. R.. St. Louis) told of the 
difficulties and delays on a large terminal road because of 
the lack of the home route card. Recently he had received 
a string of 25 empty cars from an eastern road, and 19 
of those cars had to be set out because of lack of cards; 
and to do this each car had to be switched four time-. 
Missionary work is still necessary. The speaker mentioned 
two or three large systems which are not opposed, but ire 
lukewarm. It is "absolutely ridiculous for us to let a con- 
nection deliver cars to us which we do not want." 

G. F. Malone (B. & O.) said that on his road there 
was at first some trouble in the use of the continuous card 
especially in the coal mining territory where the cars had 
to be left on tracks not in charge of any agent of the road. 
Finally boxes, in which the cards could be kept, were put 
up at the mines and the men in charge of loading the coal 
were requested to use them. Today the Baltimore & Ohio 
has on its tracks a daily average of 40,000 foreign cars, 
and the speaker corroborated Mr. Bell in the statement that 
the average detention of a car waiting for instructions is 
two days. Mr. Malone has about 100 requests daily for 
routing. On the average he replies to these requests with- 
in 15 minutes. Clerks are on duty night and day. He 
will continue the use of the cards whether other roads do 
or do not adopt them. 

R. R. Harris (C. C. C. & St. L.) corroborated Mr. 
A\ Lesbury in regard to difficulties at St. Louis. J. W. Smith 
( W. M. ) , has used the home route card 1 5 months and 
finds it most satisfactory. He agreed with Mr. Roberts (P. 
W. P.) that one card is sufficient. Only two things are 
necessary to make the home route card a success : ( 1 ) all 
roads to join, and (2) to take sufficient care to prevent 
cards being lost. 

J. D. Altimas (C. P.). — A home route card has been 
used throughout the Canadian Pacific lines for 20 years with 
great success. With the card in universal use we could 
still further reduce switching and empty mileage. We must 
all pull together to force the lukewarm roads to the conclu- 
sion that the universal use of the cards is necessary. The 
Canadian Pacific uses a single card and feels sure that that 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

is sufficient; hut for the sake of uniformity will use three 
cards if the majority should so decide. 

L. V. R. Clum (Erie). — We have long used the con- 
tinuous card and are heartily in favor of it. We will agree 
to the use of a single card if that is the wish of the majority. 
For 10 days in this month one of our superintendents re- 
ported that on 10 cars, by the use of the cards, he had saved 
the Erie 2,722 car miles and had saved other roads 2,. 574 
miles. On a single car 273 miles were saved for the Erie 
and 265 miles for the Lackawanna. In another case 44 
cars were routed so as to save 13,539 miles for the Erie 
and 15,701 miles for other roads, an average of 307 and 
356 miles per car saved. With the card in use, requests for 
routing have been reduced from 400 a day to 200 a day. If 
cars lose 2 days each when, waiting for instructions, the 
Erie thus has saved 400 car days daily. If ail would join 
we could work wonders. 

J. W. Nowers (A. T. & S. F.).— The Santa Fe defers 
the adoption of the card simply because too many of its 
neighbors are lukewarm. 

M. B. Casey (D. L. & W. ). — This committee has worked 
zealously. At Galveston unanimous action was taken. What 
more can be done? Speaking for the committee, I can say 
that it will accept Mr. Roberts' proposal to use one card 
instead of three. 

After some further discussion and favorable testimony 
frcm the Boston & Albany and other roads, the roll was 
called by the secretary for a vote on the adoption of Mr. 
Roberts' amendment; and it was adopted by a vote of 129 
affirmative to 12 negative votes. The negative votes were 
by the Chicago & North Western, the Chicago, Burlington 
& Quincy, the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern, the Fort Worth & 
Denver City, the Green Bay & Western, the Seaboard Air 
Line and the Union Railroad (Pittsburgh). The negative 
vote of the Union Railroad was explained by a statement 
that a new system of delivery of cars to connections is just 
being put in effect and it is feared that any change would 
increase the possible trouble. 

C. B. Packer (S. A. L.) said that his road had tried the 
home route card, but there were so many errors on the part 
of connections that the savings were very small. His road 
recognizes only owners' cards; and it is found that 25 per 
cent of the cars come without owners' cards on them. The 
amount of mileage saved thus far, per month, so far as 
could be estimated, was less than the additional cost. 

The larger roads which thus far have taken no favorable 
action- — mostly lines northwest of Chicago — were not repre- 
sented at the meeting. One of their chief objections is 
understood to be the expense — the cost of the cards and 
additional clerk hire. It is claimed also that the plan 
is inadequate because it is necessary to depend for its effi- 
ciency on agents, yard clerks, etc., who are not qualified to 
handle the intricate matter of car distribution. 

Loading Cars to Capacity 

The committee reports, as above outlined, occupied the 
time of the meeting until noon of the second day. The 
discussions of new questions then taken up were wholly in- 
formal. Mr. Casey (D. L. & W.), who was a member of the 
Eastern Freight Accumulation Conference, sitting recently 
in New York to deal with the unparalleled conges- 
tion in that region, and who was chairman of important 
committees of the conference, gave an account of some of 
In-- experiences. He had been impressed with the great im- 
port-nce of securing full loading of ears and the cost of 
carelessness in this respect. The movement of cotton into 
New England amounts to 3,500,000 bales a year, and the 
average number of bales carried in a car is from 30 to 35; 
but a 36-foot car holds 70 bales, and by loading every car 
to its full capacity, cotton shippers could save 50,000 cars 
in a year. The average movement of a shipment of cotton 

may be roughly estimated at 1,000 miles, and this means, 
therefore, 50,000,000 car miles saved. A shipment of 500 
tons of spelter from St. Louis to Waterbury, Conn., was 
found to be occupying twice as many cars as was necessary. 
This spelter, because of the exigent demand, was run 
through by special train, at $1.50 a mile, the unnecessary 
expense being thus multiplied. 

O. C. Castle (S. P.) told of the practices in connection 
with cotton in Texas. That state produces 4,500,000 bales 
yearly. Cars are loaded with from 35 to 50 bales each. 
At some loading points there has been an improvment, and 
100 bales or more are put into a car, but the sharp com- 
petition between rival roads prevents efficiency in many 
cases. At one point in Louisiana whence large quantities of 
salt are shipped, on which the minimum carload weight is 
low, a large shipper was induced to put two carloads — car- 
loads measured by the limit in the tariff — into a single car, 
and in one month, 576 carloads were thus put into 288 cars, 
the loads being subsequently divided when they did not go 
to the same destination. 

Mr. Roberts (Pennsylvania Lines). — During the past 
four years our efforts to increase the loading of miscellaneous 
freight have brought about an average loading per car of 
18,000 lb. in place of the former average of 8,500 lb. It is 
estimated that in these four years no less than 1,693,887 cars 
have been saved. Some of the consolidating of loads at 
first displeased shippers; but they now see the benefits and 
are advocates of the new method. 

Mr. Price (G. T.) spoke of the need of revising rule 15, 
dealing with embargoes. The 24-hour limit ought to be 
modified. Embargoes ought not to be repeated from road 
to road; the road issuing them should send direct to the 
shipping territory. 

A Variable Per Diem Rate 

F E. Roberts (D. & H.) proposed that the proper com- 
mittee take up the question of recommending a variable per 
diem rate for the use of interchanged freight cars. He 
would have a central office to which the aggregate mileage 
of freight cars on each road should be reported promptly at 
the end of each month, and the officer in charge of 
this office, about the tenth or the twelfth of the month, could 
then report by wire to all concerned the density of freight 
traffic for the month, and the rate to be paid for the use of 
cars in that month could be increased according to the 
value of the cars (in busy seasons), or decreased according 
to the lack of value which would result when freight was 
slack. When cars are not needed economy demands that we 
do not send them off our own road; on the other hand, if 
cars are in demand there should be a high demurrage rate 
to induce the foreign roads to return them. Mr. Roberts 

"A variable per diem rate will, in my opinion, do more 
to produce greater car efficiency and will remedy more of 
the really uneconomical conditions which now exist than 
anv other single thing which can be done. A variable per 
diem rate can be applied automatically. For instance, as- 
sume any representative number of railroads you please; 
have them report to a central authority by the tenth of the 
subsequent month the total car mileage made in the pre- 
vious month and have your per diem rate for that partic- 
ular month vary in accordance with the car mileage actually 
made in that month. What cars are worth for any par- 
ticular month depends entirely upon the utilization made of 
them during that month. Such an arrangement would do 
more to increase car efficiency when cars are needed, and 
to lessen the vicious practices which result in unnecessary 
empty mileage when cars are not needed, than any other 

"The freight car movement in the United States runs from 
1,300,000,000 to 1,900,000,000 miles a month and the per 

July 7, 1916 



diem rate could be automatically determined with a little 
thermometer-like arrangement as shown below. 

"For January the figures should be made up, by each 
road, by February 10. The total, when determined, if 
telegraphed to the various roads by the twelfth of the month 
would be received in ample time to avoid any delay from 
an accounting standpoint. 

"It is more essentian that the minimum rate should be low 
than that the maximum rate should be high. Even with a low 
minimum rate one will find that there will be periods like 
July and August of last year, when many roads were in a 
sense forced to let foreign cars go home empty and send 
side by side with those empties loaded cars of their own 
for the reason that those roads did 
not have space in which to store the 
cars which the}' themselves owned. 
On the other hand, the results from 
the maximum rate, whatever it 
may be, will be disappointing dur- 
ing periods like January, Febru- 
ary, March and April of this year. 
when no per diem rate, however 
high, would have had any marked 
result in quickening the movement 
or release of cars on intermediate 
roads leading to a congested dis- 
trict. To accomplish this an increased demurrage rate in 
the congested district itself is the only recourse. 

"During the past two years I have endeavored to make 
a serious study of this question, and I believe the view here 
expressed is sound in so far as it relates to the territory 
north of the Potomac and east of the Ohio River." 

The place chosen for the winter meeting of the Associa- 
tion is Atlanta, Ga. The election of officers for the ensuing 
year resulted as follows: President, J. W. Xowers (A. T. & 
S. F.), Topeka, Kansas: first vice-president, C. B. Phelps 
(I.. &: X.); second vice-president. J. W, Smith ( \Y. M.); 
secretary, G. P. Conard, 75 Church Street, New York City; 
treasurer, F. M. Luce ( C. & N. W. ) ; members of the execu- 
tive committee, T. S. Bell (Penn.); J. A. Wagner, Des 
Moines Union. 

1,900,000,000 - 

"V 80 CENTS 

1,800,000,000 - 

- 70 " 

1,700,000,000 - 

■ 60 

1.600,000,000 - 

- 50 

1,500,000,000 - 

- 40 

1,400.000,000 " 

- 30 

1,300,000,000 - 

-- 20 


The executive officers of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Engineers, the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and En- 
ginemen. the Order of Railway Conductors and the Brother- 
hood of Railway Trainmen, in a circular letter of instruc- 
tions to their local and general chairmen regarding the 
taking of a strike vote, have directed that the local chair- 
men have the votes taken in their districts and forwarded 
to the chairmen on each road not later than July 26. The 
general chairmen in Eastern and Southeastern territory are 
directed to report at headquarters in the Broadway Central 
hotel, Xew York, not later than August 1, and the general 
chairmen in Western territory are to report not later than 
August 5. 

The instructions provide that the local chairmen shall 
take the vote of the men under their jurisdiction, not al- 
lowing the men to take the ballots away with them, but 
placing the signed ballots in a sealed envelope with the 
voter"s name on the outside, to be delivered to the general 
chairmen. All non-union employees in the classes repre- 
sented by the organizations are to be voted in the same man- 
ner as if they were members. On roads where white firemen 
and hostlers are employed, and where the firemen's brother- 
hood has no committee or organization, the engineers' broth- 
erhood will take the vote of the men. 

The Order of Railway Conductors, at its recent conven- 
tion- adopted an amendment to its law providing that strike 

votes shall be counted with it> territorial association- as the 
units instead of lines of railroad, so that if two-third- of 
the members in an association vote in favor of a strike, all 
of the lines in that territory will be counted as having so 
voted, even though on some individual road less than two- 
thirds may have voted in favor of a strike. To meet the 
conditions where a company refuses to be represented by a 
conference committee of managers the president was also 
empowered to exclude the committee for that line from par- 
ticipation in negotiations or from becoming a party to the 
collective settlement. 

At the convention of the Brotherhood of Locomotive Fire- 
men and Enginemen at Denver, Colo., last week a resolution 
was adopted, directing the secretary and treasurer to send to 
Washington a protest against any action by Congress on the 
wage controversy. 

Railroads throughout the country are issuing circulars 
to their engineers, firemen, conductors and trainmen, ex- 
plaining the results of the recent conference in Xew York 
City between the Xational Conference Committee of the 
Railways and the representative- of the brotherhoods, and of 
the proposals of the railways for a peaceful settlement of the 
controversy, which were rejected by the brotherhoods. A 
circular issued by T. J. Foley, general manager of the Illi- 
nois Central, says in part: 

"In their reply to this communication your representatives 
stated that it would be necessary to submit the matter to the 
individual members. Doubtless, you will be called upon in 
the near future to express your desires as to further action to 
be taken by your representatives. 

"Because of the impersonal character of these negotiations, 
the management of this company feels it a duty to address 
you directly in the premises in order to briefly outline a state- 
ment of its position. 

"While this company feels very strongly that the existing 
basis of pay yields adequate compensation and provides fav- 
orable working conditions, it recognizes that where opinions 
differ neither party should reserve to itself the exclusive right 
to settle them. Therefore, the offer of the railways to refer the 
pending questions to the Interstate Commerce Commission or 
to arbitration under the federal law is eminently reasonable. 

"I trust that after careful consideration your judgment will 
decide in favor of a peaceable solution based upon the equities 
of your request, and that you will take no action which will 
involve a possibility of the interruption of traffic on this line." 

Theodore Speiden, Jr., assistant general manager of the 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, has issued a similar 
circular pointing out that since 1910 its engineer- in road 
service have received increases in pay amounting to 17.95 
per cent, engineers in yard service, increases amounting to 
19.71 per cent, firemen in road service, increases amount- 
ing to 25.56 per cent and firemen in yard service, increases 
amounting to 32.34 per cent. Conductor.- have received in- 
creases amounting to 28.89 per cent: brakemen and flagmen, 
increases amounting to 45.42 per cent; yard conductors and 
foremen, brakemen and helpers, increase- amounting to 
30.63 per cent, and that hostlers have received increases 
amounting to 15.25 per cent. The schedule now asked, the 
circular says, would, if granted, amount to increases in wages 
in some cases more than 90 per cent. It is also shown that 
applying the proposed new basis to the conditions which ex- 
isted on this line in October, 1915. would have raised the 
pay as shown in the table on the following page. 

This is equivalent to paying annually in increase.- in 
wages of train service employees only an amount equal to 
the monthly payroll of all departments. 

A. G. Whittington, general manager of International & 
Great Northern, included in his circular a brief statement 
of the financial history of the road, saying in part: 

"It will be apparent from the above that the International 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

iV Great Northern railway represents an investment of many 
millions of dollars on which its owners are not making any 
returns whatsoever, therefore, the road is not able to bear 
any additional expenses at this time. 

With the exception of one year — 1912-13 — the road has 
never in its history paid any dividends whatsoever on its 
capital stock, which at the present represents an investment 
of only $4,822,000. 

"The receiver has been spending and is spending a good 
deal of money in the way of ballasting tracks, new yards 
and badly needed shops at San Antonio, and has also pur- 
chased 1,000 new freight cars. Every dollar of this money 
has been borrowed on receiver's certificates, and when the 

Proposed New Basis Applied to October, 1915, Conditions on 
N., C. & St. L. 

Actual cost 
Proportionate during fiscal 
For increase year ended 
October for one year June 30, 1915 
Yard engineers and fire- 
men $7,903.89 

Yard conductors and switch- 
men 15,716.00 $23,619.89 $283,438.68 $300,856.00 

94% Inc. 
Main Line: 

Through freight crews.. $482.04 
Mixed freight crews.... 844.55 

Work train crews 1,808.68 

Helper crews 1 ,181.48 

Local crews 4,760.58 

Total Main Line $9,077.33 ) 

Branch Line 8,415.39 J $209,912.88 $1,190,837.00 

19.3% Inc. 
Hostling $1,247.98 14,975.76 


road is finally taken out of the hands of receiver will con- 
stitute a debt against the property that must be assumed by 
the owners after that time. 

"These improvements all tend to the direct benefit of em- 
ployees in making for safety of operation, better movement 
of trains and consequent ability to earn salaries with less 
effort and in shorter time. 

"The careful study and consideration which this com- 
pany has given to the situation convinces me that whether 
the service be revised by changes in runs, additional facil- 
ities, etc., the present revenues are not adequate to take care 
of the increased cost. 

"People living in the interior of Texas are absolutely de- 
pendent upon the railroads as their only means of trans- 
portation, and any interruption to the service would most 
seriously affect their welfare." 

W. B. Scott, president of the Southern Pacific Lines in 
Texas and Louisiana, has issued a letter to train employees 
in which he says: 

"The action of your chief brotherhood officials in con- 
ference with the railroad representatives in New York June 15 
in denying a consideration of matters other than those sug- 
gested in your original demands for an 'eight-hour day'; in 
withdrawing from further sessions of conference and refusing 
to submit the questions to arbitration or adjustment by the 
Interstate Commerce Commision, has apparently created an 
issue that, as announced by the brotherhoods, can only be 
settled by a vote of their membership throughout the entire 

"The issue is up to you individually and the responsibility 
for whatever may happen as a result of the action taken can 
not be divided, for the railroads had announced their willing- 
ness to go to their full limit to meet your demands and fulfil 
their obligations to both their stockholders and their patrons. 

"I wish now, to request with all the earnestness at my com- 
mand, that each and all of you give to these questions your 
most careful consideration, with a view of fully understand- 
ing and appreciating the predicament in which the owners of 
the railroads find themselves, being wholly unable to comply 
with the demands made upon them, without a substantial 
increase in revenues, which they are not permitted to increase. 

and that you weigh carefully the results which will certainlv 
follow hasty and ill considered action, disrupting relations of 
many years' standing — relations which are not only friendly, 
but most profitable and advantageous to you, your co-laborers 
and your families. 

"I write this to express the hope that the good judgment 
of the employees of these lines, involved in the forthcoming 
possible strife, may be exercised in an effort to prevent what 
may easily become a calamity to all concerned; a two-edged 
sword cutting down alike the employees of all classes, the 
owners and the general public, and creating conditions that 
must cripple the industrial, agricultural and commercial life 
of our whole country, destroying existing development and 
making readjustment a question of years, during which all 
interests must bear the burden imposed by these demands. 

"Catastrophes sometimes are due to natural conditions; but 
others, none the less real, frequently more far reaching and 
disastrous in their effects, have their source in the misdirected 
and misguided activities of men who fail to consider the rights 
of their fellow men. 

"May we not confidently hope that the great masses of the 
wholesome, industrious, right thinking employees of these 
lines will, on sober reflection, join with us in submitting to a 
wholly disinterested and unprejudiced board the differences 
which have been demonstrated to be irreconcilable through 
negotiations — a board which will have not only the power to 
measurably determine the cost of operations of the railroads,, 
but to regulate the income with which to discharge such costs 
— to the end that much waste as disastrous to the prosperity 
of the country as the ravages of warfare, much unhappiness, 
discord and permanent suffering may be avoided." 

The Pennsylvania Railroad has posted in all its stations 
a large placard, signed by President Samuel Rea and headed 
"An Appeal by This Railroad System to its 225,000 Men," 
which reads as follows: 

"Eighteen per cent of your number— the Enginemen, Con- 
ductors, Firemen and Trainmen— are being polled for a strike. 

"No just reason for thus interrupting the service exists. 
The railroads have offered to arbitrate every question raised 
by the demands which have been presented. 

"The representatives of the men, however, rejected this 
offer and have issued strike ballots. 

"The Management of the Pennsylvania Railroad System 
earnestly hopes : 

"1. That the men receiving ballots will vote against 

a strike. 
"2. That all other employees will use their influence 
to that end. 

"The Management reiterates its position favoring the 
settlement of all questions in dispute by arbitration. 

"Such a course will preserve to each one of you unbroken 
earning power; to the public, uninterrupted service, and to 
the railroad continuance of the earnings by which alone it 
can perform its public duties." 

Responses to a call of General Manager S. C. Long, of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, to all employees indicate that at 
least 50,000 men stand ready for special duty to prevent, if 
possible, interruption in service. Included among these are 
some of the enginemen, conductors, firemen and trainmen 
who will remain loyal to the company. A majority of the shop 
men have also placed their services at the disposal of the com- 
pany. In addition many of the pensioned employees stand 
ready to re-enter the service, and one of the stockholders has 
volunteered his services free for three months and has prom- 
ised to recruit others for similar service. A fireman who de- 
clared he would not go out, said, "The officers of my division 
have been very good to me. It is my duty to do likewise. I 
shall do all in my power to prevent this trouble." A yard- 
master with 31 years' experience said that not one in 10 of 
his 100 m^n would strike if ordered to. "He would have to 
get a gatling gun to drive them away." 

The Railways and the National Guard 

Troop Movement to Mexican Border Continues. Ar. 
rangements for Routing. Holiday Traffic Inconvenienced 

PRESIDENT WILSON has addressed a letter to W. W. 
Atterbury, President of the American Railway Asso- 
ciation, expressing his appreciation of the action of 
the association in appointing die Special Committee on Co- 
operation with the Military Authorities, the organization of 
which was described in last week's issue. The president 
says : 

"The Secretary of War has just called my attention to the 
arrangements made by the American Railway Association 
for co-operation by the railroads of the country with the 
Quartermaster General and the Quartermaster's Corps, and 
to place at the service of the government for military pur- 
poses the railroads of the country in the emergency created by 
the call to arms of the National Guard. 

"I beg to express to your associates my appreciation of the 
effectiveness of this co-operation and of the patriotic im- 
pulse which led to its spontaneous suggestion by the Ameri- 
can Railway Association." 

The movement of the first troops to leave for the border 
from the east was described in last week's issue. After the 
first two days the war department imposed a censorship on 
news regarding details of the movement, giving orders to the 
railroads not to give out information regarding the move- 
ment of troops and requesting the newspapers not to publish 
the schedules of the troop trains or their destination. 


The principal movement of the western troops has been 
from Illinois, from the mobilization camp at Springfield, via 
the principal southwestern roads to various points in Texas 
and Arizona, including Brownsville, San Antonio, El Paso, 
Laredo and Nogales. Last week there were also movements 
from Sacramento, Cal., Clackamas, Ore., and Nevada, Mo. 
The western lines also, of course, have handled the trains 
from the eastern mobilization camps from their various gate- 
ways to points on ar near the Mexican border and in many 
cases their facilities have been taxed to the utmost. This is 
particularly so of the terminal lines in Texas serving the con- 
centration camps. Most of the eastern troops have passed 
through Chicago, St. Louis, Hannibal, Memphis and Vicks- 

The first Illinois regiments to leave were routed via the 
Illinois Central to New Orleans, thence via the Southern Pa- 
cific; via the Chicago & Alton to Higbee, Mo., and thence 
via the Missouri, Kansas & Texas; via the Alton to St. Louis, 
St. Louis Southwestern to Waco, Tex., and thence via the 
San Antonio & Aransas Pass; and via the Wabash to Han- 
nibal, Mo., the Missouri, Kansas & Texas to Sinton, Tex., 
and thence via the St. Louis, Brownsville & Mexico. Pull- 
man standard sleeping cars were furnished for the officers 
and tourist cars for the men wherever possible, but there 
were not enough sleeping cars on hand to accommodate all. 
Governor Dunne of Illinois on June 50 telegraphed to the 
secretary of war a protest against transporting the men in 
day coaches and asking that the movement of the remaining 
members of the Illinois contingent be delayed until sleeping 
cars could be furnished. The various regiments were han- 
dled in trains of three sections each. There was some de- 
lay in the movement of two of the regiments after the time 
appointed for their departure because sleeping cars were not 
delivered promptly, and there was some criticism of the rail- 
roads, although the movement of the tourist cars is controlled 
from Washington. 


The routing of the various troop trains has been worked 
out in co-operation with the office of the quartermaster gen- 
eral by the military committees of the various territorial pas- 
senger associations, in accordance with a military agreement 
between the railroads and the government which was formu- 
lated some time ago. This agreement provides for an equi- 
table distribution of military traffic between the railroads 
and for the routing of the traffic by the most direct routes at 
the lowest available rates to the government and in such a 
way as to avoid congesting any one line. 

Hundreds of charts, showing the routing in detail from 
the various military posts to all possible destinations, had 
been made up in advance by the railroad committees in co- 
operation with Col. Chauncey B. Baker, deputy quartermas- 
ter general at Washington. The members of the western com- 
mittee are E. L. Bevington, chairman of the Trans-Conti- 
nental Passenger Association, chairman; E. E. MacLeod, 
chairman of the Western Passenger Association, and J. E. 
Hannegan, chairman of the Southwestern Passenger Associ- 
ation; while E. L. Hunter, vice-chairman of the Trunk Line 
Association, and F. C. Donald, commissioner of the Central 
Passenger Association, are chairmen of similar committees 
of the eastern lines. 

Mr. Bevington and other members of the committees went 
to Washington as soon as it was decided to mobilize the Na- 
tional Guard, and in five days detailed routings from the 
mobilization camps to the various destinations near the bor- 
der had been completed and promulgated to the department 
and local quartermasters and to the railroads. The routings 
were so planned as to give the various railroads an equitable 
share in the traffic and at the same time to utilize as many 
gateways as consistent with direct routing to avoid conges- 
tion. In planning the routes the available equipment and 
the facilities of the various lines were taken into considera- 

The government is given the lowest available combination 
of rates, taking into consideration the land grant reductions 
on various lines, and a horizontal reduction is made from the 
net rates. 

Additional A. R. A. Representatives 

Supplementing the list of the representatives of the Amer- 
ican Railway Association assigned to the various districts 
as published in last week's issue, A. Robertson, chief operat- 
ing officer of the Missouri Pacific, has been appointed 
A. R. A. representative at St. Louis, Mo., at the headquar- 
ters of Col. D. S. Stanley, department quartermaster. 

In addition to the representatives of the American Rail- 
way Association Committee, the Pullman Company has had 
two district superintendents and an expert car di.-tributor 
from the Chicago office stationed at Washington working in 
co-operation with the War Department. 

War Department Disarms Criticism 

Although the railroads, with one or two exceptions, have 
apparently made a good job of moving the troops entrusted 
to their care there has been some criticism. The statement 
of the War Department in this connection deserves attention: 

•'Complaints have appeared in the last few days in the 
metropolitan press with regard to the railroad service fur- 
nished the militia organization.-* on the journey to the border. 
In the opinion of the War Department these criticisms are 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

entirely unjustified. The Pullman Company and the rail- 
roads are doing everything possihle to move all organizations 
with despatch and with as much comfort as is possibly con- 
sistent with the desire for their immediate departure for the 

"At the time orders for the mobilization were issued the 
Pullman Company placed at the disposal of the War De- 
partment over 500 tourist cars. These cars, however, were 
scattered in various parts of the United States, and in some 
local instances, due to the pressure for quick departure, 
(roups had to be transported for a portion of the journey 
in day coaches. In such instances the men have been ac- 
commodated on the basis of three to each two double seats, 
leaving one-fourth of the space in which they could place 
their accoutrements. 

"The accommodations furnished troops in this mobiliza- 
tion are far superior to those furnished by any other nation 
in similar circumstances." 

\s it naturally happened the troops from the states that 
had the honor of mobilizing their regiments quickest were 
subjected to somewhat greater inconvenience primarily be- 
cause of the lack of tourist cars. The 71st New York regi- 
ment, which was the first to leave its state, did not have tour- 
ist cars even when leaving St. Louis. The 7th, which left 
New York at almost the same hour on another road, received 
tourist cars at Indianapolis, after having ridden in day 
coaches from New York to that city. 

Lackawanna Gives Men or 12th New York Shower 


One of the best jobs of moving a regiment of troops was 
that done by the Lackawanna in moving the 12th New York 
from Hoboken to Buffalo. The regiment's 1,100 officers and 
men travelled in a train of three sections, each of 20 cars, 
made up as follows, the cars being named in order back 
from the locomotive: First, one box car, two gondola cars, 
three stock cars, six coaches, one baggage car (fitted with a 
cook stove), six coaches and a standard sleeping car; second 
section, same as the first; third section, one box car, two 
gondola cars, four stock cars, six coaches, one baggage car 
(with cook stove), six coaches and one vestibuled coach. 
The coaches were wooden suburban cars to replace which the 
Lackawanna had to run on its regular trains a number of 
old cars which it recently sold to the Mexican government. 
Each man was given a seat to himself. The road was un- 
able to provide tourist sleeping cars at Hoboken, but they 
were secured for the troops before they left Buffalo. 

The three sections were ready to leave Hoboken at 5 p. m. 
according to schedule, but they were delayed because the 
horses and mule? were not ready to load. The three sec- 
tions left, however, at 3 a. m., 3.18 a. m. and 3.23 a. m., 
respectively, arriving in Buffalo at 4.05 p. m., 4.15 p. m. 
and 4.25 p. m, respectively, covering the distance in 13 
hours. The Lackawanna's fastest train makes the trip in 
only three hours less. 

The most interesting feature of the trip, however, was 
the shower bath given each man at East Buffalo. By tele- 
graphing ahead special arrangements were made to use a 
concrete pit near the paint shop. The men were supplied 
with soap and thoroughly washed with tempered water from 
hoses. The stock were also taken out, watered and fed at 
East Buffalo. The regiment left Buffalo at 8 p. m., there 
being a slight delay in waiting for the tourist cars. 

Other roads helped make records for themselves in han- 
dling the troop trains, but owing to Secretary of War Baker's 
censorship, the details are not yet available. 

The Boston & Albany on June 27 and 28 handled 13 
trains from Framingham, Mass., to Albany, N. Y. The 
Erie took a large number of trains from the New Haven 
and Central New England at Mavbrook, N. V., making 

the run from there to Chicago in about 36 hours. The Erie 
also moved the 23rd New York from Jersey City, N. J. 

Conditions at St. Louis 

Forty-eight trains of troops and supplies were handled 
in the yards of the Terminal Railroad Association of St. 
Louis last week in interchange between eastern and western 
lines. Before any of them were received a committee of 
operating officers had been organized and had planned the 
arrangements. Extra employees were assembled and addi- 
tional water pipes, icing stations and gas pipes were ar- 
ranged in the yards so that the cars could be served without 
running them into the Union Station. The trains were 
handled and inspected and transferred to the southwestern 
lines without delay and without interference with regular 
traffic. On July 1, 25 trains of troops and supplies passed 
through St. Louis in the space of 12 hours. 

Holiday Traffic Inconvenienced 

The proximity of the movement of the National Guard 
to the heavy traffic of the Fourth of July holiday seriously 
handicapped many of the railways because of the demands 
upon their equipment. On some roads many of the usual 
excursion trains were withdrawn and on nearly all of the 
lines on which considerable movements of troops originated 
both regular and excursion trains were short of the usual 
number of cars. The New Haven was particularly hard hit 
inasmuch as it supplied equipment for a large share of the 
Massachusetts militia and the National Guard of Rhode 
Island and Connecticut. It borrowed a number of cars 
from other roads and put back in service many old cars, but 
even then its trains were short and in many cases so crowded 
that trainmen were almost unable to make their way through 
the aisles. 

The suburban patrons of the Lackawanna were rather sur- 
prised the day following the departure of the Twelfth New 
York regiment from Hoboken to see presented for their use 
newly painted coaches bearing the name "Constitucionalistas 
de Mexico" and the notation "Primera'' or first-class. The 
Lackawanna gave the troops 36 of its better wooden sub- 
urban coaches and to replace them had to put back in service 
about 400 wooden coaches, recently superseded by steel equip- 
ment, which it had sold to the Mexican Government. The 
patrons found the cars perfectly satisfactory, but some of 
the passengers could not understand why the railroad had 
not sent the troops in the cars and thus taken the opportunity 
to deliver them. 

Railway Men Await Call at Border 

Many American locomotive engineers and railroad me- 
chanics have arrived at Laredo and other Mexican border 
points in response to a recent official announcement by the 
United States military authorities that the services of such 
men would probably be needed to operate trains and take 
charge of the repair shops in Mexico. It is expected that 
these men will be given employment should intervention take 
place. Many of them have had experience in railroad work 
in Mexico. 

The War Department has notified the railroads of an 
opinion issued by the Attorney General that the 28-hour 
law applying to the movement of livestock will not apply 
to the transportation of horses for the arm}-. 

Storing Up Trouble. — The simple truth is that the coun- 
try's manufacturers and workers in lines which have to do 
with munitions contracts while seeming to be prosperous, 
are storing up untold trouble. The war has really set them at 
variance in many cases as it has set the actual belligerents, 
and there are as certainly ahead <>f them years of painful 
readjustments. — Iron Age. 

General News Department 

The Atlantic Coast Line has advanced the wages of telegra- 
pher?, telephone men and signalmen 9 per cent. 

The legislature of Georgia is now in session and already bills 
have been presented to provide for the extension of the railroad 
owned by the state, the Western & Atlantic, from its southern 
terminus at Atlanta eastward or southeastward to the seaboard. 

Pensions on the Florida East Coast 
The Florida East Coast Railway announces the establishment 
of a pension department. It began business the first of this 
month. The general plan is the same as that in force on the 
principal northern railroads, but the rate is two per cent per 
year. For example, an employee who has been in "the service 
40 years, will receive 80 per cent of the average salary which he 
has received during the last ten years of his active service. 

Disastrous Collision in Mexico 

A press despatch of June 29 reports a butting collision of 
passenger trains on the National Railway of Mexico, at Tlalne- 
pantla, 7 miles north of the city of Mexico, in which 36 persons 
were killed and about 40 injured. 

First New Large Steamer in United States With Superheater 

While there are about 1.500 steamers, representing over 2,000.- 
000 hp., sailing from foreign ports equipped with fire tube super- 
heaters, the recent launching of the Pearl Shell at the ship 
yard? of the Harlan & Hollingsworth Corporation, Wilmington. 
Del., represents the first installation in a new steamer built in 
this country. 

The Pearl Shell is an oil tanker, is to be operated by the 
Shell Oil Company of San Francisco, and will for the present 
sail out of Xew York harbor. It is over 400 ft. long, represents 
a gross tonnage of over 5,600 tons, and is equipped with three 
Scotch marine boilers fitted with Locomotive Superheater Com- 
pany fire tube superheaters, supplying superheated steam to 
triple expansion engines, developing 2,400 h. p. 

The superheater was applied to the Pearl Shell after the 
purchasers had determined the economies and reliability in oper- 
ation of a superheater of the same design, applied to one of their 
existing steamers of approximately the same size. They have 
also contracted for sufficient superheater equipment to convert 
five more of their existing ships. 

Cost of New York Subways 

William A. Prendergast, Comptroller of the City of New 
York, in testifying before the recent legislative investigating 
committee, gave an exhaustive account of the negotiations which 
resulted in the contracts entered into by the city for the opera- 
tion of the city's new subways, now being built, in which he 
reviewed the financial operations as follows : 

"The new subways will cost more than $300,000,000 to build 
and equip. The old subway, which will be a part of the new 
dual system, cost about $56,000,000. Thus the contracts were 
for the operation of a property involving the expenditure of 
more than $356,000,000. 

"The part to be paid by the city amounts to about $260,000,000. 
of which $170,000,000 has already been paid. The Interborough 
Rapid Transit Company's share for construction amounts to 
$58,000,000. The share for construction paid by the Xew York 
Municipal Railway Corporation (the Brooklyn Rapid Transit 
Company) amounts to $14,000,000. In addition each company 
will provide its own equipment. 

"All contracts for constructi"ii are let by the city. The sub- 
ways belong to the city from the beginning whether they were 
paid for by the companies or not. They will pay for themselves 
before the end of the lease. This is the largest engineering feat 
ever undertaken in the United States by a municipality, and with 
the possible exception of the Panama Canal is the greatest work 
ever done in this country by public enterprise."' 

Railways and Their Men In the National Guard 

In addition to the railroads mentioned in last week's is^ue the 
Chicago & Xorth Western has issued a notice saying, "It has 
been determined that all employees of this company who are 
members of the National Guard, or who desire to become mem- 
bers thereof, and are called away from their regular employment 
with this company for service in the army, will lie granted leave 
of absence with the understanding that their regular positions 
will be held for them while absent, and that they can return to 
their regular employment at any time- on being relieved from 
service by the government." The Atchison. Topeka & Santa 
Fe and the St. Louis & San Francisco have also given notice 
that their employees who are members of the guard will be 
reinstated in their former positions at the expiration of their 
service with the army. 

The Southern Pacific announces that those of its empl 
who were members on June 17, 1916, of the Xational Guard of 
any state its lines traverse, and who are called out for army 
service, are granted leave of absence with the understanding 
that they will retain their promotion rights and they can resume 
their positions with the company when the government relieves 
them from service. 

While such employees are serving in the army, the company 
will also allow, until September 30 of this year, to enlisted men, 
whether non-commissioned officers or privates: 1. To those mar- 
ried, full pay. 2. To those unmarried, with families dependent 
upon them for support, three-quarters to full pay, according to 
controlling circumstances. 3. To those unmarried, without de- 
pendent families, half pay. The company will allow to com- 
missioned officers above and including the grade of second lieu- 
tenant : 1. To those married, the difference between company 
and government pay, when government pay is less. 2. To those 
unmarried with dependent families, three-quarters full pay. but 
with government pay added thereto, not to exceed regular 
salary. 3. To those unmarried without dependent families 
one-half full pay, but, with government pay added thereto, not 
to exceed regular salary. 

The Lehigh Valley has notified employees who respond to the 
call to military service that they will be restored to their posi- 
tions or positions of equal rank or value, provided they art- 
competent to fill them and make application within 30 days after 
release from military service: and will also retain any rights 
they may have in connection with seniority in service, etc. From 
July 1 a married employee, living with his wife or family, will 
receive from the company full pay: an unmarried employee, who 
is the support of dependent relatives, from one-half to full pay, 
as may be determined, and all other unmarried employees one- 
half pay. Xo payments, after July 1, to exceed $100 monthly. 

The Baltimore & Ohio 

President Daniel Willard. of the Baltimore & Ohio, speaking 
at the annual conference of officers at Deer Park Hotel. Mary- 
land, last week, said: "We of the Baltimore & Ohio have en- 
rolled in the colors for service and. like the soldiers donning 
their uniforms, we hall hold ourselves in readiness to meet 
any emergency until the impending crisis shall have been ad- 
justed to the honor of the American people. The hoys who are 
answering the call of President Wilson to mobilize are doing 
so with a determination to follow the colors wherever they may 
go. They shall have the right of way over everything moving 
over our railroad, except the President of the Unite'! States, and 
shall lie treated exactly a-- if they were members of our indi- 
vidual families."' 

Defining the policy of the company with respect to its public 
relations, Mr. Willard said that the motto of the llaltimore & 
Deal with the public just as two honorable men deal 
with each other." Extending the thought, he said that the com- 
pany should aim to render tl ssible degree of 

the public under every circumstance with a view to being 

d neighbor whose first concern i- 

the interest of the communities it serves. He said that the 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

company will do anything which it legally may in time of emer- 
gency and that nothing shall stand in the way when calamity 
threatens or danger impends. 

l.i Hiking to the future Mr. Willard said that with the comple- 
tion of the much needed improvements, which have provided 
additional tracks, terminal facilities and equipment adequate to 
take care of trade requirements, all of which was accomplished 
at a time when business was more or less unstable — though the 
burden was borne successfully — the company is now in position 
to undertake active campaigns of development of its territory 
with the assurance that the increased business secured will be 
handled to the satisfaction of shippers, barring accident. While 
moving the largest business handled in any year in its history, 
the Baltimore & Ohio has held 100 of its best engines in reserve. 
Incontrovertible evidence of the efficiency obtained is found 
in the increase made in the average trainload, which has been 
brought up from 500 tons in 1910 to more than 750 tons this 
year. The percentage of steel or steel-supported equipment has 
been brought up from 40 per cent seven years ago to 91 per 
cent today. The Baltimore & Ohio has assigned a superintendent 
to the State encampments where the National Guard is mobiliz- 
ing. F. G. Hoskins is at Laurel, Mo. 

Santa Fe to Pay Death Benefits to Employees 

The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe has adopted a death benefit 
plan for its employees, effective on July 1. It proposes to pay 
to the beneficiaries of each employee, dying while in the com- 
pany's service and who has been in its employ continuously for 
two or more years, a sum equal to five per cent of the pay 
received by him during the 12 months preceding his death, 
multiplied by the number of years of unbroken service. In no 
case, however, may a benefit exceed $3,000 or be less than $250. 

In a circular letter to the employees announcing the plan. 
President E. P. Ripley says : 

"For some time past the directors and officers of this company 
have been considering a plan of making donations or paying 
benefits to the families of employees dying while in the service 
of the company. 

"It has been believed that regardless of the amount of wages 
a man may receive he will derive comfort in the knowledge 
that in the event of his death those dependent on him will not be 
in absolute want. 

"It has been exceedingly difficult to ascertain with any reason- 
able exactness the cost of such a scheme as has been discussed. 
It is felt that the amount of donation or benefit should be based 
somewhat on length of service and on rate of pay, and it is 
practically impossible to forecast what will be the ultimate cost 
of such a plan. 

"But the present year has been one of unusual prosperity, and 
feeling that the results attained are in part due to the efforts of 
our employees it is desired to recognize these efforts in a sub- 
stantial way. 

"The above plan is put forth in the hope that conditions may 
enable us to continue it in effect for the future, but it must be 
distinctly understood that at this time the company intends to 
try out such plan for two years only, and distinctly reserves 
the right at any time after the expiration of such two-year 
period to cancel or modify all or so much of the arrangement 
as may seem necessary or expedient to it. 

"For the time being the plan will be administered in this 
office. All designations by employees of beneficiaries and all 
applications for benefits should be addressed to me. A card 
for designations will be furnished each employee shortly." 

The following illustrations are cited in the circular: A has 
been in the service of the company six years at a salary 
of $1,200 during his last year; at his death his beneficiaries will 
receive five per cent of $1,200 for each year of service, or $360. 
The beneficiaries of B, who has been with the company two 
years at the wage of $75 per month during his last year, will 
receive the minimum benefit of $250, as five per cent of $900 for 
each year would amount to only $90. The heirs of C, who has 
served 16 years at a salary of $4,000 during his last year, will 
receive the maximum of $3,000, as five per cent of $4,000 for 
16 years would amount to $3,200. 

The benefit applies only to employees dying while in the 
service of the company and not to pensioners. To facilitate the 
Application of the plan, blank forms have been sent to each 

employee on which he is asked to inscribe his record of service 
with the Santa Fe, his present rate of pay, and the names of his 
beneficiaries. If no beneficiary is named, the benefit will revert 
automatically to the deceased's next of kin dependent on him. 

General Baggage Agents 

The American .Association of General Baggage Agents held its 
annual meeting at Boston, June 29. W. A. Kellond, (M.K. & 
T.) Parsons, Kan., was elected president; J. B. Calkins, (C.C.C. 
& St.L.) Cleveland, Ohio, vice-president; and J. E. Quick 
(G.T.R.) Toronto, Ont., secretary. The next annual meeting 
will be held at Los Angeles, Cal. 


The follotving list gives names of secretaries, dates of next or regular 
meetings and places of meetings. 

Air Brake Association. — F. M. Nellis, Room 3014, 165 Broadway, New 

York City. 
American Association of Demurrage Officers. — F. A. Pontious, 4S5 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. 

American Association of Dining Car Superintendents. — H. C. Board- 
man, «D. L. & W., Hoboken, N. J. Annual convention, October 19-21, 
1916, New Orleans, La. 

American Association of Freight Agents. — R. O. Wells, Illinois Central, 
East St. Louis, 111. 

American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers.- — W. C. Hope, 
C. R. R. of N. J., 143 Liberty St., New York. Annual meeting, 
October 17, 18, Washington, D. C. 

American Association of Railroad Superintendents. — E. H. Harman, 
Room 101, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. Annual meeting, August 
16-18. 1916, Memphis, Tenn. 

American Electric Railway Association. — E. B. Burritt, 8 W. 40th St., 
New York. Annual convention, October 9-13, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association. — H. G. Mc- 
Connaughy, 165 Broadway, New York. Annual convention, October 
9-13, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Railroad Master Tinners', Coppersmiths' and Pipefitters' 
Association. — W. E. Jones, C. & N. W., 3814 Fulton St., Chicago. 

American Railway Association. — J. F. Fairbanks, general secretary, 75 
Church St., New York. 

American Railway Bridge and Building Association. — C. A. Lichty, C. & 
N. W., Chicago. Next convention, October 17-19, 1916, New Orleans, 

American Railway Engineering Association. — E. H. Fritch, 900 S. Mich- 
igan Ave., Chicago. Next convention, March 20-22, 1917, Chicago. 

American Railway Master Mechanics' Association.— J. W. Taylor, 1112 
Karpen Bldg., Chicago. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Il- 
linois Central, Chicago. Annual meeting, August 24-26, 1916, Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago. 

American Society for Testing Materials.- — F'rof. E. Marburg, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. 
57th St., New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in 
month, except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. — Calvin W. Rice, 29 W. 
39th St., New York. 

American Wood Preservers' Association. — F. J. Angier, Supt. Timber 
Preservation, B. & O., Mt. Royal Sta., Baltimore, Md. Next con- 
vention, January 23-25, 1917, New York. 

Association of American Railway Accounting Officers. — E. R. Wood- 
son, Rooms 1116-8 Woodward Bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels. — George W. 
Lyndon, 1214 McCormick Bldg., Chicago. Semi-annual meeting with 
Master Car Builders' Association. Annual convention, October 10, 
1916, Waldorf-Astoria, New York. 

Association of Railway Claim Agents. — Willis H. Failing, Terminal Sta- 
tion, Central of New Jersey, Jersey City, N. J. 

Association or Railway Electrical Engineers. — Jos. A. Andreucetti, C 
& N. W., Room 411. C. & N. W. Sta., Chicago. 

Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents. — P. W. Drew, Soo 
Line, 112 West Adams St., Chicago. 

Association of Transportation and Car Accounting Officers. — G. P. 
Conard, 75 Church St., New York. 

Bridge and Building Supply Men's Association. — P. C. Jacob?. II. W. 
Johns-Manville Co., Chicago. Meetings with American Railway 
Bridge and Building Association. 

Canadian Railway Club. — James Powell. Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement H. McLeod, 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October, 
November, December, February, March and April. Annual meeting, 
January, Montreal. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave.. 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 

Central Railway Club. — H. I). Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual meeting, 2d Thursday in- March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cincinnati Railway Club. — H. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cin'ti 
Rys., 101 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday, 
February, May, September and November, Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati. 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles, 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesdav, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Freight Claim Association. — Warren P. Tavlor, Traffic Manager, R. F. 
& P., Richmond, Va. 

General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — A. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular meetings, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month, Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, C. II. & D., Lima, Ohio. Next meeting, August 15-17, 1916, 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

Internationa] Railway 1mm Association. — T. G. Crawford, C. B. & Q. 
R. R., 702 E. 51st St., Chicago. 

July 7, 1916 



International Railway General Foremen's Association. — Win. Hall, 1126 
W. Broadway, Winona, Minn. Annual meeting, August 29 to Sep- 
tember 1, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

Maintenance of Way and Master Painters' Association of the United 
States and Canada. — F. W. Hager, Fort Worth & Denver City, Fort 
Worth, Tex. Next convention, October 17-19, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Master Boiler Makers' Association. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., 
New York. 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Associ\tion of the United States 
and Canada. — A. P. Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Next annual 
meeting, September 12-14, 1916, "The Breakers," Atlantic City, X. I. 

Master Car Builders' Association. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., 

National Railway Appliances Association. — C. W. Kelly, 349 Peoples 
Gas Bldg., Chicago. Next convention, March, 1917, Chicago. 

New England Railroad Club. — W. E. Cade, Jr., 683 Atlantic Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meeting, 2d Tuesday in month, except June, 
July, August and September, Boston. 

New York Railroad Club. — Harry D. Yought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 
Regular meetine, 3d Friday in month, except Tune, July and August, 
29 W. 39th St., New York. 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. N. Frankenberger, 623 
Brisbane Bldg., Buffalo, X. Y. Meetings, 3d Wednesday in month. 
New York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Peoria Association of Railroad Officers. — M. W. Rotchford, 410 Masonic 
Temple Bldg., Feoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 
Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 

Railroad Club of Kansas City. — Claude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kan- 
sas City. Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturdav in month, Kansas 

Railway LSusiness Association. — Frank W. Noxon, 30 Church St., New 
York. Annual meeting, December, 1916, New York. 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Room 207, P. R. R. Sta., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings. 4th Friday in month, except June, 
July and August, Monongahela House, Pittsburgh. 

Railway Development Association. — H. O. Hartzell, B. & O. R. R., Balti- 
more, Md. 

Railway Electricai Supply Manufacturers' Association. — J. Scribner, 
1063 Monadnock Block, Chicago. Meetings with Association of Rail- 
way Electrical Engineers. 

Railway Fire Protection Association. — C. B. Edwards, Fire Ins. Agt., 
Mobile & Ohio, Mobile, Ala. Annual meeting, October 3-5, 1916, 
New York. 

Railway Real Estate Association. — Frank C. Irvine, 1125 Pennsylvania 
Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. Annual meeting, October 10, 1916, Chicago. 

Railway Signal Association. — C. C. Rosenberg, Myers Bldg.. Bethlehem, 
Pa. Next annual convention, September 12-14, 1916, Grand Hotel, 
Mackinac Island, Mich. 

Railway Storekeepers' Association. — J. P. Murphy, N. Y. C. R. R., Box 
C, Collinwood, Ohio. 

Railway Supply Manufacturers' Association. — J. D. Conway, 2136 Oliver 
Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings with Master Car Builders' and 
Master Mechanics' Associations. 

Railway Telegraph and Telephone Appliance Association. — G. A. Nel- 
son, 50 Church St., New York. Meetings with Association of Rail- 
way Telegraph Superintendents. 

Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O.. Richmond, Ya. 
Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 


N. W., Sterling, 111. Next annual convention, September 19-22, 1916, 
New York. 

St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, 
Mo. Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and 
August, St. Louis. 

Salt Lakf. Transportation Club. — R. E. Rowland. David Keith Bldg., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 1st Saturday of each month, 
Salt Lake City. 

Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmunds, 3868 Park Ave., New 
York. Meetings with annual convention Railway Signal Association. 

Society of Railway Financial Officers. — L. W. Cox, 1217 Commercial 
Trust Bldg.. Philadelphia. Pa. Annual meeting, October 18-20, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Southern Association of Car Service Officers.- — E. W. Sandwich, A. & 
W. P. R. R.. Atlanta, Ga. 

Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grant Bldg., 
Atlanta, Ga. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday. January. March. May. 
July, September, November. 10 a. m., Piedmont Hotel. Atlanta. 

Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox. Toledo, Ohio. Regular 
meetings, 1st Saturday in month, Boody House, Toledo. 

Track Supply Association. — W. C. Kidd. Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, 
N. Y. Meetings with Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Asso- 

Traffic Club of Chicago. — W. H. Wharton, La Salle Hotel, Chicago. 

Traffic Club of Newark. — Roy S. Bushy, Firemen's Bldg., Newark, N. J. 
Regular meetings. 1st Monday in month, except July and August, 
The Washington, 559 Broad St., Newark. 

Traffic Club of New York. — C A. Swope, 291 Broadway, New York. 
Regular meetings, last Tuesday in month, except June, July and 
August, Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. 

Traffic Club of Pittspurgh.- — D. L. Wells, Gen'l Agt.. Erie R. R., 1924 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings, bi-monthlv, Pittsburgh. 

Traffic Club of St. Louis. — W. S. Crilly/620 South 7'th St., St. Louis, 
Mo. Annual meeting, December 5. 1916, Noonday meetings, Octo- 
ber to May. 

Train Despatchers' Association of America. — J. F. Mackie, 7122 Stewart 
Ave., Chicago. 

Transportation Club of Detroit. — W. R. Hurley, Superintendent's office, 
N. Y. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. Meetings monthly, Normandie Hotel, 

Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. R. R., 
Cleveland, Ohio. Next meeting, September 5-8, 1916, Hotel Sherman, 

Utah Society of Engineers. — Frank W. Moore, 1111 Newhouse Bldg., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, ex- 
cept July and August, Salt Lake City. 

Western Canada Railway Club. — L. Kon. Immigration Agent, Grand 
Trunk Pacific. Winnipeg, Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept June, July and August. Winnipeg. 

Western Railway Club. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago. 
Regular meetings, 3d Tuesday in month, except June, July and 
August, Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago. 

Western Society of Engineers. — E. N. Lavfield. 1735 Monadnock Block, 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 1st Monday in month, except January, 
July and August, Chicago. Extra meetings, except in July and 
August, generally on other Monday evenings. Annual meeting, 1st 
Wednesday after 1st Thursday in January, Chicago. 

^J 1 1 ' > I > ' I i < 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 M ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 1 1 < 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 1 1 1 1 1 J 1 1 1 1 1 ,_; 

Traffic News 

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The Delaware & Hudson has discontinued the sale of liquors 
on its dining cars. 

The Lehigh Valley is now running a sleeping car between 
New York and Muskoka Lakes, on the Grand Trunk, 112 miles 
north of Toronto. Northbound, the car leaves New York at 
9 p. m., and arrives at Muskoka Wharf the next day at 3 :50 
p. m. The Lehigh Valley also runs sleeping cars between 
Rochester and Washington, D. C, and between Buffalo and 
Washington, by way of South Bethelehem, the Philadelphia & 
Reading, and the Baltimore & Ohio. 

Half Billion Bushels of Grain 
The Western railroads in the six months ending June 30 
moved 507,917,000 bushels of grain to primary markets; the 
largest traffic ever handled. The increase over last year's great 
movement was 120,976.000 bushels, or 31.3 per cent, and com- 
pared with 1913, the previous high period, there was a gain of 
77,583.000 bushels, or 18 per cent. 

Daylight Saving in Practice in England 
The Railway Gazette (London) notes in a recent issue that 
the authorities have observed that there has been a marked 
decrease in the number of street accidents in London since the 
Summer Time act came into operation. It also believes that 
very great benefits are being experienced on the railways. The 
change has effected a noticeable improvement in the working 
of long-distance night freight trains. The extra hour of day- 
light is useful in making up the trains and it brings the goods 
that are to be despatched to the stations earlier, and they are 
consequently loaded with greater rapidity. On all hands the 
agreement is now general that the change is a proper one and 
should be made permanent, the eight-hours men, in particular, 
appreciating the alteration. Whatever turn of duty these men 
may be on, whether they commence the eight hours at 6 a. m., 
2 p. m. or 10 p. m., they either start or leave work in the day- 
light, which is, in many instances, a benefit in itself. Now that 
the scheme has been adopted in France the principal difficulty, 
so far as transportation was concerned, has been removed. 

Quarter-Million Verdict Against the Pennsylvania 
In the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, on July 1, Samuel D. 
Hall, a coal merchant of Philadelphia, secured a verdict for 
$248,658 in a suit against the Pennsylvania Railroad for over- 
charges in the transportation of anthracite coal. Reversing the 
rulings of Court of Common Pleas No. 5. Justice Frazer, in an 
exhaustive opinion, rendered judgment in the sum named. The 
suit was to recover penalties for unlawful discrimination. In 
addition to claiming compensation for the actual damage done 
him by the granting of rebates to favored shippers. Hall in- 
voked the penal clause of the Act of 1883, and claimed redress 
in a sum treble the amount of the actual verdict rendered by 
the jury in his favor. The company contested the claim strenu- 
ously, and also appealed from some of the rulings of the lower 
court. This is the first time the Pennsylvania Supreme Court 
has allowed a shipper-complainant in a rebate case to obtain 
irclile damages after a lower court had refused such a claim. 

Hall's suit was entered on February 1. 1906, and the ship- 
ments on which the discrimination charges were based took 
place between June, 1891, and July, 1901. The original statc- 
ment of claim asked for $100,000 damages, Hall complaining 
that he was obliged to pay a greater freight rate on his ship- 
ments of coal than was charged favored shippers. He also 
averred that the road paid the rent of a coal yard and offices 
of one of its favored shippers. 

In 1909, in an amended statement, Hall made the further 
charge that the railroad's acts violated the constitution of Penn- 
sylvania. After a hearing in the lower court, Hall's suit re- 
sulted in a verdict by the jury in his favor for $51,050. The 
verdict included a damage item of $25,870.62. to which the jury 
added $25.21917 as damages for delay in payment. 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

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= | 

| Commission and Court News | 

milium ii i i ii mi ii mi iiiii MIHIIIII i i imiimminmiiir. 


Complaint Dismissed 

Wyeih Hardware & Manufacturing Company v. Atchison, 
Tcpeka & Santa Fe ct al. Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

Rates on harness and saddlery, boxed, from St. Joseph, Mo., 
to the Atlantic and Gulf Ports, for export, are not shown to 
have been unreasonable or discriminatory. (39 I. C. C, 697.) 

State Corporation Commission of the Commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia v. Chesapeake & Ohio et al. Opinion by Commissioner 

The commission finds that defendants' class rates from Rich- 
mond, Norfolk, Suffolk, Petersburg, Lynchburg, and Roanoke, 
Va., known as the Virginia cities, to points in eastern North 
Carolina are not unreasonable either in themselves or relatively. 
It is also found that the rates do not discriminate against the 
Virginia cities or favor unduly Cincinnati and Louisville. (40 
I. C. C, 24.) 

Joint Rates Between Rail and Water Lines 

Indiana Transportation Company v. Grand Rapids, Holland 
& Chicago. Opinion by Commissioner McChord: 

The Indiana Transportation Company operating a line of 
boats on Lake Michigan between Chicago and Saugatuck, Mich., 
asks that the defendant be required to join with it in the con- 
struction and maintenance of a physical connection at Sauga- 
tuck, and for the establishment of through routes and joint 
rates on interstate traffic over such connection to all points on 
defendant's line, and that proportional rates be established from 
the port of Saugatuck to points on the line of defendant. The 
commission holds that the evidence fails to show such public 
necessity for the route and rates asked for as to warrant the 
exercise of the authority granted by the act to regulate com- 
merce. Complaint dismissed. (39 I. C. C, 757.) 

Rates on Cottonseed Oil 

Oklahoma Cottonseed Crushers' Association v. Missouri, Kan- 
sas & Texas et al. Opinion by Commissioner Meyer: 

In the original report in this case, 35 I. C. C. 94, it was held 
that the rates on cottonseed oil from Oklahoma producing points 
to Kansas City, Mo., and on cottonseed cake, meal, and hulls 
from the same producing points to points in other states were 
unreasonable and discriminatory. This finding is now adhered 
to, but the mileage schedules of maximum rates proposed in the 
original report are revised and the revised schedules are pre- 
scribed as just and reasonable maxima for the future. (39 I. 
C. C„ 497.) 

Rates to Concordia, Kan. 

Concordia Commercial Club et al v. Atchison, Topeka, & 
Santa Fe ct al. Opinion by Commissioner Clark: 

Rates on classes and certain commodities to Concordia, Kan., 
from St. Louis, Mo., and points taking the same rates or rates 
based thereon are found to be prejudicial to Concordia to the 
extent that they exceed the rates on light traffic from the same 
points of origin to Salina, Kan. Rates on butter, eggs and 
dressed poultry in carloads, from Concordia to St. Louis proper, 
and also when destined to points east of the western termini 
of the trunk lines are found prejudicial to Concordia insofar as 
they exceed by more than 3 cents per 100 lb. the rates from 
Washington, Kan. Rates on canned goods from Louisville, Ky., 
and Baltimore, Md., to Concordia are found prejudicial to Con- 
cordia insofar as they exceed rates from the same points of 
origin to Salina. Rates on certain commodities from New Or- 
leans, La., Beaumont and Port Arthur, Tex., to Concordia are 
found prejudicial to Concordia insofar as they exceed the rates 
to Salina by more than certain amounts stated in the report 
(39 I. C. C, 675. ) 


Assumption of Risk 

A locomotive fireman sued for injuries received by stepping on 
a clinker hook in going from I lie cab of the engine to the rear 
end of the tender over the heaped up coal. It was his duty to 
look after the equipment of the engine before making a trip and 
to make the place safe. The Kentucky Court of Appeals held 
the railroad was not responsible, especially as a step and hand- 
hold on the rear of the tender were provided for the performance 
of such duties.— L. H. & St. L. (Ky.), 185 S. W., 861. 

In an action for death at a crossing in the outskirts of a town 
it appeared that the right of way was inclosed by wire fences on 
either side from the crossing, and there were cattle guards with 
wings extending to the fences. The tracks were on a fill, there 
was no path on the right of way, no houses on either side front- 
ing thereon, and no necessity for the occupants of nearby houses 
using the tracks. The Kentucky Court of Appeals holds that it 
could not be said that the railroad acquiesced in the use of its 
tracks as a walking way, and the deceased was a trespasser to 
whom it owed no duty except to exercise ordinary care for his 
safety after having discovered his presence on the tracks. — Wat- 
son's Admr. v. Chesapeake & Ohio (Ky.), 185 S. W., 852. 

Warning to Man Loading Car 

In an action by a drayman injured while loading a car on a 
side track when it was run into by an engine making a coupling, 
the Arkansas Supreme Court holds that the duty of a railroad 
to warn a person engaged in loading a car of intention to make a 
coupling is fulfilled by warning one of several persons working 
in the car, and it is not necessary to give notice to all of such 
persons.— Memphis, Dallas & Gulf v. Yandall (Ark.), 185 S. W., 

Excessive Damages for Ejectment 

A passenger was ejected from his train at a flag station, eight 
miles from his destination, because he refused to sign a scrip 
sufficient to cover his fare before it was detached from the scrip 
book. One of the conditions printed on the cover of the book 
was that he should write his name on the scrip "whenever de- 
tached by the conductor." In an action for damages he recovered 
a judgment for $800, which was reformed and affirmed by the 
Texas Court of Civil Appeals so as to allow a recovery of $100 
only.— St. Louis Southwestern v. Reed (Tex.), 185 S. W., 1,025. 

Purchaser Not Liable for Claims Against Receiver 

As a general rule, the purchaser of a railroad at a sale, made 
under an order of a court, takes the property free from claims 
against the receiver arising out of the operation of the road, un- 
less the court imposes liability for such debts as a part of the 
consideration of the purchase. Where a railroad, after receiver- 
ship, purchased and paid for its former property, including money 
on hand and current assets sold by the receiver under order of 
court, the Texas Court of Civil Appeals holds that it was not 
liable, in the absence of its assumption of liability in some man- 
ner, for a claim against the receiver for loss of goods in transit. — 
International & G. N. v. Perkins, 185 S. W., 657. 

Liability for Libel of Express Messenger 

What is known as the I. & G. N. Bill of Texas provides that a 
new railroad company or other purchaser of a railroad takes it 
"charged with and subject to the payment of all subsisting liabili- 
ties and claims for death and personal injuries sustained in the 
operation of the railroad by the sold-out company and by any 
receiver thereof." The Texas Court of Civil Appeals holds that 
"personal injuries" within the act includes injuries to character 
or good name through libel. The action was one by an express 
messenger, who also handled baggage for the railroad, which re- 
paid to the express company a portion of his salary, for damages 
for libel in a letter from the superintendent of the railroad to 
the superintendent of the express company asking the plaintiff's 
discharge because he had carried a passenger in his baggage car. 
It was held that, though such a letter is a privileged communica- 
tion, a false statement therein made with reckless disregard of 

July 7, 1916 



whether it was true or false would justify a jury in finding ex- 
press malice. The injury was held to be "sustained in the opera- 
tion of the railroad" within the meaning of the act. — I. & G. N. 
v. Edmundson (Tex.), 185 S. W., 402. 

Contributory Negligence in Jumping Off Moving Train 

A passenger recovered damages in the lower court for injuries 
received in jumping off a train which was passing his destination, 
where it should have stopped, at the rate of 15 miles an hour. 
On appeal, the Kentucky Court of Appeals holds that, where the 
uncontradicted testimony shows that the speed of the train at the 
time the passenger attempted to alight was such as to render it 
probable to a reasonably prudent person that it would be unsafe 
to undertake to get off the train, his action in so undertaking 
constitutes negligence per se and bars recovery. To allow him 
to recover compensation for the injuries which might result from 
his reckless conduct would be to place a premium on negligence 
and offer an incentive for him to disregard the injunction of 
"safety first." The court cited several cases decided by the Ken- 
tucky courts where recovery was refused, in none of which the 
train was moving faster than eight miles an hour. — L. & N. v 
Derrickson (Ky.), 185 S. W., 1,114. 

Defense of Lack of Notice of Claim for Damages Cannot Be 
Waived in Interstate Shipments 

A bill of lading under which three carloads of hogs were 
shipped in interstate commerce stipulated that to recover dam- 
ages written notice must be given before removing or slaughter- 
ing the stock, and three days' time allowed, before removal, fo r 
investigation, and that action must be commenced within six 
months. In an action for delay against the initial carrier the 
Kansas City Court of Appeals holds that, as the shipment was 
an interstate one, the effect to be given to the provision was gov- 
erned by decisions of the federal courts, which hold that such 
provisions are valid. The railroad did not waive the provision 
by receiving notice of the claim after the time provided, and by 
afterwards holding the claim for investigation for more than 
six months, and then declining to pay on other grounds. The 
United States Supreme Court holds, Phillips v. Grand Trunk 
(1914), 236 U. S. 667, that the prohibition of the federal statute 
against unjust discriminations forbids the waiver of defenses 
open to the carrier. — Thompson v. Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe (Mo.), 185 S. W., 1,145. 

Defense of Lack of Notice of Claim May Be Waived in Intra- 
state Shipments in Kentucky 

The Kansas City Court of Appeals holds that the rights and 
liabilities of parties to an intrastate shipment of hogs by rail are 
covered by the Public Service Commission Act of 1913. Where 
hogs were shipped at a limited liability rate, instead of at a 
common law liability rate, the requirement that the shipper give 
notice of his claim within ten days was valid and enforceable, 
being supported by the independent consideration of the reduced 
rate. But where a railroad accepted and treated the claim of a 
shipper of hogs for shrinkage in weight as having been filed in 
time and as formally sufficient, denying liability on the merits, 
it waived formal compliance with the 10-day provision of the 

"The cases in this state," the court said, "uniformly hold that 
a failure to reject the claim for failure to give notice, coupled 
with a denial of liability on the merits, or with a refusal to in- 
vestigate, is a waiver of notice. The federal courts, in con- 
struing provisions for notice in interstate contracts, hold that 
such notice cannot be waived, but this rule is based on the rigid 
and indomitable purpose of the Interstate Commerce Vet to pre- 
vent all manner of discrimination and favoritism in the attitude 
of carriers to shippers, a purpose not emphasized, and. so far as 
we are informed, not even referred to in our Public Service 
Commission Act. We do not regard this federal rule, which 
pertains to a purpose peculiar to the Interstate Commerce Law, 
as one we should allow to overturn a settled rule long recognized 
in the jurisdiction of this state. Tf this case involved an inter- 
state shipment we would apply the federal rule, but since it does 
not, the rights of the parties must be governed by the laws and 
juridical policies of this state." — Hull v. Chicago Great Western 
(Mo.), 185 S. W.. 1.155. 

F. C. Batchelder 

Jllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll Illllltllllllllllllllllllllllllll Ml Ill lllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllinillllMIIIIIIIIL 

Railway Officers 

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Executive, Financial, Legal and Accounting 

C. M, Ingram has been appointed comptroller of the Georgia 
Coast & Piedmont, with offices at Brunswick, Ga., and New 
York City. 

Frank C. Batchelder, whose appointment as vice-president 
and executive representative at Chicago of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, has been announced, was born at hall River. Wis., on 

May 27, 1857. He en- 
ured railway service on 
December 13. 1873, as a 
telegraph operator on the 
Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul, subsequently 
becoming agent, train 
despatcher and chief 
despatcher of the same 
railroad. From Febru- 
ary, 1888, until 1893, he 
was train despatcher of 
the Minneapolis, S t . 
Paul & Sault Ste. Ma- 
rie, and on the latter 
date was promoted to 
assistant superintendent 
of the same road. From 
February, 18 99, until 
July 1, 1899, he was su- 
perintendent of the Wis- 
consin and Peninsula 
division of the Soo Line. 
From July 1, 1899, to July, 1916, he has been successively super- 
intendent, general superintendent and assistant to the president 
of the Baltimore & Ohio. From April 1, 1910. to April 11. 1912. 
he was also vice-president of the Baltimore & Ohio Chicago 
Terminal, and since April, 1912, has been president of that road. 
As vice-president of the Baltimore & Ohio, he will continue to 
have headquarters at Chicago. 

Charles W. Galloway, whose appointment as vice-president of 
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, general manager of the 
western lines of the Baltimore & Ohio system, and general 

manager for the re- 
ceivers of the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton & Day- 
ton, has been announced, 
was born on December 
11. 1868. and entered 
railway service in 1883. 
as messenger in the tele- 
graph department of the 
Baltimore & Ohio. He 
was subsequently clerk 
and stenographer to the 
master of transportation, 
the manager and to the 
general superintendent ; 
secretary to the superin- 
tendent of car service, 
superintendent of trans- 
portation and to the 
general superintendent. 
Fn m Sept e m ber 23. 
1897, to July 1. 1899, he 
was trainmaster on the 
Baltimore division. Ke was then appointed assistant superin- 
tendent of the main line, first division, and on November 1. 
1901, was promoted to superintendent of the Cumberland di- 
vision. From April 1. 1903. to December 1, 1<X)6, he was super- 
intendent of the Baltimore division at Baltimore, Md.. and from 
the latter date to Jul) 1. 1910. he was superintendent of trans- 
portation with headquarters at the same city. He was general 
superintendent of transportation oi the Baltimore & Ohio and 

C. W. Galloway 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

the Baltimore & Southwestern from July 1, 1 ( >H>, to September 
20, 1910, when he was transferred to Cincinnati, Ohio, as general 
superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern. From 
April 24, 1912, to July, 1 1 >K>, he was general manager of the 
Baltimore & Ohio, with headquarters at Baltimore, Md. In his 
new capacities Mr. Calloway will have offices at Cincinnati, 

J. S. Jones, who has been appointed president of the Wisconsin 
& Northern, with office at the Steger building, Chicago, 111., be- 
gan his railroad career as a telegraph operator on what is now 
the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, afterwards enter- 
ing train service on the same railroad. Later he was appointed 
trainmaster on the Toledo & Ohio Central, and subsequently 
filled a similar position with the Toledo. St. Louis & Western. 
Following his service with Ohio railroads, Mr. Jones became 
superintendent of the Milwaukee. Lake Shore & Western now 
a part of the Ashland division of the Chicago & North Western, 
which position lie held up to the time he entered private busi- 

Walker D. Hines, who has been elected chairman of the board 
of directors of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, with head- 
quarters at New York, as has been announced in these columns, 
was horn on February 2, 
1870, in southern Ken- 
tucky. He graduated 
from Ogden College at 
Bowling Green, Ky., with 
the degree of bachelor 
of science, in 1888. Pre- 
vious to graduation, he 
had served as official 
stenographer of the 
State Circuit Court for 
the county in which 
Bowling Green is situ- 
ated, and in 1889 he 
went to Trinidad, Colo., 
where he was engaged in 
stenographic work in law 
offices and in court. He 
then returned to Ken- 
tucky and in March, 
1890, became secretary to 
the assistant chief at- 
torney of the Louisville 

& Nashville, at Louisville, Ky. He served for over two years in 
that position, then went to the University of Virginia and studied 
law taking the degree of bachelor of laws, in June, 1893. He 
then returned to the law department of the Louisville & Nash- 
ville as an assistant attorney, and later, for about six months, 
was on leave of absence, returning to work in the early part of 
1894. In 1897 he became assistant chief attorney of the same 
road, and in 1901 he became first vice-president, his duties being 
to supervise the work of the law department and to assist the 
president in supervising the work of the traffic department. In 
July, 1904, he resigned to enter the general practice of the law 
in Louisville as a member of the firm of Humphrey, Hines & 
Humphrey. In May, 1906, he went to New York to engage in 
the general practice of the law, and also to become general 
counsel of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. Two years later 
he became also chairman of the executive committee of the board 
of directors of the A. T. & S. F., and since that time he has 
continued in these two positions, and has also continued in the 
general practice of the law. On September 1, 1916, he retires 
from the general practice and becomes chairman of the board 
of directors of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and continues 
also as general counsel of that road. 

F. J. Hughes has been elected president, treasurer and general 
manager of the Dekalb & Western (formerly the Sanoody Val- 
ley), with office at Electric Mills, Miss., and E. H. Jones has been 
appointed assistant to president. 

E. W. Gricc, general superintendent of transportation of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio and the Chesapeake & Ohio of Indiana, has 
been appointed assistant to president, with office at Richmond, 
Va., and the office of general superintendent of transportation 
has been abolished. 

Walker D. Hines 

J. M. Davis 

John Marcus Davis, whose appointment as vice-president, in 
charge of operation and maintenance of the Baltimore & Ohio, 
with headquarters at Baltimore, Md., has already been an- 
nounced in these col- 
umns, was born on No- 
vember 5, 1871, and be- 
gan railway work in 
1888 as a freight brake- 
man on the San Antonio 
& Aransas Pass. From 
September, 1891, to July, 
1898, he was consecu- 
tively stenographer to 
the superintendent of the 
Gulf, Colorado, Santa 
Fe ; chief clerk to the 
superintendent of the 
Mexican Central; clerk 
in the general manager's 
office of the Great 
Northern, and assistant 
superintendent of the 
Great Northern. In 
1898 he was made super- 
intendent of the Breck- 
enridge and Montana 
divisions of the Great Northern, and left that road in 1900 to 
go to the Erie as superintendent at Scranton, Pa. Two years 
later he was made superintendent of the Union Steamboat Line 
of the Erie at Buffalo, N. Y., and from August, 1902, to May, 
1903, was superintendent of the Allegheny division of the Erie. 
He then returned to the Great Northern, where he served as 
superintendent on various divisions until July, 1905, when he 
was promoted to assistant general superintendent of the central 
district. In 1907 he went to the Oregon Short Line as assistant 
general superintendent, with headquarters at Salt Lake City, 
and was subsequently made acting general superintendent and 
later general superintendent. In 1910 he was appointed general 
superintendent of the central district of the Southern Pacific, 
with headquarters at San Francisco, Cal. On January 1, 1914, he 
was appointed assistant general manager at Cincinnati, Ohio, of 
the Baltimore & Ohio, Southwestern-Cincinnati, Hamilton & 
Dayton lines, and later in the same year was promoted to gen- 
eral manager of these lines, which position he held at the time 
of his recent appointment as vice-president of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, as above noted. 


R. P. Dalton has been appointed superintendent of the St. 
Louis & O'Fallon, vice W. E. Dudenbostel. resigned, effective 
July 1. 

E. W. Scheer, superintendent of the Indiana division of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern at Seymour, Ind., will on July 
10 be promoted to general superintendent of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Southwestern, with headquarters at Cincinnati, Ohio, to 
succeed R. N. Begien. 

F. C. Smith, assistant superintendent of the Southern Pacific 
at Sparks, Nev., has been transferred to Ogden, Utah, to take 
the place of H. L. Bell. B. A. Campbell, assistant superintendent 
at Oakland Pier, Cal., has been appointed assistant superintend- 
ent at Sparks, Nev., vice Mr. Smith. 

T. B. Coppage, superintendent of transportation of the St. 
Louis & San Francisco at Springfield, Mo., has been appointed 
general superintendent of the first district, vice J. A. Frates, 
resigned. J. H. Doggrell. assistant superintendent of transpor- 
tation at Springfield, has been appointed superintendent of trans- 
portation, vice Mr. Coppage, and the position of assistant super- 
intendent of transportation has been abolished. 

J. P. Stevens, general superintendent of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio and the Chesapeake & Ohio of Indiana, at Huntington, 
W. Va., has been appointed general manager, with office at Rich- 
mond, Va. L. B. Allen, division superintendent, has been appointed 
general superintendent of the Central general division, with 
office at Huntington. E. L. Bock, assistant division superintend- 
ent, has been appointed superintendent of the Huntington di- 
vision, with office at Huntington. G. J. Derbyshire, trainmaster 
at Peru, Ind., lias been appointed superintendent of the Chesa- 

July 7, 1916 



eake & Ohio of Indiana, with headquarters at Peru, vice W. L. 
Jooth transferred. 

J. T. Loree, assistant general superintendent of transportation 
f the Delaware & Hudson, at Albany, N. Y., has been granted 
?ave of absence for military service, and J. A. McGrew, super- 
itendent of the Saratoga and Champlain divisions, has , been 
ppointed acting assistant general superintendent of transporta- 
ion, with office at Albany, N. Y. ; M. F. Leamy is acting 
uperintendent of the Saratoga and Champlain divisions, vice 
It. McGrew. 

E. P. Goodwin, superintendent of freight transportation of 
lie Chesapeake & Ohio and the Chesapeake & Ohio of Indiana 
t Richmond, Va., has been appointed general inspector of trans- 
ortation and station service, with headquarters at Richmond. 
V. L. Booth, superintendent of the Chesapeake & Ohio of Indi- 
na at Peru, Ind., has been appointed superintendent of freight 
ransportation of both roads with headquarters at Richmond, 
nd J. B. Parrish, assistant to general superintendent at Hunt- 
agton, W. Va., has been appointed assistant superintendent of 
reight transportation, with headquarters at Huntington. 

M. A. Fullington, superintendent of district No. 3 of the 
Eastern division of the Canadian Pacific at Montreal, Que., has 
een appointed superintendent of district No. 5, with office at 
miths Falls, Out., vice J. R. Gilliland, transferred; R. McKillop, 
uperintendent on the Atlantic division at Woodstock, N. B., 
as been appointed superintendent of district No. 3 of the 
Eastern division, with office at Montreal, Que., vice Mr. 
ullington ; T. A. Wilson, assistant superintendent at Schreiber, 
)nt., has been appointed assistant superintendent of district 
lo. 5, with office at Smiths Falls, vice W. Coulter, transferred; 
V. M. Neal, car service agent, has been appointed assistant 
uperintendent of district No. 2, with office at Montreal, Que., 
ucceeding W. B. Brown, transferred, and J. E. Ryan has been 
ppointed car service agent. 

B. B. Greer, assistant general manager, lines west of the Mis- 
ouri river, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, with headquarters at 
hnaha, Neb., has been appointed assistant to the vice-president 
i charge of operation, with headquarters at Chicago, 111. W. F. 
'hiehoff, general superintendent of Nebraska district, with head- 
uarters at Lincoln, Neb., has been appointed assistant general 
lanager at Omaha, Neb., vice Mr. Greer. L. B. Lyman, super- 
ltendent of the Aurora division, has been appointed general 
uperintendent with office at Lincoln, Neb., in place of Mr. 
"hiehoff. H. W. Maxwell, superintendent of the Burlington 
ivision at Burlington, Iowa, has been transferred to Aurora, 
11., as superintendent of the Aurora division, vice Mr. Lyman. 
i. F. Macl.aren, trainmaster, with headquarters at Burlington, 
a., has been promoted to superintendent of the Burlington 
ivision, vice Mr. Maxwell, effective July 1. 

D. W. Campbell, assistant general manager of the Southern 
'acific at Portland, Ore., has been transferred to Los Angeles, 
*al, with jurisdiction over the southern district, vice H. V. 
'latt, resigned to accept service with another company. J. H. 
)yer, superintendent of the Sacramento division, has been ap- 
ointed assistant general manager of the northern district, with 
eadquarters at Portland, Ore., in place of D. W. Campbell, 
ransferred. T. H. Williams, superintendent of the Tucson di- 
ision, has been transferred to the western division with head- 
uarters at Oakland Pier, Cal., vice J. D. Brennan, transferred 
d the Sacramento division with headquarters at Sacramento, 
"al. J. W. Fitzgerald, assistant superintendent at Oakland 
'ier, Cal., has been appointed superintendent of the Tucson 
ivision with headquarters at Tucson, Ariz., vice T. H. Williams, 
ransferred. G. E. Gaylord, trainmaster at West Oakland, Cal., 
as been appointed assistant superintendent of the western divis- 
on with headquarters at Oakland Pier, Cal, vice J. W. Fitz- 
erald, promoted, effective July 1. 


E. T. Willcox, assistant general freight agent of the Seaboard 
\\r Line at Birmingham, Ala., has been appointed general freight 
gent, with office at Norfolk, Va. 

G. H. Hamilton has been appointed assistant general freight 
.gent of the Missouri Pacific-St. Louis, Iron Mountain & 
Southern, with headquarters at St. Louis, Mo. 

11. F. Bell has been appointed commercial agent of the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific and the Alabama Great 
Southern, with headquarters at Havana, Cuba. 

Roberto A. Nanne has been appointed general freight, express 
and passenger agent of the International Railways of Central 
America, with headquarters at Guatemala City, C. A. 

Eugene Fox, assistant general traffic manager of the El Paso 
& Southwestern system, has been appointed general traffic man- 
ager, with headquarters at El Paso, Tex., vice A. N. Brown, 
deceased, effective July 1. 

E. W. Long, commercial agent of the Seaboard Air Line at 
Greenville, S. C, has been appointed commercial agent, with 
office at Charlotte, X. C, vice E. J. Parrish, promoted; T. R. 
Thompson, commercial agent at Kansas City, Mo., succeeds Mr. 
Long, and W. 11. Miller, contracting freight agent at St. Louis, 
Mo., succeeds Mr. Thompson. 

William F. Griffitts, who has been appointed general passen- 
ger agent of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western with head- 
quarters at New York, as has already been announced in these 
columns, was born on March 2, 1871, at Philadelphia, Pa., and 
was educated in the common schools. He began railway work 
on November 1, 1884, in the passenger department of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy, and served consecutively until April. 
1897, as clerk, rate clerk, chief rate clerk, successively at Omaha, 
Neb., at Chicago, 111., and at St. Louis, Mo. From April, 1897, 
to August, 18S9, he was chief clerk in the passenger department 
of the Kansas City, Pittsburg & Gulf, now a part of the Kansas 
City Southern, at Kansas City, Mo., and then to January, 1905, 
was chief rate clerk on the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western at 
New York. From January, 1905, to November, 1911, he was 
chief clerk in the passenger department, and then was promoted 
to assistant general passenger agent which position he held at 
the time of his recent appointment as general passenger agent of 
the same road, with headquarters at New York, as above noted. 

J. L. Smith, whose appointment as assistant general passenger 
agent of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, with headquar- 
ters at New York, has already been announced, was born on 
March 23, 1866, at Candor, N. Y., and was educated in tin. 
common schools. He began railway work in August, 1889, in 
the freight office of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western at 
Elmira, N. Y., and early in the following year was promoted to 
ticket clerk. In 1896 he was promoted to city passenger agent 
at Buffalo and three years later was made city ticket agent at 
New York, becoming city passenger and ticket agent at Bing- 
hamton in 1901. He was appointed city passenger agent at New 
York in 1906 and the following year was appointed division 
passenger agent at Syracuse. He was transferred in the same 
capacity in 1908, to Newark, N. J., and in 1909 was promoted to 
general eastern passenger agent at New York, which position he 
held at the time of his recent appointment as assistant general 
passenger agent of the same road, as above noted. Mr. Smith's 
entire service has been with the Delaware, Lackawanna & 

Engineering and Rolling Stock 

E. H. Pudney has been appointed supervisor of signals of the 
Atlanta & West Point, effective June 15. 

A. West has been appointed district master mechanic, district 
four, Canadian Pacific, with headquarters at Edmonton, Alta., 
vice A. J. Ironsides, transferred. 

D. W. St. Clair has been appointed master mechanic of the 
Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf of Texas, with headquarters at 
Denison, Texas, in place of J. R. Greiner, resigned. 

G L. .Marick, has been appointed assistant office engineer of 
the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, with headquarters at Galveston, 
Tex., effective July 1. This is a newly created position. 

Arthur E. Owen, principal assistant engineer of the Central 
of New Jersey, has been appointed chief engineer, with head- 
quarters at New York, succeeding Joseph O. Osgood, deceased. 

W. H. Keller, general foreman of shops of the Texas & 
Pacific, at Fort Worth, Tex., has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the eastern division with headquarters at Marshall, 
Tex., with jurisdiction extending over the shops at Texarkana, 
Tex., where the office of master mechanic has been abolished. 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

R. N. Begien 

A. M. Bears, signal supervisor on the Manitoba division of 
the Canadian Pacific, has been granted a leave oi absence for 
over-seas service in the Twelfth field ambulance for active duty 
with the Canadian expeditionary forces. 

R. \. Begien, who lias been appointed chief engineer of the 
Baltimore & Ohio system, with headquarters at Baltimore, Md., 
was born on March IS, 1875, at Boston, Mass. After receiving 
a public and high school 
education at Med ford. 
Mass., and completing 
the engineering course 
at Harvard University, 
Mr. Begien went to 
Central America and 
served for more than 
three years as a mem- 
ber of the Nicaraguan 
Canal Commission. He 
then went to South 
America, where he 
spent a year as a rail- 
way engineer in Ecua- 
dor, returning to the 
United States to en- 
ter the engineering de- 
partment of the District 
of Columbia. He en- 
tered the Baltimore & 
Ohio service on August 
1, 1902, as assistant en- 
gineer at Somerset, Pa., and in June, 1908, became division 
engineer at Philadelphia. He was promoted to assistant to the 
chief engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio under A. W. Thompson 
on May 1, 1910, and when Mr. Thompson became general man- 
ager, Mr. Begien continued as his assistant, becoming assistant 
to the third vice-president on May 1, 1912. In December of the 
same year, he was promoted to assistant general superintendent, 
with headquarters at Baltimore, and in July, 1913, was appointed 
general superintendent of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, 
which position he held at the time of his appointment as chief 
engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio system, as above noted. 

Francis Lee Stuart, chief engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio 
system, has tendered his resignation, effective July 10, in order 
to engage in the practice of his profession in Xew York, and 
R. N. Begien, general 
superintendent of the 
Baltimore & Ohio 
Southwestern, at Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, has been 
promoted to chief engi- 
neer of the Baltimore 
& Ohio system. Mr. 
Stuart was born on 
December 3, 1866, at 
Camden, S. C, and 
graduated from Emer- 
son Institute, Washing- 
ton, D. C, in June, 1884. 
The same year he began 
railway work in the 
office of the consulting 
engineer of the Balti- 
more & Ohio and 
served consecutively as 
rodman, levelman, trans- 
itman and resident 
engineer on the same 

road. From 1887, to February, 1888, he was engineer of the 
Cahaba Coal Mining Company at Blockton, Ala., and from June, 
1888, to the spring of 1889, he was engaged in miscellaneous 
engineering work with headquarters at Birmingham, Ala. In 
1889 he was appointed resident engineer in charge of construc- 
tion on the Briarfield, Blockton & Birmingham, and later be- 
came engineer maintenance of way of the same road. He 
became engineer of the Corona, Coal & Coke Company at 
Corona, Ala., in 1891 and the following year went to the Balti- 
more & Ohio as resident engineer; two years later he became 

F. L. Stuart 

supervisor in charge of construction of the same road, From 
1895 to 1897, he was general engineering and supervising 
engineer for contractors United Stales experimental model tank 
at Washington navy yard, and i hen until 1899, was assistant 
engineer of the Nicaragua (anal Commission. He was division 
engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commission in charge of surveys 
on Upper San Juan river from July, 1899, to January, 1900; the 
following month be returned to the Baltimore & Ohio as 
assistant engineer on location work; three years later he became 
district engineer, and from March, 1904, for one year was 
engineer of surveys. In March, 1905, he was appointed chief 
engineer of the Erie and again returned to the service of the 
Baltimore & Ohio on January 1, 1911, as chief engineer of that 
road and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton. Under Mr. 
Stuart's direction as chief engineer an extensive program of 
rehabilitation was completed by the Baltimore & Ohio. The 
Magnolia cut-off in West Virginia was built under his direction, 
and he also built double track tunnels at the two summits of 
the company's main line over the Allegheny mountains, at Sand 
Patch, Pa., and Kingwood, W. Va. 

John F. Mullen has been promoted to assistant master 
mechanic of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh in charge of 
the Buffalo division, with headquarters at Buffalo Creek, N. Y., 
and Edward F. Houghton has been promoted to superintendent 
of shops at East Salamanca, N. Y. 

G. A. Haggander, assistant bridge engineer of the Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, lines east of the Missouri river, at Chi- 
cago, has been appointed bridge engineer of the whole system, 
vice C. H. Cartlidge, deceased, and A. Engh has been appointed 
assistant bridge engineer of the lines east of the Missouri river, 
effective July 1. 

W. 1. Bell, supervisor of signals of the Pennsylvania at 
Media. Pa., has been assigned to the signal engineer's office, 
as the Media division has been consolidated with the Maryland 
division. J. H. Broadbent, supervisor of signals of the Williams- 
port division, has been appointed supervisor of signals of the 
new main-line Baltimore division with headquarters at Balti- 
more, Md. Guy Toft, supervisor of signals of the old Baltimore 
division, has been appointed supervisor of signals of the Will- 
iamsport division, succeeding Mr. Broadbent, promoted. 


C. A. Beck, formerly chairman of the board of pensions of the 
Illinois Central, whose death on June 24, was announced in our 
columns, was born at Philadelphia, Pa., on Sepember 7, 1836. 
After completing high 
school, he entered the 
employ of the Baltimore 
& Ohio in a clerical 
capacity at Harper's 
Ferry, W. Va., and was 
subsequently employed 
by the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. On 
September 19, 1856, he 
first entered the service 
of the Illinois Central at 
East Dubuque, then 
Dunleith, 111., as a freight 
clerk. East Dubuque 
was then the western 
terminus of the Illinois 
Central and a transfer 
point for freight from 
the railroad to Missis- 
sippi river boats. From 
April, 1860. to February, 
1871, he was agent of the 

Illinois Central at that point. From East Dubuque, Mr. Beck 
went to Centralia, 111., where he was superintendent of the Chi- 
cago division until July 22, 1881. From July 22, 1881, to Janu- 
ary 1, 1886, he was assistant general superintendent with head- 
quarters at Chicago. He was general superintendent with head- 
quarters at the same city until September 2, 1889, when he was 
made acting general manager. From January 1, 1890, to Octo- 
1 er 1. 1891, he was general manager, and from the latter dale 

C. A. Beck 

July 7, 1916 



J. O. Osgood 

itil January 1, 1898, assistant second vice-president. He was 
neral purchasing agent until June 1, 1901, when he was made 
airman of the board of pensions. He held this position until 
:tober 31, 1906, when he retired after 50 years of service with 
e Illinois Central. His death followed an attack of heart 

J. R. Christian, general freight agent of the Southern Pacific 
les at Houston, Texas, died in that city on June 30. 

Joseph O. Osgood, chief engineer of the Central of New Jer- 
y, whose death on June 28, at Newark, N. J., was noted last 
;ek in these columns, was born cm December 28, 1848, at 
>hasset, Mass. He was 
ucated in the public 
hools of his native 
u n and later attended 
e Massachusetts Insti- 
1 1 e of Technology, 
here he took special 
urses. He began rail- 
ay work in July, 1865, 
I a rodman, on con- 
ruction on the Eastern 
lore Railroad, now a 
rt of the New York, 
liladelphia & Norfolk. 
e subsequently served 
evious to 1874 on the 
assachusetts Central 
id on a line in Ver- 
3nt. From 1874 to 
78 he was in the serv- 
> of the Massachusetts 
>ard of Harbor Com- 
issioners, engaged in 

gineering work at Boston. Then to 1881 he was with the 
gineering department of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 

construction work in Colorado and New Mexico. In Sep- 
nber, 1881, he went to San Diego, Cal, and was engaged for 
o years in building the California Southern. From 1883 to 
84 he was chief engineer of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel & 
estern, and then for about one year was out of railway work. 
e was appointed chief engineer at Toledo, Ohio, of the Toledo, 
. Louis & Kansas City, now a part of the Toledo, St. Louis & 
estern, in April, 1886, and was in charge of the work of 
anging that road from narrow to standard gage; he subse- 
ently served as a director of that road. In January, 1888, he 
is appointed chief engineer of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
•uthern, at Cleveland, Ohio; fourteen months later he went to 
?w York, and then was engaged as a consulting railway en- 
leer until July 17, 1901, when he was appointed chief engineer 

the Central of New Jersey. 

A Subaqueous Tunnel. — One of the most notable achieve- 
:nts in gas engineering is the successful construction of a 
baqueous tunnel connecting Astoria, L. I., with the borough 

The Bronx, New York City. The tunnel lies beneath the 
iters of the East river at an average depth of 225 ft. below 
?an sea level. It is 19 ft. wide, 18 ft. high and 4,662 ft. long. 

accommodates two 72-in. gas mains, with abundant space for 
her utilities. The route of the tunnel lies through a long 
■etch of disintegrated rock where the water pressures ran up 

95 lb. per sq. in., thus making it impossible to use compressed 
r to exclude water. — Jour. Amer. Soc. of Mech. Eng. 

Railway Links Greece with Rest of Europe. — The closing 
the remaining strip of 56 miles necessary to the final linking 
i of Greece with the rest of Europe was recently reported. 
5 soon as the war is ended through trains will lie run from 
iris and other European capitals to Athens-Piraeus. The time 
om Paris will be shortened to some 60 hours, and through 
ning and sleeping cars will run over the lines. This hitherto 
issing link in communication lay between Gilda, on the Saloniki- 
onastir line, and Pappapuli, on the Thessalian frontier. Tem- 
>rary bridges of wood will span streams and valleys until 
:rmanent steel and concrete structures replace them after the 
ar. Twenty American locomotives, now ready at Athens, will 
■aw these trains at high speed through the picturesque Vistritza 
illey and along the /Egean coast to their destination. 

JIIHIII I Ill HIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 ]J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 > I IJ 1 1 1 1 , 1 ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ] 1 1 1 1 < < 1 1 1 1 1 1 l_L 

Equipment and Supplies 

ttiiiiiiiiiniiiiii mi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii iij mi i in i in i in i »■■ iiinimiii , „„„„ ,„f, 


The Philadelphia & Reading is building 10 switching loco- 
motives in its own shops. 

The Tremoni & Gulf has ordered one Mikado locomotive 
from the American Locomotive Company. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy is expected to place an 
order shortly for a number of locomotives. 

The Minnesota Transfer has ordered 2 eight-wheel switch- 
ing locomotives from the Lima Locomotive Corporation. 

The Wabash has revived its inquiry for 25 locomotives, and 
is now receiving prices on that number of Santa Fe, Mikado 
or Consolidation locomotives. 

The Pennsylvania Equipment Company, 1438 So. 1'enn 
Square, Philadelphia, is in the market for 6 or 7 second-hand 
standard gage Consolidation locomotives : Weight on driving 
wheels, about 140,000 lb.; total weight, not in excess of 150,000 
lb.; driving wheels, about 44 in. centers; steam pressure, 180 to 
200 lb., and tractive effort. 33,000 to 35,000 lb. 

Mexican Government.— The Constitucionalistas de Mexico 
placed an order a short while ago with the Hocking Valley 
for 20 second-hand Mikado locomotives. It also ordered 400 or 
500 second-hand freight' cars from two Western railroads, and 
40 or 45 second-hand passenger coaches from the Delaware, 
Lackawanna & Western. Delivery has not yet been made on 
this equipment, and naturally, may not be made for some time 
to come. 


The Delaware & Hudson is in the market for 1,000 hopper 


The Baltimore & Ohio is inquiring for an additional 1,000 
box cars. 

The Illinois Central is inquiring for 500 steel underframe 
refrigerator cars. 

The Bethlehem Steel Corporation has ordered 50 hopper 
cars from the Pressed Steel Car Company. 


The Union Pacific has ordered a combination mail and bag- 
gage 300 hp. motor car from the McKeen Motor Car Company. 

The Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis has ordered 8 
passenger car underframes from the Pressed Steel Car Company. 


The Russian Government is reported to have given the 
United States Steel Corporation orders for 200.000 tons of rails. 

The Pennsylvania Lines West have ordered 4,000 tons of 
steel for a bridge across the Beaver River at Rochester, Pa., 
from the American Bridge Company. 


The Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburgh have pur- 
chased four 600 ampere electric arc welding equipments from 
the Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company. 

The Pennsylvania Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
is in the market for a second-hand 40 to 60 ft. span electric 
traveling crane, of 15 tons capacity, and operating on 220 
volts d. c. 

The Baltimore & Ohio has purchased from the Westinghouse 
Electric & Manufacturing Company three 500 kw. rotary con- 
verters ; three 500 kva., oil insulated, self cooling, 3 phase, 25 
cycle, 13,200 volt high tension, rotarj low tension transformers; 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

four 50 kva., single phase, 25 cycle, 13,200/550 volt transformers, 
and one 17 panel switchboard for installation in the Curtis Bay 
substation at Baltimore. This substation will supply energy to 
the Curtis Bay coal pier, one of the largest coal piers in the 
country. Energy will be furnished to the substation by the 
Baltimore Consolidated Gas & Electric Company. 


The Northern Pacific will install a small General Railway 
Signal mechanical interlocking plant at Clear Lake, Wash. The 
machine is an S. & F. type and comprises 10 working levers and 
2 spare spaces. The plant will be installed by railroad forces. 

The Boston & Albany will install a 56-lever electric inter- 
locking plant at Pittsfield, Mass. There will be 45 working 
levers, 23 for the operation of signals and 22 for switch move- 
ments. The plant will be furnished and installed by the Federal 
Signal Company using Federal type 4 signals and type 4 switch 

The New York Central, Lines East, has let a contract to 
the Federal Signal Company for three style A mechanical inter- 
locking plants, one at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., with a 59-lever frame 
and 50 levers, one at Hoffmans, N. Y., with a 72-lever frame 
and 69 working levers, and one at Carman, N. Y., with a 60-lever 
frame and 59 working levers. 

The Lehigh Valley will install a small General Railway 
Signal, alternating current, electric interlocking plant at Scott 
street, Buffalo, N. Y. The installation comprises a 16-lever 
Model 2, unit-lever type machine, alternating current Model 5 
switch machines, alternating current Model 2a, dwarf signals and 
alternating current crossing gates. 

The Southern Pacific Lines in Texas are to install approxi- 
mately 50 miles of automatic signaling, principally on the 
Houston & Texas Central north of Hempstead and on the 
Galveston, Harrisburg & San Antonio between Houston and 
Galveston. It is expected that construction work will be under- 
taken in the near future and completed early in the fall. 

The Baltimore & Ohio will install during this year automatic 
signals on the Cumberland division : West Cumbo to Millers, 
9.5 miles ; Millers to Orleans road, 24.3 miles ; Magnolia to 
Green Spring, 14.6 miles; Patterson Creek to Cumberland, 5.4 
miles ; Connellsville division : Cumberland to Connellsville, 92.4 
miles ; Pittsburgh division : Willow Grove to Goehring, 37 miles ; 
New Castle division : New Castle Junction to Ravenna, 53.1 
miles. It is expected that the Connellsville and New Castle 
divisions' installation will be alternating current signaling and 
the remainder direct current. 

The Northern Pacific has authorized the installation of 216 
miles of single track automatic block signaling of the "absolute 
permissive" type on the Yellowstone division between Mandan, 
N. Dak., and Glendive, Mont. This installation will require 
about 360 signals and the auxiliary apparatus. Work is also 
under way at present on an installation of 1^2 miles of automatic 
signal protection at Mandan, covering the connection between 
the main line and a branch. An authority has been passed for 
the double tracking of the Grassy Point line between West 
Duluth and Superior, which will involve a number of changes in 
interlocking on a bridge and at the connections with the Minne- 
apolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, which uses this line jointly 
with the Northern Pacific. 

The Missouri, Kansas & Texas is to install six mechanical 
interlocking plants, with electric distant signals, at crossings with 
the Missouri Pacific. The towers in four of these plants will 
be of concrete construction and in the other two the machines 
will be situated in stations. The crossings referred to are at 
Kincaid, Kan., Selma, Moran, Ft. Scott, Chetopa and Wagoner, 
Okla. The first mentioned has a 16-lever machine with 4 spare 
spaces ; the second, fourth and fifth 16-lever machines with one 
spare space; the third, a 24-lever machine with five spare spaces; 
and the sixth, a 56-lever machine with 10 spare spaces. Work 
has been begun on these plants which will be constructed by 
railway forces. A mechanical interlocking plant with electric 
distant signals is also being constructed at the crossing with 
the Missouri, Oklahoma & Gulf at Durant, Okla. The tower for 
this plant will be of concrete. The work is being done by the 
railroad's forces, and it is now about 20 per cent completed. 

illinium iiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiuii miimiiiiini Illllllllimilllllllllllll iiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiniii: 

Supply Trade News 

Fiiiiiiiiiii 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 linn 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 iriimiii j j 1 1 1 1 ir ir ■inirin 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r Ellin ii 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 riiiiif 1 1 1 1 1 1 rn ii i 1 1 ■ i miii 1 1 nil 1 1 1 1 if; 

The Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company, New York, on 
July 1 moved its Seattle, Wash., office from 807-809 Western 
avenue to new quarters at 63-65 Columbia street. 

Willard Wilson, assistant manager of sales of the Tennessee 
Coal, Iron & Railroad Company, has been appointed general 
manager of sales of the company succeeding F. A. Burr, who has 
left the company to become general manager of sales of the 
Aetna Explosives Company. 

E. R. Marker, district manager of the T. L. Smith Company, 
has opened new quarters at 609 Wells Street, Milwaukee, Wis., 
where he took charge of the business of the company as Wis- 
consin representative. He has a stock of concrete mixers and 
other supplies for concrete construction on display. 

W. H. Ivers, formerly with the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
has been appointed southwestern representative of the Gold Car 
Heating & Lighting Company, New York, with headquarters at 
St. Louis, Mo., succeeding George F. Ivers, who has resigned to 
become manager of the railway supply department of the 
Shapleigh Hardware Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Death of John T. Cade 

John T. Cade, vice-president of the Federal Signal Com- 
pany, died at his home in Areola, N. J., on June 30 after 
an illness of about five weeks. Mr. Cade was born in Hunt- 
ingdon, England, Janu- 
ary 7, 1861, and became 
connected with the 
business with which he 
was associated through- 
out his life in 1875, 
when a mere boy. go- 
ing to work for the 
English firm of Stevens 
& Sons, railway signal 
manufacturers and con- 
tractors. He came to 
America in 1882, when 
signaling in this coun- 
try was in its infancy. 
Entering the employ of 
the Union Switch & 
Signal Company of 
Pittsburgh, he rose rap- 
idly to positions of re- 
sponsibility and was 
directly or indirectly 
connected with all the 

larger installations of signaling and interlocking made by 
that company for about 13 years. In 1895 he resigned his 
position with that company and in 1896, with the late Henry 
Johnson, he founded the Standard Railroad Signal Company, 
of Arlington, N. J. This concern was merged into the Pneu- 
matic Railway Signal Company, of Rochester, which in turn 
was one of the constituent companies forming the present 
General Railway Signal Company. Mr. Cade held important 
positions in all these companies until 1903. In 1904 he organ- 
ized the Federal Railway Signal Company; and in 1908 this 
was reorganized as the present Federal Signal Company, of 
Albany, N. Y. 

Mr. Cade bad thus been constantly active in the field of 
American railway signaling from its earliest days, and his 
name will hold a prominent place in the history of the 
development of the art on this side of the ocean. As a signal 
engineer he was thoroughly grounded in the conservatism 
of English practice, while yet he was abreast of the best 
American enterprise. His ability was recognized by the 
profession and by railroad officers, and a number of patents 
on improvements in signaling bear witness to his ingenuity 
and originality. 

Mr. Cade had a wide acquaintance among railroad officers, 
who appreciated his force of character and enjoyed his 

John T. Cade 

July 7, 1916 



genial, kindly manner. The signal world has lost a useful 
promoter and his associates mourn a valued friend who 
cannot be replaced. He leaves a widow and two daughters. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio, has 
presented to Battery B, Ohio Field Artillery, stationed at Akron, 
a fully equipped military kite balloon, which is the first of its 
kind ever owned by the national guard of any state. The bal- 
loon is similar to the one recently delivered to the United States 
Navy for use at the naval aeronautic station at Pensacola, Fla. 
It was designed and made entirely in the Goodyear factory. 
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company recently sent an aero- 
nautic expert abroad to make a scientific study of kite balloon 
development to be better able to assist the United States gov- 
ernment in building up its aeronautic service. 

Henry Alden Sherwin, chairman of the board of directors of 
the Sherwin-Williams Company, died of heart failure on June 
26, at his country place, near Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Sherwin 
was born at Baltimore, 
Vt, on September 27, 
1842, and began his busi- 
ness career at the age 
of 13. In 1862, he went 
to Cleveland, where he 
secured a position as a 
clerk and bookkeeper 
with a dry goods com- 
pany. In July, 1866, he 
left this business to or- 
ganize Dunham & Co.. 
the name of which was 
changed to Sherwin. 
Williams & Co. in 1870, 
when E. T. Williams 
was taken into the firm. 
In 1884, this company 
was incorporated as the 
Sherwin-Williams Com- 
pany. For the past few 
years he was chairman 
of the board of directors 

of the company, although not as active in the affairs of the 
organization as in former years. Mr. Sherwin was well known 
to the older men of the railway supply field. He began his 
career as a salesman by selling to the railroads, and was 
proud of the fact that his first order was a carload of paint 
sold to the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe. He established the 
first factory lunchroom to provide noon-hour lunches for em- 
ployees, a plan which has since been adopted by many other 
industrial firms. 


Steel Pipe. — The National Tube Company has recently is- 
sued a third edition of its catalogue of National Matheson joint 
pipe. This is a system of piping for high or low pressure 
natural or artificial gas lines, water works, mines, mining, hydro- 
electric plants, irrigation and engineering uses. The catalogue 
takes up the characteristics of the pipe and shows its advantages 
for different kinds of service. The book is extremely well illus- 
trated with views of typical installations of many different kinds. 
One of the interesting features is a series of drawings or car- 
toons emphasizing some of the points that are made in the text. 

Du Pont Products. — The Du Pont companies have recently 
issued a 111 page book, 5 in. by 8 in. in size, giving a complete 
list of the products made by E. T. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., 
the Du Pont Fabrikoid Company, the Du Pont Chemical Com- 
pany and the Arlington Company. The book contains list of 
products arranged under the following heads : high explosives ; 
low explosives ; black blasting powder ; sporting powders ; ex- 
plosives for military uses; miscellaneous commodities; blasting 
supplies; Fabrikoid; chemicals-; Pyralin; special products and 
by-products. In each case a brief description of the commodity 
is given, followed by a list of its users and also its uses. In a 
section headed customers, are given the names of all kinds of 
users alphabetically arranged followed in each case by a list 
of commodities available for that particular industry. The book 
itself is bound in Fabrikoid. 

H. A. Sherwin 

sniiiiiuimiiiimuiiiiiimiiiiimiiimiii i i umintii nmti immiiitni umiiiiiiiiiuuiiiiiuim mi! 

Railway Construction 

Hi tiimiimiimiiiiiiiiimiiiui i in iiiiimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiimiimiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiimmiiimimiimiimf 

Big Blackfoot. — Clifton, Applegate & Toole, Spokane, Wash- 
have been awarded a contract for a 22-mile extension cf 
this road from Blackfoot Junction, Mont., to Clearwater. The 
work involves about 250,000 cu. yd. of cut and fill. The Big 
Blackfoot is a subsidiary of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. 
(Page 1113, May 19.) 

Cowlitz, Chehalis & Cascade. — The Nettleton-Bruce-Esch- 
bach Company, Seattle, Wash., has the contract for the construc- 
tion of a railway from Chehalis, Wash., 20 miles up the Newau- 
kum valley in an easterly direction. The work includes the con- 
struction of three bridges, from 80 ft. to 100 ft. in length. The 
railroad is about one-third completed, and will be used largely 
for the transportation of lumber and live stock. J. E. Corlett, 
president, 837 Henry building, Seattle, Wash. 

Eagle Pass & Aransas Pass. — This company has been or- 
ganized at Aransas Pass, Tex., it is said, to build a line between 
Aransas Pass, Tex., and Eagle Pass, about 250 miles. The pro- 
posed route is through a ranch region that of late years has 
undergone considerable agricultural development. Bonuses ag- 
gregating $50,000 cash and considerable land have been pledged 
in aid of the project. 

Grand Trunk. — This company recently finished work on a 
5-mile spur line to Borden station, 2.75 miles southwest of Angus 
station, Ont, and work is under way on 3.75 miles of sidings 
and spur tracks, a total of 8.75 miles. The improvements in- 
clude building a 35-ft. steel girder span, also the construction 
of a soldiers' unloading platform, 16 ft. by 2,800 ft., a passenger, 
express and baggage building, 30 ft. by 416 ft. and a passenger 
platform, 18 ft. by 800 ft. The new line was built to carry mili- 
tary supplies and visitors to the camp at Borden. 

Great Northern. — This company is building 36 miles of new 
line from Wildrose, N. D., west to the Montana border. 

Holston River Lumber Company's Line— An officer of this 
company writes, regarding the report that bids will be received 
for the construction of a 20-mile line to the Clinch mountain 
district in Virginia, that it has not yet been decided when bids 
will be asked for the work. E. M. Allen, president, Abingdon, 

New York Subways. — All bids submitted to the New York 
Public Service Commission, First district, for the construction 
of Route No. 31, the Livonia avenue elevated extension of the 
Eastern Parkway subway in the borough of Brooklyn, have been 
rejected and the commission will readvertise for new bids. Bids 
were opened on May 23, at which time Dennis E. Conners, New 
York, was the lowest bidder, at $1,376,122. 

Pennsylvania Roads (Electric). — Residents of Hershey, Pa., 
have under consideration the question of building an electric 
line from Manheim, Pa., northwest via Mastersonville, Cole- 
brook, Lawn and Bachmansville to Hershey, about 25 miles. The 
promoters expect to develop a traffic in milk and passengers. 
John Snyder, Hershey, may be addressed. 

Port Jervis & Delaware Valley (Electric).— J. A. Vander- 
grift & Company, Inc., New York, will finance and build this 
projected electric line from Port Jervis, X. Y., southwest via 
Matamoras to Milford, Pa., about 7 miles. The grading work 
involves handling 7,000 yd. to the mile. The maximum grade 
will be 2 per cent, and the maximum curvature except in the 
streets of towns, 3 deg. One 60-ft. steel girder bridge will be 
required, also one 300-ft. wooden trestle, four culverts and 
about 34,000 feet of timber. J. A. Vandergrift, president, 149 
Broadway, New York City, and W. E. Soden, chief engineer, 
Port Jervis. 

Yellville, Rush & Mineral Belt. — Grading has been com- 
pleted on this road which is being built from Yellville station, 
Ark., via Summit, Yellville, Cowan, Barrens and Clabber Creek 
to the mouth of Rush Creek on the Buffalo river, about 19 
miles. Approximately 15 per cent of the track has been laid and 
65 per cent of the bridging done. The work involves the con- 
struction of 42 bridges with a total length of 3,100 ft. The 
maximum grade is four per cent and the maximum curvature 



Vol. 61, No. 1 

16 deg. The work is being done by company forces and is 
under the supervision of II. E. Cochran, superintendent of con- 
struction, Ycllville, Ark. (December 31, 1915, page 1262.) 


AKRON, Ohio.— The Northern Ohio Traction & Light Com- 
pany plans to open bids on July 5, for the construction of a 
freight and passenger station to cost about $300,000. It will be 
a reinforced concrete, brick and terra cotta structure, 80 ft. 
by 155 ft., and from 35 to 45 ft. in height. 

Aldrich, Ala. — Work on a new frame combination station 
to replace the structure destroyed by lire on February 5, will 
be begun by the Southern Railway as soon as the necessary 
building material can be assembled. The work will be carried 
out by company forces. 

Cleveland, Ohio.— The Terminal Properties Company has 
completed plans for a 12-story hotel building, 138 ft. by 233 ft., 
to be built at an estimated cost of $1,750,000. The building will 
be a steel frame, tile-fireproofed structure with concrete floors 
and brick exterior. The structural steel has been ordered from 
the American Bridge Company, and the general building con- 
tract has been let to the Crowell-Lundoff-Little Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. C. M. Norris, purchasing agent, 1951 East 
57th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Harrisburg, Pa.— The Philadelphia & Reading has given a 
contract to the Jame? McGraw Company, Philadelphia, for the 
concrete foundation and to the Pennsylvania Steel Company for 
the steel superstructure, of a bridge to be built on the Lebanon 
Valley branch at Harrisburg. 

New York.— The New York Public Service Commission, First 
district, will open bids on July 14, for the construction of station 
finish for the Grand Central Station of the Queensboro subway. 
This work is to include the lengthening for about 500 ft. of the 
island platform of the present station of the Queensboro sub- 
way in Forty-second street, which is between Lexington and 
Third avenues. Connecting with this extension there will be an 
underground passageway to the present Grand Central station 
of the first subway. 

The contract for the construction of the One Hundred and 
Eightieth street yard on Route No. 18, in the borough of the 
Bronx, has been awarded by the New York Public Service Com- 
mission, First district, to the Thomas J. Buckley Construction 
Company, the lowest bidder, at $269,222. (June 30, p. 1610.) 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y. — A steel bridge on concrete foundation 
is to be built over the Central New England tracks at North 
street, Poughkeepsie, at a cost of $22,283, and a steel bridge 
on concrete foundation is to be built at North Clinton street to 
cost $6,858. Bids were received recently for the steel work, but 
have not yet been asked for the concrete foundation. 

Proctor, Minn. — The Duluth, Missabe & Northern has 
awarded a contract to Macleod & Smith for a 100-ft. reinforced 
concrete roundhouse designed for 60 stalls, one half of which is 
now being built. 

Sioux City, Iowa. — The Great Northern has awarded a con- 
tract to the E. G. Evansta Company, Minneapolis, Minn., for 
the construction of a 10-stall engine house, a power house, store 
and oil houses, a 100,000-gal. water tank and treating plant, a 
cinder pit and a turntable. A contract for the erection of a 
coaling station has been awarded to the Ogle Construction Com- 
pany, Chicago. The cost of the improvements has been esti- 
mated at about $150,000. 

Texarkana, Ark. — The Missouri Paciiic-St. Louis, Iron 
Mountain & Southern is building an eight-stall, 85-ft., frame 
roundhouse with its own forces. 

Washington, D. C. — Plans are reported being made for an 
office building, to be built at Washington for the Southern Rail- 

West Elizabeth, N. J.— Plans for an addition to the facilities 
at West Elizabeth have been announced by the Lehigh Valley. 
A general re-arrangement of the layout will be made, and nearly 
two miles of new sidetracks will be constructed ; a new freight 
house and a new milk station will also be built. The new track 
layout will provide room for about 150 cars. The passenger 
station will be reconstructed into a modern and up-to-date sub- 
urban station. 

:iuiiiiiiiiiii.iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiii muni iiillllilillillliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilllliiLj 

Railway Financial News 

E = 

. 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 ■ ■ 1 1 1 1 i i ■ ■ ■ ri ■ illinium iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniilllllilliilliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiuuunl 

Buffalo & Susquehanna Railroad Corporation. — This com- 
pany, which took over a part of the old Buffalo & Susque- 
hanna, has declared an initial dividend of 1 per cent on the 
common stock. 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific. — Holders of the collateral 4 
per cent bonds of the old Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Rail- 
road, generally spoken of as the Iowa Company, are to receive 
a further distribution of $8.50 on the principal of each $1,000 
bond and 16 2/3 cents on each $20 coupon. The holders of 
these bonds were given the privilege of exchanging them at 
par for Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Company (the 
operating company) stock. A certain number of the holders of 
bonds did not exercise this option and therefore received their 
proportion of the cash bid which was made by the reorganiza- 
tion committee for the collateral securing the bonds. This 
amounted to $98.10 per $1,000 bond, or a little less than 10 per 
cent. The further distribution is the result of the settlement 
of the suit brought against former directors for loss made in 
the management of the company. Kean, Taylor & Co., New 
York, are offering $2,050,000 5 per cent receiver's certificates, 
series A, of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Com- 
pany, to be dated July 3, 1916, and maturing January 3, 1917, 
at 100*4, yielding about A l / 2 per cent. The proceeds of these 
certificates will be used to retire a like amount of certificates 
due July 3, 1916. 

Fitchburg. — The company has sold $5,000,000 5 per cent notes 
issued to refund a like amount of 4 per cent bonds which 
mature July 1, 1916. 

Pennsylvania Company. — See Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — It was erroneously said in this column 
last week that this company had declared a semi-annual divi- 
dend of 4 per cent. The Pennsylvania Railroad pays quarterly 
dividends of \ l / 2 per cent, being at the rate of 6 per cent yearly. 
The Pennsylvania Company, all the stock of which is owned by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, paid a semi-annual dividend of 
4 per cent on June 30. In June, 1915, 2 per cent was paid, and 
in December 4 per cent. If, therefore, the semi-annual declara- 
tion next December is also 4 per cent, this company will have 
paid in the 1916 calendar year 8 per cent as compared with 
6 per cent in the previous year. 

See also Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. 

Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. — A semi-annual 
dividend of 2 per cent has been declared on the $29,916,200 
preferred stock, of which the Pennsylvania Company owns 
$24,886,700. This compares With 4 per cent declared in Janu- 
ary, 1916, and with nothing declared in 1915. 
See Pennsylvania Railroad. 

Western Pacific. — The California railroad commission has ap- 
proved the reorganization plan of the Western Pacific Rail- 
way. This plan provides for the sale of all of the Railway 
company's property to the new Western Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany and the issue of $75,000,000 stock and $20,000,000 bonds 
and the mortgaging of the property to secure $50,000,000 ad- 
ditional bonds. The Corporation Trust Company has filed a 
certificate of incorporation in Wilmington, Del., for the West- 
ern Pacific Railroad, with capital stock of $75,000,000. 

Rust- Proofing of Iron and Steel. — The rust-proofing of iron 
and steel remains one of the greatest economic problems, in 
spite of the numberless efforts to solve it. The purer an iron 
the more non-corrosive it is, but at the sacrifice of strength. 
Painting lasts but a few years at best. Enameling is prohibitive 
for most purposes on account of the first cost, to say nothing 
of its tendency to crack off under blows. An Italian chemist 
claims to have solved the problem by giving iron or steel a pro- 
tective coating of oxide. The metal is heated in a muffle into 
which superheated steam is turned. The fumes of a powdered 
chemical (of unstated composition) are then blown upon the 
metal, producing an iron oxide that adheres permanently. — 
Engineering and Contracting. 


Volume 61 

July 14, 1916 

No. 2 

Table of 


Private Concerns and Preparedness 49 

Clifford Thome's Automobile 49 

Fruitful Results from Apprenticeship 49 

Who Wants a Strike ? SO 

The Public's Attitude Toward Governmenl Management SO 

The Transportation of the National Guard 51 



End Slopes for Hopper Cars; Frank S. Ingoldsby 52 

Railway Clearing House; Byron Cassell 52 

*Wireless on the Union F'acific; Frederick II. Milliner 53 

Noise Nuisance on Sleeping Cars; Lee Anderson 53 

Relative Efficiency of German and American Railways; R. Emerson.. 53 

The Clerk Problem 54 


Failure of Government Ownership in Canada; Samuel O. Dunn 55 


*The Friendship Corners of French Railway Stations; Walter S. Hiat 

* First Steel Coaches foi tin' Host on & Maine 61 

*Branding Lumber at the Mill 64 

"Joseph Ramsey, Jr 65 

*The Automatic Measurement of Stresses; Rudolph Welcker 66 

*New Automatic Signals on the Coast Line 67 

*Steel Ore Car for the Duluth, Missabe & Northern 68 

*Grade Crossing Elimination in Camden, N. J 69 

The Railway Wage ( ontrovcrsy 72 

Tlie Regulation of Railroad Purchases; W. L. Stoddard 73 

'Triplex Articulated Locomotives for the Erie 74 

Canadian Railway Commission Approves Advances in Eastern Freight 

Rates 75 

*Ventilation Accessories 76 



Concerns and 

President Wilson, in a recent speech, raised the question of 
whether the business men of the country are willing to do 
their share to prepare the country for 
war by giving men in their employment 
freedom to enlist, presumably while 
keeping them on the payroll. The Na- 
tional Association of Manufacturers 
has been circularizing its members to find out whether they 
will encourage their employees to undergo military training 
and will permit them to engage in such training without loss 
of wages, provided the training is within their own city or 
town. Many of the companies circularized are railway sup- 
ply concerns. The railway supply concerns of the United 
States are owned and managed by men who are second to no 
other class of citizens in patriotism, and doubtless they will 
give their employees as much freedom and opportunity to 
get military training as any others. But, in this connection 
one point ought to be emphasized. This is, that it is the 
business of the government, and not that of private concerns, 
to do the work and bear the expense of preparing the coun- 
try to defend itself. The two very primary functions of a 
government are to maintain order at home and to protect the 
nation from foreign powers. It is a remarkable commentary 
upon our governments that they are constantly assuming 
functions which are of secondary importance, as compared 
with these, and which in many cases are not necessarily func- 
tions of government at all, and that at the same time they 
call upon the business interests of the country to help them 
do the work and bear the expense of performing those func- 
tions which peculiarly belong to every government. Only 
when the government out of its own revenues adequately 
provides for preparedness will the burden of national defense 
be fairly distributed among those who should bear it. 

The Hon. Clifford Thorne, chairman of the Railroad Com- 
mission of Iowa, we infer from the expressions of the Iowa 
press, has become the possessor of a 
new automobile. Whether it is a real 
automobile or merely a flivver doth not 
appear, but it seems that it is a gift. 
One ought not, to paraphrase an old 
saying, to look a gift automobile in the mouth, but this advice 
was extended to the recipient of the gift and not to innocent 
bystanders, and there are certain of the latter class in Iowa 

Clifford Thome's 

who are disposed to look askance at Clifford's new car. We 
quote the following from the Cedar Rapids (Iowa) 
Republican : 

While the newspapers are discussing Mr. Thorne, who is still railroad 
commissioner, after being defeated for Congress, we would at least suggest 
to him as kindly as we can, for we do not want to be unkind even to 
Clifford, that he return that automobile, the gift of which was so much 
heralded by the givers. If those shippers who presented that automobile 
should have any question about rates or regulation come up with the rail- 
roads and they should appeal to the railroad commission, how would Mr. 
Thorne as chairman of that commission act and vote? What chance 
would the railroads have against those shippers who made the present of 
the automobile — not now accusing Mr. Thorne of any desire except to be 
fair — but how could a man be uninfluenced? Tf the railroads could present 
an official with an automobile, what would be said of it? Why should 
shippers do so without criticism? The whole thing looks bad on the very 
face of it. It is regrettable, for in Iowa wc have generally managed to 
keep pretty clean. 

The Railway Age Gazette does not pretend to know either 
whether Mr. Thorne has a new automobile or where he got it. 
But suppose that he has one and that he did accept it from 
the shippers, is there anything wrong about that? A virtu- 
ous man like Mr. Thorne has a great advantage over the 
wicked. He can do anything that he likes, and it becomes 
virtuous because he does it. Not only can lie make the worse 
appear the better part, but the worse part automatically be- 
comes the better part when he takes it. Besides, when the 
chairman of a railroad commission has appeared as an 
attorney for shippers in rate cases before they have given 
him an automobile how can he be expected to do more for 
them after they have given him an automobile? 

Fruitful Results 


Does an apprenticeship system based on modern methods 
pay? Ten years ago when attention was being directed to 
the vital necessity of doing something 
to recruit the ranks of the mechanical 
department and insure a good supply 
of capable well-trained workmen, there 
were not a few who objected to the 
expense involved in installing an adequate apprenticeship 
system and who scoffed at the possibility of retaining gradu- 
ate apprentices in the service. These criticisms have proved 
groundless to a large extent on both the Santa Fe and the 
New York Central Lines, where approved modern appren- 
ticeship methods were first introduced. The results in the 
case of the New York Central are not so pronounced because 
of changes which have taken place in the organization since 
the apprenticeship system was first introduced, and the fact 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

that this work lias not received the same hearty interest and 
backing from the higher officers as in the earlier days. On 
the Santa Fe, however, where the fundamental principles of 
modern apprenticeship have been given a thorough trial, re- 
ceiving hearty co-operation from President Ripley down, the 
results are truly remarkable. Of the 479 apprentices gradu- 
ated in the four years, 1912 to 1916 inclusive, 83 per cent. 
have remained in the service. Since the reorganization of the 
apprentice system in 1907, 99 of the graduates have been 
promoted to responsible positions. More important than 
these figures, however, is the feeling of loyalty which has 
been engendered and the improved efficiency throughout the 
mechanical department — and the work has only fairly begun. 
The possibilities, if similar methods were to be introduced 
in all departments of the railway, are practically limitless. 
It is greatly to be regretted, however, that railway officers 
generally cannot visualize these possibilities and are so slow 
in taking aggressive steps to promote the training and selec- 
tion of their men. 


CPOKESMEN for the labor brotherhoods, desiring to 
throw the responsibility for a possible strike of train 
and engine employees upon the railroad companies, are in- 
dulging in some curious mental contortions in their endeavor 
to explain their refusal to submit the wage controversy to an 
impartial arbitration. Their position before the public is 
seriously weakened, however, by the fact that while criti- 
cising the railroads' proposals for a settlement, they have of- 
fered no alternative plan but a strike unless their demands 
are granted in full. 

A statement issued by the Transportation Brotherhoods' 
Publicity Bureau declares that the proposal of the railways 
to refer the question to the Interstate Commerce Commission 
means "anything for delay" and that "railroad officials well 
know that the Interstate Commerce Commission has no power 
to fix the rate of wages after an investigation of the subject 
and the whole controversy would, after an investigation, be 
in the same condition as it is at the present moment." This 
is hardly a satisfactory explanation of their rejection of the 
proposal "that we (the railways and the employees) jointly 
request Congress to take such action as may be necessary to 
enable the commission to consider and promptly dispose of 
the questions involved." 

An editorial in The Railroad Trainman intimates that 
the railroads are desirous of bringing the controversy to the 
point of a strike, and says that "they stand to win by either 
of two ways, first, if the men win, by teaching the public 
the need for uninterrupted railroad service for which the pub- 
lic must pay, or by defeating the men, destroying their organi- 
zations temporarily, and saving the cost of a strike by a read- 
justment of wages and service conditions." If this is true, 
the railroads are in a rather enviable position. According to 
this version, they have two chances to win, the brotherhoods 
have one chance, but the public, which would have to suffer 
the effects of a strike in either event, and to stand an increase 
in rates if the men should win, has no chance at all. 

If the railroads could have any confidence that an advance 
in rates would be the certain result of an increase in wages, 
they would view the prospect with equanimity, but in view 
of the difficulty they have experienced in securing a slight 
increase in rates as a partial offset to the advances in wages 
and other expenses during the past 10 years, it would seem 
to be the safer pobcy for them to try to win the strike. If 
they should lose they could not meet the increased expense 
by higher rates except with the approval of the Interstate 
Commerce Commission. 

The 300,000 train employees would profit by an increase 
of wages, whether secured as the result of a strike or of arbi- 
tration, considerably more than they would have to pay as 

their share of a general increase of freight or passenger rates. 
They are not worrying about the increase in rates dr the ef- 
fect on the public of a strike. They believe that their chain es 
for winning are greater if the controversy is to he settled by 
force than if it is to be adjusted by some impartial body. 

This being the case, unless they advance some other alter- 
native, the responsibility for a strike will rest squarely upon 
those who propose a strike, not upon those who propose a 
peaceful settlement. 

The Railroad Trainman expresses the belief that "the 
proposition made by the railroads was not offered in good 
faith," and that "if a proposition had been made by the men 
to arbitrate under the Newlands law, the railroad companies 
would have refused it." If the confidence of the brotherhoods 
in this belief had been strong enough to induce them to make 
such a proposal they might have been able to put the railroads 
in the hole they are now trying to dig for them, but the fact 
remains they did not; that the railroads did propose arbi- 
tration under the Newlands law, and that the brotherhoods 
rejected it and proposed only a strike. 

The brotherhood organ also says: "The owners of the 
railways have a perfect right to participate in the earnings 
on a fair and equitable basis, but they have no right to fix 
that fair and equitable profit on a basis that is manifestly 
unjust to the employees." If the present basis is "mani- 
festly unjust" it should not be difficult for the employees to 
convince either the Interstate Commerce Commission or a 
board of arbitration that such is the fact. 


IT is usually essential to the successful management of any 
kind of a property or business that those who own a 
controlling interest in it shall know the manner and results 
of its management, and shall take an active interest in them. 
In order to get good management they must hold the man- 
agers responsible for results, and they cannot do this if they 
do not know what the results are. One of the principal rea- 
sons why some of the railways of the United States have been 
badly managed has been that their stockholders have been 
too uninformed or have not acted on the information they 
have had, thus giving the managers opportunity to disregard 
the duties of their trusteeship. 

As little as the stockholders of many private railways 
know about the affairs of their companies, they know a great 
deal more about them than the public usually knows about 
the results of railways which it owns. When railways are 
owned and operated by private companies the government 
usually will at least compel their managements to so keep 
their accounts and make their reports that anybody who will 
devote some time to the examination of their operating and 
financial statistics can tell whether or not they are being 
grossly mismanaged, and whether they are making or losing 
money. When railways are owned and managed by the gov- 
ernment, on the other hand, the government is quite likely to 
so keep their accounts and make their reports that even those 
experienced in the study of railway affairs may have difficulty 
in ascertaining the exact results secured, and that a large ma- 
jority of the public will have wrong impressions, and mis- 
leading information or none, regarding them. 

The government railways of Canada afford striking evi- 
dence in support of these views. The first one-half of an ar- 
ticle on the results of government management in that coun- 
try is published in this issue of the Railway Age Gazette. 
The second one-half will be published next week. The data 
presented show conclusively that the Canadian government 
railways always have been, and are now, an utter failure 
from a financial point of view, and have inflicted enormous 
losses upon the public. The official reports furnish ample 

f ■ 

July 14, 1916 



basis for the demonstration of this proposition. Hut they do 
not tell the whole truth. They do not disclose how much inter- 
est the government has to pay on the capital belonging to the 
public which has been invested in the railways. Consequently, 
the oid\' point regarding the results of these railways, and 
.•specially of the Intercolonial, the oldest of the large govern 
ment lines, to which Canadian public men and the most in- 
telligent part of the public seem to give any attention, is as 
to whether the road earns its operating expenses. And, al- 
though they do pay some attention to the earnings and operat- 
ing expenses, it is a remarkable fact that the public men and 
the people of Canada, and even many of the newspapers, do 
not seem even to know that the road does not earn even its 
operating expenses. For example, the Toronto World ought 
to be well informed, and yet it said in an editorial in its 
issue for June 14, 1916, that the Intercolonial has "given 
good service at low rates and more than pays operating ex- 
penses." Now, the fact is that, as shown in the article pub- 
lished elsewhere in this issue, the Intercolonial during 47 
rears of government management failed by $9,565,000 to 
earn its bare operating expenses, and that it has continued 
down to the present time to fail to do so. It has had operat- 
ing deficits in each of the last three years, and its operating 
deficit during the last 10 years has been $1,352,156. The 
Toronto World also says: "Everyone knows the Intercolo- 
nial was built as a military road for military purposes, and 
was never expected to pay commercially." This statement is 
simply not true. It is demonstrable by the official documents 
that the Intercolonial was not built as a military road. Even 
if it had been the so-called "military purposes" would long 
since have ceased to exist, and if the management had not 
been a mixture of low politics and incompetency it would 
many years ago have begun to be handled in an entirely dif- 
ferent manner. 

These statements are not made in criticism of the officers 
who are now, or have been in the past, in direct charge of the 
operation of the property. Many of them have been conscien- 
tious and able railway men. The present general manager, 
F. P. Gutelius, is such a railway man. The failure of gov- 
ernment management in Canada has been due to the political 
and other demoralizing influences whose presence seems to 
be unavoidable in the case of commercial concerns managed 
by democratic governments. 

The ignorance and indifference shown by the public re- 
garding business enterprises managed by governments is at- 
tributable, doubtless, to many causes, but among them arc- 
two of leading importance. First, the standard of intelli- 
gence of the public as a whole is almost sure to be lower 
than that of the stockholders of a private company. When a 
man acquires stock in a railway it is a pretty sure sign that 
in thrift and intelligence he has risen above the level of a 
large majority of the people. Second, the individual mem- 
bers of the public, even though equal in intelligence to the 
individual stockholders of a railway, are not likely to take 
nearly as much interest in the affairs of a government railway 
as the stockholders are likely to take in those of a private 
railway. The stockholders of a private railway are a com- 
paratively small number of people, and they receive, or hope 
to receive, dividends from it, and may at the same time suf- 
fer losses by it. The owners of a government railway art' 
millions of people, and an}' benefits it confers on them, or 
losses it causes them are spread over all the people, are in- 
direct and general, and, therefore, while none the less real, 
are of such a nature as not to excite much interest or concern 
on the part of individuals. 

The main reason why the business of democracies usually 
is badly managed is that those who have ultimate control 
of the government — that is, the great majority of the people 
themselves — are ignorant or apathetic, or both, regarding pub 
lie affairs. Since they are ignorant, or apathetic, or both, 

regarding other publii affairs, how can it rationally be as 
sumed that they will not be regarding the management of 
government railways? And if the} are ignorant, or apathetii . 
or both, regarding government management, then tin govern 
ment railways are sure to be badly managed. 


rhT, part played by the railroads in the mobilization of tli< 
National Guard, while perhaps not entire]} free from 
imperfections, nevertheless seems to have compared very 
favorably with the work of other factors in the movement. 
While there were not always enough sleeping cars available 
for the use of the troops when desired, the same statement 
can be made as to such important item- of a soldier'.- equip- 
ment as shoes, guns and horses, and if some of the published 
comments by officers of the militia on the i omfort and pleasure 
of their journey to Texas in July did not exactly correspond 
with the portrayal of the (harms of summer vacation travel 
to the mountains or the seashore in railroad advertising lit- 
erature some of the comments of the men on Uncle Sam's 
cooking would not look well on the posters used in front 
of the army recruiting stations. 

Some of the newspapers were able to make very effective 
use in editorials and cartoons of the contrast between the 
summer tourist riding in electric-lighted Pullmans and the 
militia traveling in day coaches, but the government that has 
charge of such matters evidently differentiates between a 
vacation and a war because the regulations of the war de- 
partment governing the transportation of troops by rail do 
not provide for the use of standard Pullman cars (except 
for officers), but specify tourist cars and day coaches. Article 
123 of the department regulations says: "If tourist sleepers 
are not readily available, coaches should be substituted, on 
the basis of one man to each double seat, and an endeavor 
made to secure the tourist sleepers and transfer the men 
thereto at a convenient place en route." 

This was exactly the method followed. As there were only 
between 500 and 600 tourist <leepcr> available in the coun- 
try, and on the basis of 40 men to a car it would take five 
or six weeks to transport 1 20,000 men to the border, allowing 
an average of six days for the round trip from the Eastern and 
Central States, the mobilization would have proceeded rather 
slowly without the use of day coaches. 

In the emergency which was believed to exist when tin 
troops were first called out there was not sufficient time for 
assembling, at the points where they were needed, cars scat- 
tered all over the country, and the quartermasters and the 
railroads simply did the besl they could. In a few days all 
of the available tourist cars were on their way to Texas and 
it was necessary again to resort to the use <>f daj coaches fur 
a part of the men. at leasl from the initial point to some in T- 
mediate place en route where they could be transferred to the 
cars being deadheaded back. In this way the most effective 
use was made of the available equipment, and most of the 
soldiers had sleeping <ars for at least part of their trip. 

In one or two cases there were delays in getting started, 
owing to the difficulty of assembling touri>t cars. In the 
instance of one Illinois regiment there were cars in the vicin- 
ity of Springfield, but the quartermaster-general's department 
at Washington, which reserved to itself the ordering of tour- 
ist cars, for Mime reason overlooked them and ordered cars 
from Chicago instead, while the regiment slept in the streets. 

The outstanding feature of the situation has been the re- 
markable facility with which the entire movement has been 
handled, both by the railroad- and by the war department, 
a- compared with the experience during the Spanish-American 
war, and considering the short notice on which it was under- 
taken. It i- a noteworthy fact that the criticisms which have 
been published have come from state officers and political 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

colonels rather than from regular army officers. In fact the 
war department has declared these criticisms "entirely un- 
justified." The railroads have displayed a degree of pre- 
paredness so far as organization is concerned, which has been 
in marked contrast with that of either the federal government 
or of the state militia. 

President Wilson has expressed his public appreciation of 
the work of the American Railway Association special com- 
mittee on co-operation with the military authorities, which 
promptly placed at the disposal of the war department a com- 
plete organization of operating men to assist it in co-ordinat- 
ing the facilities of the various roads. Little has been said, 
however, about the important work by the military commit- 
tees of the railroad passenger associations and the quarter- 
master-general's department in systematizing the business 
relations between the railroads and the government concern- 
ing the handling of military transportation. As briefly out- 
lined in last week's issue, a complete military agreement had 
been reached between the railroads and the government, which 
practically provides for a pool of the resources of the rail- 
roads for the transportation of troops, and under which de- 
tailed routes have been worked out in advance so as to give 
each road its equitable share in the traffic and at the same 
time insure the most direct routes, a reduction from the 
lowest combination of land grant rates and the avoidance 
of congestion either at terminals or at junction points. When 
the emergency arose members of the military committees went 
to Washington and completed the arrangements in a very 
short time. The railroads also, in most cases, gave the troop 
trains right of way over other trains, an I many of them 
greatly curtailed their Fourth of July and ether excursion, 
or special service, in order to give preference to the military 

The real deficiencies in the preparations are not to be 
ascribed to the trained railroad and army officers who have 
been called upon to make a public demonstration of their 
ability, but to the pork-barrel politics which has interfered 
with carrying out the recommendations of those whose busi- 
ness it was to know what was needed and to the indifference 
of a public that has allowed such politics to prevail in its 


Application of Agency Tariffs. By John P. Curran, LL.B., of the Central 
Freight Association, Chicago. 420 pages, 6 in. by 9 in. Bound in 
paper. Published by LaSalle Extension University, Chicago. 

One of the most important duties of the traffic man is to 
be familiar with the application of some part of the large 
number of freight tariffs, applicable upon traffic moving be- 
tween various points, to his own particular work. This pub- 
lication is devoted to the agency tariffs published by the 
various tariff-issuing bureaus throughout the country, and 
gives in concise form, arranged so that it can be readily 
located, the number and the description or name of each 
tariff issued by the various agencies, together with a state- 
ment of the points to which they apply. The author states 
in the preface that as to local tariffs it is not possible to put 
into permanent form any considerable amount of information 
relative to the application of each tariff, but that as to the 
agency tariffs, applying between competitive points, it is pos- 
sible to give information relative to the application with some 
degree of accuracy, because they are usually given a series 
number, which is continued with each reissue by the use of 
a letter appearing before or after the number. Informa- 
tion given in the book is divided into two (lasses. When it 
is desired to know the scope of tariffs issued by some specific 
association the reference is found in Section A; when it is 
desired to know when agency tariffs apply from a specifii 
state, regardless of what association issues the publication, 
the tariffs may be located by the list in Section B. 

IIIIIIIIIIIUlllll i ill mill iiiiimiiim Illlllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllllllllllllliiiuiiiiniii Illlllllliii. 

Letters to the Editor 



Pontiac, Mich. 

To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

The fundamental of a dump car is to dump; but man) 
railway officers content themselves with cars which are par- 
tial dumpers, when for the same money they could have 
complete dumpers. It is just a matter of placing the enc 
slopes at the proper angle of inclination, so that the entire 
load will run out when the doors are opened. 

By examining the general run of coal cars in service it 
will be found that their end slopes are only 30 deg. from 
the horizontal. Watch the unloading of such cars; from 
two to eight men are employed, and from the moment they 
begin on a car until they are through with it they consume 
40 min. — the 8 men taking 5 min., or the 2 men 20 min. 
Multiply this 40 min. for the one car by the thousands 
of unloadings which occur daily on the railroads throughout 
the country and the waste of time and money is seen to be 

By simply steepening the end slopes this time can be re- 
duced to one minute per car; but so long has this faulty de- 
sign been adhered to, that the 30 deg. end slope is accepted 
by the majority of railway officers as inspired. However, it 
can be changed, and it has been changed, notably on a large 
number of cars which have been running on the Chesapeake 
& Ohio for more than two years. These cars have their end 
slopes 20 deg. steeper, or 50 deg. from the horizontal, not- 
withstanding the fact that car builders and others said it 
could not be done. They have a rated capacity of 70 tons, 
and one of them has been loaded with 79.9 tons of soft coal, 
thus proving that the cubic capacity was more than ample 
for the rating. Frank S. Ingoldsby. 


Chicago, 111. 
To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

Referring to the editorial comment on page 1 of the issue 
of the Railway Age Gazette of July 7, 1916, concerning the 
above subject, I beg to say that the argument advanced by 
Mr. Seger as the reason for his opposition to the establish- 
ment of a clearing house, to which you refer, is comparatively 
a new one. In fact, Mr. Seger is the only person, to my 
knowledge, who has mentioned it and I think I would have 
heard of it if others who have considered the subject had em- 
ployed it, as I have been on the committee of the Society of 
Railway Financial Officers which lias had consideration of 
this subject for many years, which committee has held joint 
sessions with committees representing the accounting officers. 

It was at such a joint meeting held in New York a few 
months ago that Mr. Seger mentioned this argument, but it 
was considered of such trifling importance at that time that 
the members of the committee of the Society of Railway Fi- 
nancial Officers did not consider it important enough for con- 
sideration. Besides, Mr. Seger admitted at that time that he 
had not seen or studied the clearing house plan, and our com- 
mittee, wishing to avoid as much argument as possible, de 
pended upon the merits of the plan to win its way. 

Mr. Seger has still evidently omitted to study the clearing 
house plan as developed by the committee of the Society of 
Railway financial Officers, or he would not have used such 
an argument. Those plans provide for the establishment hv 
the railroad companies of a clearing house to he under the 
control and management of the railroads, and ample pro- 
visions made for revising and improving the same in m\ 

July 14, 1916 



way found necessary. In other words, it is to be a creature 
jf the roads, operated for the benefit of the road-, and is not 
m. "outside" institution. To argue, therefore, that the < Lear- 
fag house takes from the railroad companies the control of 
cash seems to me as far fetched. 

j If this argument had merit, it certainly would have been 
discovered earlier by certain persons who have strenuously 
Apposed the clearing house, and when every objection has 
'jeen met, they have been hard pressed for an excuse for their 

In view of the economy and benefit the railroads would 
•eceive from the establishment of a clearing house, it is un- 
fortunate that it cannot speedily be established, and on ac- 
count of opposition of certain individuals who are in a 
position to block the efforts, it seems possible that its realiza- 
tion may be postponed as you surmise. 

I I may add that the family clearing house plan as suggested 
n the resolution of the joint committee referred to on page 
) of your last issue, is now in operation with the Pennsyl- 
vania and New York Central Lines and possibly others, to 
heir entire satisfaction, I understand. If it is advantageous 
:io those systems, it certainly would be if extended to include 
sill roads. 

Byron Cassell, 

Treasurer and Assistant Secretary, Chicago, Indianapolis & Louisville. 


Omaha, Nebr. 

To the Editor or the Railway Age Gazette: 

I have read with pleasure the report of the meeting of the 
Association of Railway Telegraph Superintendents in the 
Railway Age Gazette of June 30. I was particularly inter - 
Isted in the portion relating to wireless telegraph and tele- 
Ihone communication, since I have been experimenting along 
»[iese lines for 10 years. You are undoubtedly aware that 
the Union Pacific was the first road to suggest and carry out 
this means of communication on a railroad and has con- 

tension for placing the antennae under tension. This will 
be changed later, these pieces having been made with the 
intention of fastening them at the end- of the car, but it was 

found impossible to secure a satisfactory fastening. 

Frederick II Milliner, 


Portland, I 

To the Editor oi mil Railway Age Gazette: 
Referring to the letters published in the Railway 

Ue May 1 () and June 2 on the subject: "Noise 
Nuisance," 1 feci that it LS im duty to offer a feu -u 
tions, which, if carried out by the traveling public, will 
diminish complaints, without the least inconvenience on the 
part of the passenger. I am working equally hard to make 
a success as a purler as my superintendent is working to 
make a success of hi- position. If the arriving and depart 
ing passengers would maintain quiet at night, our troubles 
and theirs would be over. 

1. Should you have no berth reserved when entering car 
at night, quietly inform the porter who will immediate!} 
summon the conductor, or if the porter i> waiting upon an 
other passenger, wait patiently until he can get to you. Re- 
member when you go to a theatre how patiently you wait for 
the usher to direct you to your seat. Your waiting docs not 
indicate that you are not able to find your -eat. hut the fact 
that others are present, and you do not want to disturb them 
— so you will wait for the usher, and I beg you to give the 
sleeping car porter similar consideration. 

2. Should you desire to use the upper berth for your 
clothing, don't wait until the porter reaches the far end of 
the car and then shout, "Porter, will this upper be occupied?*' 
Should it fall to your unfortunate lot to leave the car between 
the early hours of 3 and 6 a. m. and you should find it a bit 
difficult to locate your shoes or baggage, summon the porter; 
it might be that lie has taken the grip that you left in the 
aisle upon retiring, and placed it in some upper berth, or, 
it might be that some one in passing has accidentally kicked 
your shoe back out of your sight and reach. Should you 
have need to ring the bell during the night, remember the 
annunciator is located at the men's end of the car. Should 
the porter be at the opposite end, it would be necessary for 
him to pass your berth on his way to see who was in need 
of his service. You look out and see that it is the porter, 
don't shout to him. Just wait, he will return a- soon as he 
has consulted the annum iator. 

3. When boarding a -lee per after others have retired, 
kindly refrain from loud talking. When two or more pas- 
sengers board a car together, they invariably congregate ir. 
the middle of the car and begin to ask each other, •'What 
berth have you?" "What time are you going to get up?" 

■I left a call for 7 a. m., get up and have breakfast with me," 
and by that time they have awakened every one. 

l.i i Andi rson, 

Porter, The Pullman i 

ar Fitted for Wireless Experiments on the Union Pacific 

acted experiments, the value of which is immense if the 

ilroads could be made to see it. This is sometimes dim 

lit, however, on account of the lack of precedent and money 

spend for such work. 

The accompanying illustration shows our "Communica 
Dn Car," just completed. It is a converted diner and is 
:culiarly fitted for experimental work, both in telegraph 
lephone service with and without wires. We have a station 
i the roof of the headquarter's building in Omaha and one 
ady for operation at Grand Island, with a prospective one 

North Platte, Nebr. 

The only error so far discovered in the construction of 
is car is the use of turnbuckles in compression instead oi 


Austin, Tex. 
|,, in: Kim i-i- Oi im R \n W w Age Ga/i in : 

II W. Faus' article on relative efficiency of American and 
German railways in the Railway Age Gazette of June 16 
is the most conclusive presentation of the subject I have seen. 
The argument on the effect of the average length of haul on 
freight receipts i- particularl) appropriate. 

I am -ure the writer will welcome any justifiable excep- 
tion to bis statements; so I submit a couple of minor cor- 

Mr. Faus speaks in a derogatory way of German freight 
seems t<> think them out of date and inefficient. A close 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

study of their design, construction and manner of use, will, 
1 think, put this matter in an entirely different light. As to 
couplers, the screw-coupling used on the Continent is very 
efficient, although apparently not quite as safe as our auto- 
matic coupler. In proportion to the car capacity the screw- 
coupling is much lighter. As to car capacity, a German rail- 
way official made me this explanation: "If it is desired to 
move 40 tons, on four axles, what matters it whether we have 
a single ear platform, or two platforms connected by cou- 
pling? Except in minerals, average carloads are small, and 
we get a better availability of loading capacity with small 
cars than with large." This seems a reasonable proposition. 
In 1911 the average loading of German cars was about 9 
tons, their average capacity 14 tons; per cent utilized 64 per 
cent; in 1911 the average loading of American cars was about 
13 tons, average capacity 37 tons; per cent utilized 36 per 
cent. Other factors enter in, of course, but the argument for 
high capacity merchandise cars is not very strong from a rail- 
road efficiency standpoint. I may remark that the Bureau of 
Railway Economics computes the average carrying capacity 
per German freight car as 15.7 tons instead of 14 tons. 

The short time allowance given German shippers is cer- 
tainly in the direction of efficiency. Every American rail- 
way manager would wish that he could abridge the free time 
now allowed shippers. Generally speaking, these allow- 
ances are much longer than necessary. If we assume that the 
average haul is 150 miles, and the average daily mileage per 
car is 25, then it takes six days to complete a movement. If two 
days of this is now given as free time, and this free time were 
cut in two, there would be an apparent reduction of one- 
sixth in the number of cars to transport the country's busi- 
ness. One-sixth of 2,400,000 freight cars is 400,000, repre- 
senting an investment of some $300,000,000 and 3,000 
miles of track and yard room. I do not contend that the cure 
for this inefficiency lies with our managers; it probably lies 
with our regulatory bodies, and with a more far-sighted and 
co-operative attitude on the part of the larger shipping asso- 
ciations. But in this very particular, Mr. Faus has proven 
an efficiency, not an inefficiency, of German operation. 

In regard to capitalization, Mr. Faus makes the broad state- 
ment that the Germans burden their capital accounts with 
items that are really operating expenses, and attempts to prove 
his assertion by saying the German capitalization per mile has 
increased $20,000 in the last 21 years. I do not believe there 
is much merit to this contention. Net capitalization per mile 
of line has increased $12,000 in the United States in the last 
20 years. Much of this is due to heavier standards of con- 
struction, double tracking and terminals. The same causes 
have been operative in Germany, where 40 per cent of the 
mileage is double tracked, and where there are six-tenths of 
a mile of yard tracks, etc., for each mile of line. The cor- 
responding figures for the United States are: 10 per cent 
double tracked, and less than four-tenths of a mile yard 
track, etc., for each mile of line. That $20,000 per mile is 
not an undue increase in 21 years is shown by the valuations 
placed upon railroads in Texas in this period. In 1894 the 
roads of this state were valued at $15,926 per mile. This 
was a careful inventory and engineering estimate, based on 
current costs for construction. It was a fair value for the 
character of roads traversing that region at that time and in- 
cluded no water, nor fancy land values. The Railroad Com- 
mission of Texas has kept up the valuations of the roads year 
by year, as new lines were built and old ones improved. The 
valuation in 1915 was $26,304 a mile, or an increase of 
$10,378 in 21 years. There is no double track in Texas; and 
tin traffic density of German}' is about four times as much 
per mile of line as that of Texas. The areas are about the 

In comparing costs per mile in America and Europe, we 
must constantly bear in mind the favorable treatment ac- 

corded railroads here in the matter of donated or cheap lands, 
with broad right of way. In Europe the cost of condemnation 
(including structures removed, cost of highway crossings and 
protection, etc.), has been very high, and the construction has 
been made more expensive due to the use of narrow right of 

I do not believe Mr. Faus can maintain that, on the av- 
erage, American railroads have entailed a greater construc- 
tion cost than German roads, whether on the mile of line, or 
mile of track basis. German rail is generally heavier; tie- 
plates are more substantial and more generally used; ballast- 
ing is generally superior, also bridging, there being less tim- 
ber trestles. American materials have been cheaper; this, and 
the use of more wholesale construction methods, largely off- 1 
setting the higher labor cost. 

With these small amendments, I heartily endorse Mr. 
Faus 1 analysis, and think it a fair statement of the relative 
efficiency of railroading in the two countries. 

It would be interesting to see a similarly handled compari- 
son of English and American, or English and German effi- 
ciencies. R. Emerson. 



To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette : 

May I take a few exceptions to the letter in your issue of 
March 17 signed "One of the Clerks?" 

I do not think the statement that railroad clerks as a class 
are "in a blind alley" is due to any other reason than that the 
average clerk works the stipulated number of hours, and 
performs only that amount of work that he has to in order 
to hold his job. 

The ambitious railroad clerk will succeed, and the higher 
he aims the greater his reward; if a clerk puts the same 
amount of study into his duties, as he would have to in order 
to qualify as a steam shovel man, his annual income would 
compare favorably. 

Three and a half years ago I was getting into the rut my- 
self, and had practically decided to take up a correspondence 
course; but while thinking it over, I decided to put the same 
amount of energy and enthusiasm into my work that I would 
have to put into my course. My salary was $60 a month, and 
I was in "a blind alley." My salary is $120 a month now, 
and although I see nothing definite before me in the way of 
promotion, I am not at all prepared to say I have reached my 

Possibly I am wrong, but I believe many of the higher 
officers of the railroads were clerks once, with "nothing ahead 
of them" except ambition and the power to use the brains that 
God gave them! Another Clerk. 

Railway Extensions in Caucasia. — The railway exten- 
sion from Julfa, on the river Araxes, to Tabreez has been 
completed. The gage of the new railway, which is 93 miles 
long, is the same as that of the Russian railway .system, 
namely 5 ft. The railway is under Russian control and man- 
agement, and is not at present intended for the conveyance 
of passengers. The track follows between Julfa and Tabreez 
the line of the Indo-European telegraph system to India. From 
the town of Sophian, about 25 miles from the Tabreez, a 
branch of the railway has already been completed to Lake 
Qrumiah, around which is one of the richest districts of 
Persia. This railway, with its branch line, will doubtless 
cause an enormous development through all this part of Persia. 
Much new land will be opened up to agriculture, and various 
mines, chiefly copper and wolfram, will be worked which 
have not been developed because of transportation difficul- 
ties. The railway may be extended to Teheran, thence south- 
east to Ispahan, and into Baluchistan, whence it could um 
ncc t up at Nushki with the railway system of British India. 

Failure of Government Ownership in Canada 

History of the Results of Operation of the Intercolonial 
for Forty-Seven Years Shows Bankrupt Condition 

By Samuel O Dunn 


THE subject of government ownership of railways is of 
perennial interest in the United States. Discussions 
of the subject usually move along two lines. One 
class of speakers and writers base their reasoning on certain 
assumptions as to the honesty, public spirit, and efficiency 
which would characterize a railway management represent- 
ing the public. Their conclusions naturally correspond with 
their assumptions. Another class analyze the results of gov- 
ernment management in one or a few countries, find them 
good or bad, and base on them conclusions as to whether the 
results in' the United States good or bad. 

Both of these kinds of reasoning have the same defect. 
They do not take enough account of the conditions in any 
given country under which a railway policy must be carried 
out. These conditions are of various kinds, physical econo- 
mic, political, and so on; and they largely determine the 
results of railway management and operation under either 
private or public ownership. 

One of the mistakes most often made is that of ignoring 
the political conditions under which government ownership 
is, or would be, tried. The question is often treated as if it 
were merely one of economics. It is one both of economics 
and of political science. The efficiency and economy of a 
government are determined largely by how much it is influ- 
enced by politics of the low kind; and the influence of this 
kind of politics depends on the organization of the govern- 
ment and the attitude of the people. As the efficiency of a 
government as a whole must depend largely on the part 
played by politics, the way its railway department would be 
managed would necessarily be determined largely by the 
same cause. 

The results of government railway management being 
largely determined by conditions, and especially by political 
conditions, the experience with government management in a 
single country, where the conditions are similar to those in 
the United States, may throw more light on the question in 
this country than much abstract reasoning, or than large 
amounts of data drawn from the experience of countries 
where the conditions are widely different. 

There is no country whose conditions, physical, economic, 
and political, are more similar to those of the United States 
than those of Canada. The Dominion is an adjacent part 
of the same continent. The larger part of it is extremely 
like the conterminous larger part of the United States. Its 
natural resources, industries, and products are similar. Both 
countries' are inhabited mainly by descendants of the peoples 
of Northern Europe, although this point might be pressed 
too far. With its big French population, Canada has a large 
representation of the Latin races. But the ancestries of the 
people of the United States are not all traceable to Northern 
Europe; and the French in Canada have as much political 
capacity as our many voters from Southern Europe, not to 
! mention our millions of negroes. The government of the 
United States is a democratic republic. That of Canada is 
I not a republic in form, but its people are as self-governing 
i and its institutions are as democratic in fact as those of any 
country. There are considerable economic differences; but 

'Reprinted by permission from The Journal of Political Economy. 
July, 1916. 

these are unimportant in comparison with the points of re- 

The results of government ownership and management of 
railways in Canada should, therefore, afford the most reliable 
indication available as to what would be the results in the 
United States. Canada has tried public ownership and her 
experience has been long and on a large scale. The Do- 
minion has owned the Intercolonial Railway for forty-seven 
years, and certain of the colonial governments owned parts 
of it before. It has owned the Prince Edward Island Rail- 
way for forty-three years, and acquired it from the govern- 
ment of the island. The Intercolonial and Prince Edward 
Island have 1,736 miles of line; and the Dominion has re- 
cently built and is operating the National Transcontinental 
Railway, which has 2,067 miles. The Canadian government 
railways now have, combined, 3,803 miles of line. 

The construction, by the government, of "the National 
Transcontinental led to a scandal. The plan for its build- 
ing was adopted in 1903. It was to run from Moncton to 
Quebec, and from Quebec to Winnipeg, and on its comple- 
tion was to be leased to the Grand Trunk Pacific for 3 per 
cent on its cost of construction. The minister of finance 
presented to parliament a "liberal" estimate. Eighteen hun- 
dred miles were 'to cost $61,415,000, or $34,083 a mile. A 
government commission was created to handle the work. 
On September 30, 1911, the expenditures had reached $109,- 
000,000; by the end of 1914 no less than $173,000,000, or 
about $99,000 a mile, had been spent; and at latest reports 
the total was about $200,000,000. 

A new government commission was appointed in 1912 to 
investigate the work of the original government commission. 
It reported in 1914 that there had been gross mismanage- 
ment and extravagance, and the waste of many millions of 
dollars; and the Grand Trunk Pacific refused to take the 
property over for operation because it could not afford to 
pay 3 per cent on its excessive cost. 

The reports regarding the mismanagement of the con- 
struction of the National Transcontinental attracted much 
attention in the United States. As a matter of fact, the re- 
sults of government construction of the National Transconti- 
nental are typical of the results of public ownership in 
Canada ever since the various parts of the Intercolonial were 
acquired by the Dominion forty-seven years ago. 

The Intercolonial, the Prince Edward Island, and the 
National Transcontinental all failed to earn their operating 
expenses in the year ended on June 30, 1915, their combined 
deficit from operation being $350,000. A stranger to the 
facts might attribute the results in 1915 partly to the effects 
of the war in Europe. For that reason, in the following 
stud\' of government management in Canada, the statistics 
used are chiefly those for the year ended on June 30, 1914. 
The most attention has been given to the Intercolonial, be- 
cause it is the only large road on the North American conti- 
nent which has long been managed by a government. 

The Intercolonial in 1914 had 1,457 miles of line. Its 
main lines run from Sydney and Halifax to Moncton. and 
thence to Quebec ; and it serves the provinces of Nova Scotia, 
New Brunswick and Quebec. The Prince Edward Island 
is a narrow-gage road of 279 miles, serving the island of 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

that name, and is managed by the same organization. The 
acquisition of the Intercolonial was provided for by the act 
of federation of July 1, 1867. It was originally purchased 
and developed by the government mainly to bind together 
more firmly the French and English provinces. In 1876 it 
had 348 miles in New Brunswick, 222 miles in Nova Scotia 
and 375 miles which had been constructed by the govern- 
ment from Moncton, New Brunswick, to Riviere du Loup, 
Quebec — a total of 945 miles. From Riviere du Loup to the 
city of Quebec it leased a line from the Grand Trunk. The 
Prince Edward Island became a part of the government sys- 
tem when the island came into the confederation on July 1, 

One of the arguments advanced for government ownership 
in the United States is that under it the profits made by the 
railways would be received by the public instead of going to 
private capitalists. Those who reason thus often forget that 
while railway companies, if successful, yield profits to private 

idea as to what the losses actually have been. No one here- 
tofore has gone thoroughly into the matter. Many know 
that in some years the roads have not earned their operating 
expenses, but that in other years the Intercolonial has done 
so. Therefore, most of them apparently believe that the total 
losses incurred, while considerable, have not been very great. 
No impression could be more erroneous. The total losses 
sustained have been enormous. 

The combined cost to June 30, 1914, of the Intercolonial 
and the Prince Edward Island, as shown by the official re- 
ports, was $112,351,000, or $64,718 per mile. The cost per 
mile of the Intercolonial had been $70,815, and of the Prince 
Edward Island, $31,973.* Computed in a more correct way, 
their total cost to the public had been $381,000,000, or $219,- 
000 per mile. This figure includes expenses and interest 
which they had failed to earn, but nothing for the taxes 
which the public would have collected from them if they had 
been privately owned. These railways are almost entirely 

Table I — Intercolonial Railway 

Net earnings 

Operating Operating or operating Official cost of Actual cost to 

Years* revenue expenses deficit ( — ) construction the public 

1867 $10,766,725.54 $10,766,726.00 

igfis . .'. $420,752.58 $359,961.08 $60,791.50 11,250,079.19 11,619,957.00 

1869 455,022.76 387,548.47 67,474.29 11,532,694.37 12,299,896.00 

1870 471,245.09 445,208.75 26,036.34 13,262,075.86 14,495,237.00 

1871 565,713.52 442,993.31 122,720.21 16,178,857.99 17,869,108.00 

187? " ' 622,900.56 595,076.22 27,824.34 21,309,999.50 23,687,190.00 

1873 703,458.26 1,011,892.60 —308,434.34 26,511,449.87 30,144,562.00 

1874 " 893,430.17 1,847,175.24 —953,745.07 30,126,348.68 35,918,988.00 

1875 861,593.43 1,532,589.62 —670,996.19 33,552,448.23 41,452,843.00 

1876 848,861.46 1,277,197.79 —428,336.33 34,660,769.82 44,647,615.00 

18 77 1,154,445.35 1,661,673.55 —507,228.20 35,979,122.01 48,259,100.00 

1878 1,378,946.78 1,816,273.56 —432,326.78 36,387,938.75 51,030,608.00 

1879 ' 1,294,009.69 2,010,183.22 —716,083.53 36,614,577.94 54,014,555.00 

1880 " " 1,506,298.48 1,603,439.71 —97,131.23 38,662,592.54 58,320,283.00 

1881 .. 1,760,393.92 1,759,851.27 542.65 39,271,325.34 61,287,699.00 

188? 2,079,262.66 2,069,657.45 9,605.18 39,856,894.13 64,287,699.00 

18 83 2,370,910.10 2,360,373.27 17,547.18 41,473,527.09 68,458,293.00 

1884 2,384,414.92 2,377,433.62 6,981.30 44,163,216.58 73,879,323.00 

1885 2,441,203.66 2,519,751.56 —78,547.90 45,410,223.03 78,160,050.00 

18 86 2,450,093.88 2,583,999.67 —133,905.79 46,090,579.37 82,100,714.00 

1887 " ' 2,660,116.93 2,922,369.62 —262,252.69 47,014,309.44 86,570,726.00 

1888 . . 2,983,336.05 3,366,781.74 —383,445.69 48,727,292.73 92,129,984.00 

1889 2,967,801.00 3,244,647.73 —276,847.73 51,340,586.76 98,705,325.00 

1890 ' 3,012,739.87 3,560,575.74 —847,835.87 53,310,431.46 105,471,219.00 

18 9i 2,977,395.38 3,662,341.94 —684,946.56 54,260,512.44 111,325,096.00 

1892 2,945,441.97 3,439,377.00 —493,935.03 54,577,296.40 116,588,819.00 

1893 3,065,499.09 3,045,317.50 20,181.59 54,874,186.83 121,529,080.00 

1894 2,987,510.17 2,981,671.98 5,838.29 55,311,720.61 126,821,939.00 

1895 2,940,717.95 2,936,902.74 3,815.21 55,638,755.12 132,218,037.00 

1896 2,957,670.10 3,012,827.62 —55,187.52 55,897,860.35 137,821,051.00 

1897 2,866,028.02 2,925,968.67 —59,940.65 56,046,972.87 143,542,947.00 

1898 " ' 3,117,669.85 3,327,648.51 —209,978.66 56,299,729.67 149,747,401.00 

1899 3,738,331.44 3,675,686.21 62,645.43 57,381,659.61 156,756,582.00 

1900 4,552,071.71 4,431,404.69 120,667.02 60,637,007.81 166,161,526.00 

1901 ' 4,972,235.87 5,460,404.64 —488,186.77 64,270,844.38 176,930,011.00 

1902 5,671,385.91 5,574,563.30 96.822.61 68,897,685.43 188,537,229.00 

1903 6,324,323.72 6,196,653.19 127,670.53 71,151,952.11 198,205,314.00 

1904 " 6,339,231.43 7,239,982.04 —900,750.61 73,032,808.71 208,915,135.00 

1905 6,783,522.83 8,508,826.75 —1,725,303.92 77,770,430.64 223,734,666.00 

1906 7,643,829.90 7,881,914.36 61,915.54 81,535,601.54 236,387,308.00 

1907 6,248,311.00 6,030.171.83 218,139.17 83,041,810.80 247,130,870.00 

1908 9,173,558.80 9,157,435.53 16,123.27 87,424,304.00 261,382,476.00 

1909 8,527,069.46 9,328,021.55 —800,952.09 91,291,536.00 276,505,959.00 

1910 " 9,268,234.99 8,645,070.33 623,164.66 92,569,945.00 288,221,441.00 

1911 9,863,783.40 9,595,976.79 267.806.61 93,332,814.00 300,245.361.00 

1912 10,593,785.84 10,591,035.84 2.750.00 95,141,659.00 314,061,270.00 

1913 " ' 11,984,482.69 1 l,984,482.69f 97,533,647.00 329,020,209.00 

1914 .'.'.'...'.'... 12,878,549.00 12,878,549.00:1: 103,430,848.00 348,089,518.00 

''years n ! er . C .°. 0n . la ... . al . Way '. ... $184,707,592.00 $194,268,891.00 —$9,565,036.00 $103,430,848.00§ $348,089,518.00 

Total, Prince Edward Island „„ „„ „_ 

Railway, 40 years 7,759,846.00 11,040,128.00 —3,280,282.00 8,920.369.00 32,902,398.00 

Total, both government railways, „ 

since act of confederation. .. ■ 192,467.438.00 205,309,019.00 —12.845,318.00 112,351,217 00 380,991.916.00 

• Until 1907, the fiscal year ended on June 30; since that date on March § Total capital cost of the Intercolonial reported in Railway Statistics, 

3! The figures for 1907 as given in the table are for nine months. published by the department for June 30, 1914. The cost as given in the 

t Of this total $4 500 was paid for "compassionate allowances" by special annual report — $101,468,073— does not include several construction items 

vote of Parliament. carried in separate accounts, but which are included in accounts showing 

t Of this total $11,300 was paid for "compassionate allowances" by special results of operation. 
vote of Parliament. 

capitalists, they also, unlike state railways, pay taxes to the 
public. The experience of the world shows that the public, 
while sure to collect large taxes from private railways, is not 
certain to receive any profits at all from state railways. Most 
of them do not earn interest on their investments. 

Those of Canada afford an extreme illustration. The 
statistics which make the deepest impression on the student 
of their official reports are those showing their heavy losses; 
and official figures tell but a fraction of the story. The 
Canadian people and public officials have only the haziesl 

single-track lines; they are not very well constructed, main- 
tained or equipped; and yet their cost per mile to the public, 
properly computed, has exceeded the average capitalization 
of any railways in the world except those of Great Britain. 
Their losses in the fiscal year 1914, as shown by the official 
reports, were $445,000, this being the difference between their 
expenses and earnings. Properly computed, their losses in 

"Railwaj Statistics for the Dominion of Canada, published by the De- 
partment of Railways and Canals, I<>I4, p. xii. Capital cost per mile of the 
Intercolonial, as shown bj Railway Statistics for 1915, was $75,066. 

July 14, 1916 



that year were almost $15,000,000. They can hardly have a 
physical value exceeding the $112,000,000, or $64,718 per 
mile, which they are officially represented to have cost. As- 
suming that they are worth this, the difference between their 
present value and the total amount they have cost the Cana- 
dian public is $268,000,000, or $154,378 a mile. This rep- 
resents the absolute loss they have inflicted on the taxpayers 
of Canada. And this estimate, as already indicated, is really 
an underestimate, for it makes no allowance for the taxes the 
government would have collected from them if they had been 
privately owned. If the Intercolonial and Prince Edward 
Island were taxed at the same rate as the railways of the 
United States, their taxes would be $600,000 a year. 

Conclusions so startling should not be stated unaccom- 
panied by the reasoning and method of calculation used in 
arriving at them. Let us consider in more detail, then, the 
official figures and the computations which may properly be 
based upon them. 

The management of the Intercolonial by the Dominion 
government has covered forty-seven years. The official fig- 
ures show that in twenty-two of these years its earnings have 
exceeded its operating expenses, its combined net earnings in 
these years having been $1,967,000. In the other twenty- 
five years its operating expenses have exceeded its earnings, 
and its combined deficits from operation in these years have 
been over $11,500,000. Therefore, under government man- 
agement its net deficit — allowing nothing for taxes or interest 
— has been $9,500,000. Still worse has been the plight of 
the Prince Edward Island. Its operating expenses have ex- 
ceeded its earnings in every year the government has owned 
it, its total operating deficit in the years 1875-1914 having 
amounted to $3,280,000. The deficits from operation of the 
two roads under government management have been $12,- 
800,000. Detailed statistics regarding the cost of construc- 
tion, the operating expenses, the total earnings, and the net 
earnings, or deficits from operation, of the Intercolonial are 
given in columns 1 to 4 of Table I. Totals of similar figures 
for the Prince Edward Island Railway and for the govern- 
ment roads combined are appended to the table. 

The figures of these first four columns, bad as they are, 
take no account of one of the most important factors to be 
considered. This is interest charges. Interest is as unavoid- 
able a part of the cost of conducting any business as operating 
expenses. If the interest charges of a private railway are 
not earned, it becomes bankrupt. If those of a state railway 
are not earned, they must be paid from taxes. Nominally, the 
state railways of Canada have no debt. Actually, the invest- 
ment represented and the losses incurred by them appear in 
the government debt and the interest paid on it, for, if the 
earnings of the railways had sufficed to pay their expenses 
and interest, the government debt and the interest on it would 
be proportionately smaller. Therefore, to ascertain approxi- 
mately the true amount which the government railways have 
cost the public, we must ascertain not only what has been 
spent for their construction, but the expenses and interest that 
they have not earned. 

To do this the author has recast the official figures. To 
the original investment in the Intercolonial and the Prince 
Edward Island have been added the expenditures for new con- 
struction during the first year of public management, and 
interest on the original investment; and the net earnings or 
the net deficit from operation in the year — whichever resulted 
— has been deducted or added. This gives approximately 
the true cost of each railway to the public at the end of the 
first year of government management. This true cost has 
been taken as a new starting point, and made the basis of a 
similar calculation for the second year; and this process has 
been repeated year by year for the entire history of each road. 
The rate of interest used in the calculations is 4 per cent. 
When the Dominion acquired the railways the rate it had to 
pay on its general indebtedness was more than this. It ap- 

pears in official reports that it paid 5 per cent to the pro- 
vincial government of Quebec for railway purposes up to 
1905, and has paid 4.5 per cent since. The use of an aver- 
age rate of 4 per cent for the entire period is, therefore, con- 
servative. The results for both roads of the computations 
thus made are shown in the last column of Table I. 

The combined total cost of construction of these lines on 
June 30, 1914, as officially reported, was $112,351,217, and 
the unearned interest on this lost in that year, at 4 per cent, 
was $4,494,048. Their combined operating expenses in the 
same year, as reported in Railway Statistics, the official publi- 
cation, exceeded their total earnings by $445,380. (The 
actual deficits shown in the annual reports of 1913 and 1914, 
as existing at the end of the fiscal years ending on March 31, 
were ostensibly wiped out by "compassionate allowances" 
under special votes of Parliament!) Therefore, in 1914, 
their total deficit, after adding interest, as indicated by official 
figures, and allowing nothing for taxes, was $4,939,788. But 
this deficit for the year, which is demonstrable by the official 
figures, is small compared with the deficit shown by the cor- 
rected figures. The true total cost of the railways to the end 
of the fiscal year 1913 was $360,285,010. Unearned interest 
on this at 4 per cent for the next year amounts to $14,411,400. 
This, together with the deficit from operation, makes a total 
deficit for the year 1914 of $14,856,780. 

Since the Prince Edward Island Railway is a narrow-gage 
line, serving only the island of that name, it may be that in 
its case the obstacles to profitable operation are insuperable. 
Entirely different is the situation of the Intercolonial. It is 
a standard-gage road with a large mileage in a territory 
similar to parts of Eastern Canada and the United States in 
which privately managed railways operate with profit. Con- 
sidering the Intercolonial separately, its cost of construction, 
to 1914, as officially reported, was $103,430,848, or $70,815 
a mile. 1 The unearned interest on this in 1914 at 4 per 
cent was $4,137,233. Its actual deficit from operation was 
$291,270. Therefor, its total loss in that year, as demon- 
strable by the official figures, was $4,428,503. But its total 
cost, including its losses, up to the beginning of the fiscal year 
1914, amounted to $348,089,518. Unearned interest on this 
at 4 per cent was $13,923,580, which together with the operat- 
ing deficit makes a total deficit for the yeaV ended June 30, 
1914, of $14,214,850. And this allows nothing for the taxes 
the road would pay if privately owned. Such is the price 
the taxpayers of Canada are paying for government owner- 
ship ! 

There is in Intercolonial history a minor illustration of the 
fact that government ownership is less fatal to financial suc- 
cess than governmental management. The Windsor branch, 
from Windsor Junction to Windsor, Nova Scotia, is a part of 
the road. It is thirty-two miles long. Since 1881 it has been 
leased to operating companies and since 1911 it has been 
operated under lease by the Canadian Pacific. In every year 
but one since 1881 the government has received net earnings 
from it. It is maintained by the Intercolonial, and the gov- 
ernment receives as rental one-third of its gross receipts. In 
the last twenty years the amount of net earnings, after de- 
ducting maintenance expenses, has varied from $15,000 to 
$39,000 per year.- The net earnings of the branch, in the 
aggregate, from 1881 to 1914, were $662,555; and they ac- 
count for more than one-third of all the net earnings the 
Intercolonial has made since 1867. 

The Canadian state railways are an utter financial failure. 
The losses are due to low rates, to extravagant managemnet, 
or to both. Many consider it expedient to make low rates on 
state railways, even if this causes deficits; and it can be said 
for this practice that those who pay the rates gain what 
the taxpayers lose. If the losses are due to wastefulness, 

'Railway Statistics of the Dominion of Canada, 1914, p. xii. 
-Annual Report, Department of Railways and Canals, 1914. p. 4J0. 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

the management obviously cannot be defended on any 

Before we inquire to what extent the losses incurred have 
been due to the rates made, let us consider whether it can be 
sound policy for railways to make unremunerative rates at 
the expense of the taxpayers. Either those who pay non- 
compensatory rates and those who pay the taxes levied to 
meet the deficits they cause are the same people, or they are 
different people. If they are the same people, what they 
gain by the rates is taken from them in increased taxes. If 
they are different people, those who pay the rates get their 
transportation for less than cost and those who pay the taxes 
pay for something they do not get. It is hard to see how 
anybody can be benefited by saving money through low rates 
and having it all taken away in increased taxes. It is also 
hard to find justice in giving some people low rates at the cost 
to others of higher taxes. 

Both common-sense and equity require rates to be so fixed 
that those who receive transportation service shall pay for it 
in full. The application of this principle to the situation in 
Canada makes it easy to decide in regard to the soundness of 
the rate-making policy followed on the government railways, 
if to it are due their losses. These railways serve only the 
people of the eastern provinces, and but part of them. The 
people of the entire Dominion must pay the taxes levied by 
the government. Therefore, if the trouble with the govern- 
mnt railways is that their rates are too low, the few who use 
their service are unfairly benefiting at the expense of all the 
people of the country. 

In spite of its chronic deficits, the freight rates of the 
Prince Edward Island Railway are very high, averaging over 
4 cents per ton per mile. Its passenger rates are relatively 
low, averaging about 1.75 cents. But the Prince Edward 
Island is small and serves a restricted territory. The rates 
of the Intercolonial are more instructive. The average rate per 
passenger per mile on the railways of the United States in 1914 
was 1.98 cents, and on all the railways of Canada, 2 cents. 1 
On the Intercolonial it was 1.67 cents. 2 The average rate 
per ton per mile in the United States was 7.33 mills, and in 
Canada, 7.42 mills. 3 On the Intercolonial it was only 6 
mills. 4 

But comparison of the rates of a single railway with those 
of the railways of a whole country may be misleading. For 
example, while the average freight rate of the Intercolonial is 
lower than the average rate of all the railways of the United 
States, there are many individual lines in this country whose 
average rates are lower than its average rate. The average 
in 1914 for the entire eastern district of the United States, in 
which one-half of all the freight tonnage is moved, was only 
6.39 mills. 5 

In the eastern parts of both Canada and the United States 
the rates generally are lower than in the western parts. This 
is due to various causes. In the eastern part of this country 
the freight traffic is dense, and the rates for years were de- 
termined by fierce competition, which reduced them to a low 
basis. The effects were felt in Eastern Canada. There is a 
great deal of traffic which moves on railways partly in that 
country and partly in the United States. Among these lines 
are the Canadian Pacific, the Grand Trunk and the Michi- 
gan Central. In fighting for their shares of this competitive 
business, these roads made their through rates the same as 
those of rival lines in the United States, and had to put their 
local rates in Canada on a corresponding basis. The rates 
of the Intercolonial were affected by this policy. 

The territory through which and the conditions under 
which the International operates are, of course, similar to 
those of the private railways of Eastern Canada. There- 

' Railway Stalistics, 1914, p. xxiv. 

"Ibid., p. 46. "Ibid., p. xxvi. 4 Ibid., p. 48. 

in tics "f Railways in the United States, tnterstate Com. Commission. 

fore, its rates may most fairly be compared with theirs. The 
principal privately owned lines serving that section are the 
Canadian Pacific and the Grand Trunk. Unfortunately, it 
is not easy to compare their rates with the Intercolonial's. 
The Intercolonial's lines begin at Montreal and extend to the 
Atlantic seaboard at St. John, Halifax and Sydney. The 
Canadian Pacific divides its western and eastern lines at Port 
Arthur and Fort William, on the western boundary of Lake 
Superior. Therefore, while its eastern lines extend as far 
east as the Intercolonial's, they include a mileage extending 
more than 1,000 miles farther west than the Intercolonial 
extends. The Grand Trunk has more mileage west of Mon- 
treal than east of it. Because of these facts the average rates 
of the Grand Trunk and the eastern lines of the Canadian 
Pacific probably would be higher than those of the Inter- 
colonial, even if their absolute rates in the parts of their 
territory corresponding to its territory were the same. 

There is another factor of no small importance to consider. 
This is the relatively great length of the Intercolonial's lines 
between its main terminals. The immediate purpose of its 
original acquisition and development by the Dominion was 
to bind more firmly together the maritime provinces, whose 
population was chiefly French, and the rest of the Dominion. 
To accomplish this it was necessary to build a line to Mon- 
treal. There was friction between Canada and the United 
States. It was feared that if this line was built nearer the 
border it would, in case of war, fall into the hands of the 
United States. 7 Therefore, a route was surveyed as far as 
possible from the border. This extended northward to the 
wild, inhospitable, and almost unpeopled shores of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence and the St. Lawrence River, and thence 
southward to Quebec and Montreal, making a roundabout 
and expensive way to handle traffic moving between Sydney, 
Halifax and St. John, and Quebec and Montreal. 

Friction between the United States and Canada long ago 
ceased. The Canadian Pacific has built a much shorter line, 
partly in Canada, and partly in the state of Maine, to the 
Atlantic seaboard, and has almost completed another which 
runs entirely in Canada and is also shorter than the Inter- 
colonial. An enterprising management would years ago have 
built a cut-off to shorten the mileage of the Intercolonial be- 
tween important points, thereby enabling it to compete more 
successfully for through traffic and to reduce the cost of 
handling it. Recently the government has built the National 
Transcontinental, with a shorter line between Moncton and 
Quebec ; but it was intended to lease this to the Grand Trunk 
Pacific, a private corporation, and the government has as- 
sumed its operation only because the Grand Trunk declines 
to pay a rental of 3 per cent on its excessive cost. Because 
of the original location of the Intercolonial and the persistent 
error made in not reducing its length, its mileage between 
Halifax and Montreal is 837 miles, while that of the Cana- 
dian Pacific is only 758 miles. From St. John to Montreal 
by the Intercolonial is 740 miles; by the Canadian Pacific, 
only 483 miles. 8 The Intercolonial in moving a ton of freight 
from Halifax to Montreal carries it 10.4 per cent more miles 
than the Canadian Pacific, and in moving a ton from St. 
John to Montreal carries it 53.2 per cent more miles. 

The effect produced on the comparative average rates per 
mile of the Intercolonial and the Canadian Pacific is obvious. 
The Intercolonial cannot charge a higher absolute rate be- 
tween any two points than the Canadian Pacific. But when 
a shipment moves over it, the absolute rate must be divided 
by a larger mileage to ascertain the average per mile. There- 
fore, while the actual rates of the two roads between competi- 
tive points are the same, the average per mile received by the 
Intercolonial on through business is smaller than that re- 

"Sec act nf confederation. 

'Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., article "Canada" (Railvi 

H ( Ifficial Railway Guide. 

July 14, 1916 



ceived by the Canadian Pacific. This causes the average 
rates per mile of the Intercolonial to give the impression that 
its actual rates are lower in comparison with those of the 
other railways of Eastern Canada than they are. 

These considerations show why it is hard to make a fair 
comparison between the average rates of the Grand Trunk, 
the eastern lines of the Canadian Pacific, and the Inter- 
colonial. But a detailed comparison of their actual rates 
would be out of the question; and if the various points men- 
tioned be given due weight, a comparison of their average 
rates may be instructive. Table II gives their average rates 
for the two vears ending on June 30, 1914, and June 30, 
1915. ; 




Avg. rec'pts. per pas. per mile, cents 1.669 
Avg. rec'pts. per ton per mile, cents 0.600 




W c 




The through rates of the Intercolonial are necessarily the 
same as those of competing lines. Considering all the condi- 
tions, the statistics indivate that its local rates are somewhat 
lower than those of other lines in corresponding territory; 
and one of its higher officers expressed to the writer the 
opinion that they are about 10 per cent lower. 

If this is correct, the losses of the Intercolonial are due 
partly to the lowness of its rates, but more largely to other 
causes. Its total earnings per mile in 1914 were $8,625. In 
order to have paid its operating expenses and 4 per cent on 
its cost of construction as officially reported, it would have 
had to earn $11,541, or 34 per cent more than it did, and its 
rates would have had to be at least 34 per cent higher. This 
would have made both its average passenger rate and its 
average freight rate considerably higher than those of the 
Canadian Pacific or Grand Trunk. 

Not more than one-third of the losses of the Intercolonial 
can be attributed to its rates. Even this one-third cannot be 
defended. Like its other losses, this part is defrayed from 
taxes. The people of the whole country are thus obliged to 
pay for a large part of the transportation furnished to those 
who travel and ship over the Intercolonial. If the govern- 
ment charged these travelers and shippers higher rates and 
voted them an equivalent subsidy, the results to all concerned 
would be the same, while the public would clearly perceive 
the true character and significance of the policy followed. 

(The concluding part of this article will be published next 
week. ) 


By Walter S. Hiatt 
Our Special European Correspondent 

In war time old things are often done in new and better 
ways. Before the war there was in each of the larger French 
railway stations a poste de secours or emergency room for 
taking care of persons injured or taken ill about the station. 
After the war began many hundreds of these postes de secours 
were taken in charge by charitable women's organizations 
and made over into comfortable resting quarters for the 

Soldiers, of course, are not always at the front. They 
must travel as well as fight. Not only are they sometimes 
sent to the rear when they are wounded or out of condition, 
but every few months also they are given leave to go home 

'Railway Statistics of the Dominion of Canada for years named, and offi- 
cial information as to Canadian Pacific eastern lines. 

to visit the family and to rest up. If they have no home or 
if their families have been scattered, they are given leave just 
the same; they take it, trusting to Providence to find friends 
behind the lines. 

The establishment of these friendship corners, these station 
hospitals for both the body and the heart, these restaurants 
and reading and sleeping rooms, all in one, was not accom- 
plished in a day. First, in the early days of the war the rail- 
roads themselves enlarged their postes de secours to provide 
temporary shelter for homeless French and Belgian refugees 
in the early days of the war. Gradually they added hospital 
facilities for the wounded soldiers rolling in from the front, 
and some of the railways, indeed, turned over whole floors of 
their larger stations for this purpose, this being done, for 
example, at the Paris terminal of the Orleans railway and the 
Paris general offices of the Paris-Lyon-Mediterranee. Gradu- 
ally the improvement of the hospital train service and the 
enlargement of the military hospitals made these station 
hospitals less necessary. 

During their brief existence, however, these hospitals had 
shown the need of caring for the temporary wants of the 
traveling soldier, often a stranger in his own land, shunted 
from pillar to post, without money to buy a cup of hot coffee, 
without the courage to look for the smile or cheering word 

Free Restaurant and Hospital for Soldiers in French Railway 

that sent him into battle with the feeling that he was truly 
fighting for dear hearts behind the lines. 

It was not long before little bands of women, mothers, 
wives and sweethearts, had volunteered in each city and town 
to assist the railroads to care for the traveling soldier, and 
finally, at the instance of a certain railroad director, all of 
the French stations were organized for this purpose by differ- 
ent societies, normally formed for other work, such as the 
Croix Rouge, the Croix Verte, the Union des Femmes de 
France, the Association des Dames Francaises, the Societe de 
Secours aux Blesses, the English Women's Emergency Corps 
Canteen. These good women rapidly enlarged the scope of 
the work. Instead of being a place where an English, Bel- 
gian or French soldier might have his wound rebandaged, the 
poste de secours became a place where meals were served 
without charge, where a soldier could pass the night in a clean 
bed, or spend the few hours of waiting for his train. In 
short, these rooms became Living centers of love. 

This final and beautiful touch has been given by the pres- 
ence of the girls and young women who, save for the supervi- 
sion of the chief nurse and manager, are now practically in 
charge of all the rooms. The chief nurse is usually an older 
married woman. At the Gare St. I.a/.are, in Paris, Madame 
de Berckem, wife of the general of that name, oversees the 
operation of the poste de secours. The younger women, too 
young to leave home entirely or to serve as field or hospital 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

nurses, and for the most part members of exclusive society 
circles, have found here the most natural means of satisfying 
their desire to lend a helping hand in the war. There are 
probably some 5,000 young women now helping in this work. 

Of all the places on the earth, railway stations are the 
centers of the truest, most unsimulated sentiment; and in war 
times the meetings and partings there intensify the senti- 
mental atmosphere about these buildings, too often so for- 
bidding in aspect. 

It may have been for this reason that these young women, 
in ordinary times not permitted to leave their homes alone, 
have been attracted to this work of cheering the soldiers that 
come and go by the hundreds and the thousands day in and 
day out. At any rate, these young ladies who at home have 
their maids, are now eager to leave their homes before day- 
break in the cold of winter and to go to the railway stations 
to take their turn in the relays that search the trains and plat- 
forms for stray soldiers to lead to the canteen, or to wait on 
them humbly, kindly and smilingly. 

This job is practical as well as sentimental. At the Gare 
de Montparnasse, in Paris, at Bordeaux, at Toulouse in the 
south, at all the stations, this work goes on as work rather 
than as a charity function. At the end of each watch the 
white dresses are soiled, stained and spotted, the feet are 
weary with tramping, the hands raw and cold. An astonish- 
ing amount of work is done each day by these young women, 
particularly on those days when the hospital trains arrive 
with their wounded and when these wounded must be helped 
or- carried to waiting ambulances. At the Gare St. Lazare, 
the vast Paris terminal of the State Railways, there is a 
reading room, a restaurant, a sleeping room, and a hospital, 
the entrances of which are but a few dozen feet from the 
trains that come and go hour in and hour out. Each minute 
brings a new soldier. No less than 100,000 meals have been 
served there since February 10, 1915, no less than 6,000 
wounds have been dressed and no less than 300,000 soldiers 
have passed by. In short, enough soldiers to make five army 
corps have been smiled upon, waited upon, sent on their jour- 
neys by the dozen mademoiselles on duty there. 

Their task is not an easy one. While the soldiers are al- 
ways quiet, kind, and on their best good behaviour, they are 
poor and often literally penniless. Money must be secured 
to pay the expenses of keeping open the restaurant and hos- 
pital, of slipping a few sous unawares into the capacious 
pockets of the friendless soldier. 

Therefore, these young women, assisted by their most 
pleasing smile, and dressed in their spotless white uniforms, 
troop through the arriving and departing trains, collection 
box in hand, begging for the soldiers of France, for their 
soldiers. Not an easy part of the work, that, for it is easier 
to give than to ask. Yet the public is as generous as it can 
well be. The money comes in, by pennies in the third class, 
by franc pieces in the second and first class compartments, 
not too quickly, not more than ten dollars a day, yet enough 
to pay for the food. When private charity fails to respond 
the railroad companies, who are already running special fast 
trains to and from the front so soldiers on leave may lose no 
time, furnishing heat and light in the canteens and rendering 
many little services necessary to the orderly maintenance of 
the friendship corners, arc visited by the young women, and 
they do not come away empty-handed. 

Just now the most war-like, the most picturesque of the 
big railway stations of France, other than possibly that at 
Havre, is that of the Northern Railway at Paris. Here one 
can see daily thousands of refugees leaving the war zone or 
trying to get hack to their old homes on the border of the 
invaded districts of the north; here come and go for the most 
part the soldiers of the greal front, arriving on leave, say, with 
their uniforms soiled by months in the trenches, so soiled 
that their sky blue color has become that of clay, the once 

white skins of their faces tanned and bronzed, burned and 
bearded so that they are a fright to all but the little mothers 
of the canteens. English and Belgian soldiers likewise 
crowd in at this station from their front to have a peep at 

At this station, therefore, there are two resting places for 
the soldiers, one established by French women, a second by 
English women. At the latter the English soldiers get their 
tea, toast, bread and butter, jam or marmalade, their bacon 
and eggs, their fish, and such home cooking unknown to the 
French table. Here, too, are welcomed the English transport 
workers employed about Paris. On Sunday afternoons, in 
particular, these and other English soldiers gather here for 
tea and a smoke and hold little concerts, singing the songs 
they like best. All is as free as the air; not a penny is 
charged. When they go on their way, on one of those jour- 
neys from which so few hope to return, they are given boxes 
of food, filled with more bread and marmalade, ham sand- 
wiches, and tobacco for their everlasting pipes. This can- 
teen, such being its formal name, is international in its scope 
and service. Taking its register for a recent week, I found 
that meals had been served to 337 British soldiers, 609 
Belgians, 17 French, 10 Africans of la legion Etrangere, and 
102 Indians. 

Just before Christmas a public concert was given in the 
French canteen, known as the Cantine Militaire et Poste de 
Secours de la Gare du Nord, to celebrate the 110,000th 
meal that had been served up to that time in this canteen. 
"Does this celebration mean that you have had one hundred 
and ten thousand soldier visitors?" I asked one of the 
mademoiselles. "My no," she said. "We have had whole 
armies here for a cup of coffee and a bite of bread. We must 
have had at one time or another half the soldiers of France." 

At the end of the concert one of the young women told some 
of her experiences with her traveling soldiers. She told how 
one homeless and penniless holdier on leave for six days in 
lonely Paris had found lodging in the station, and during 
all that time insisted on sleeping on the hard floor. "The 
beds are too clean for me," he had explained. "Keep them 
for the wounded." She told how another hero of the trenches, 
duly decorated with the Medaille Militaire, with one of his 
hands shot to pieces, due to "a hunting accident," so he said, 
had spent not only his nights, but his days of leave at the 
canteen. "I'm afraid of Paris," he had told the 

All of the canteens keep registers, for purposes of account- 
ing, and to allow visitors to sign their names. Sometimes the 
soldiers write out a line of thanks. One poor fellow from the 
country scrawled: "I was received just as in a hotel where 
you have to pay to eat." This from a homeless soldier: "May 
you be blessed by all true soldiers for the way you have 
reminded us of our absent families." 

Thus these kind mademoiselles and their canteens keep on 
through the long months of the war making friends for them- 
selves, their country, and its railways, and piling up pleasant 
and enduring memories around the noisy, dingy stations. 

One enthusiastic station master said to me: "I wish we 
could manage to keep them on as steady employees after the 
war is over!" 

The Cessation of Inventions. — Someone poring over 
the old hies in the United States Patent Office at Washing- 
ton the other day, found a letter written in 1833 that illus- 
trates the limitations of the human imagination. It was from 
an old employee of the Patent Office, offering his resignation 
lo the head of the department. His reason was that as every- 
thing inventable had been invented, the Patent Office would 
soon he discontinued and there would be no further need of 
his services or the services of any of his fellow-clerks. He 
therefore decided to leave before the blow fell. — From 
Si ientific . 1 merii <m. 

First Steel Coaches for the Boston & Maine 

Seating Capacity Is 88 and Weight 118,500 lb., Weight 
Per Passenger Being 1,346 lb.; 4-Wheel Trucks Used 

THE Boston & Maine recently received from the Pull- 
man Company six steel coaches and two steel smok- 
ing cars which are the first passenger cars of this type 
of construction that this railroad has placed in service. 
The cars will be used in through service between New York 
and Portland, Maine, and will be followed by six 60-ft. 
baggage cars and two 70-ft combination baggage and mail 

The new passenger cars are 70 ft. 3^ in. long over end 

bearers placed 10 ft. on either side of the center of the car 
and built up of 5/16-in. pressed diaphragms with 6-in. by 
2^-in. top cover plates extending across the car at the top 
and under the center sills at the bottom. 

There is an anti-telescoping device which consists of two 
6-in. 23.9-lb. I-beams at each end forming a part of the 
vestibule door post construction. In addition there are used 
in the body and construction a 3^-in. by 3-in. by 5/16-in. 
angle at the corner riveted to a 4-in., 8.25-lb. Z-bar, while 

70'3^0fer End Sills 

Underframe of the Boston & Maine Coach 

sills, 80 ft. 3^4 in. long over buffer face plates and are 
mounted on four-wheel trucks with 8-ft. wheelbase and spaced 
54 ft. 3^2 in. between center plates. Commonwealth cast 
steel platforms and double body bolsters are used with center 
sills of the fishbelly type. The center sills are built up of 
5/16-in. web plates with 5-in. by 3^-in. by JH$-in. angles 
outside at the top and 3-in. by 3-in. by ^-in. angles inside 

there are two Z-bars of the same weight forming end posts 
between the door and corner posts. The door posts are 6-in., 
23.9-lb. I-beams and the end plate is a 7-in., 12.25-lb. chan- 
nel. The side frame construction includes a dropper-bar belt 
rail, with 4-in. by l /%-'\n. pressed channel side posts, two 
per pier. 

The coaches weigh complete 118,500 lb., which gives a 


3 ^«=*^j 

11 ^^nSkm^^^m-nrmj-rmimmm*^ 


Boston & Maine Steel Day Coach 

and outside at the bottom. The sills are 26 in. deep at the 
deepest part and are spaced 16 in. apart and there is a 30- in. 
by ^ -in. top cover plate extending between the bolsters. The 
side sills are made up of 5-in., 11.6-lb. Z-bars riveted to 
4-in. by 3-in. by 5/16-in. angles and extending the full dis- 
tance between the bolsters. The floor beams are 3/16-in. 
pressed diaphragms, 5 in. deep, and there are two cross- 

dead weight per passenger of 1,346 lb. The smoking cars 
weigh 118,000 lb., the dead weight per passenger being 1,282 
lb. The seating capacity of the coaches is 88 and that of 
the smoking ear is 92; the latter has one saloon. The dead 
weight per passenger compares favorably with that of the 
composite underframe cars now in service on the Boston & 
Maine, this weight in the latter cars being 1,262 lb. The 



Vol. 61, No. 2 


"_-«&. Detqi/ofYesfibv/e Side 

DetaUs of ,he End Construction of the Boston & Maine Coach 

July 14, 1916 




Section C~C. 

Z" .063" Poof Sheets 

32 Tar Paper 

Section Through Deck Panel SpVce. 

table shows a comparison between these i ars and 

of other steel coaches: 




Boston & Maine 120,000 

Pennsylvania 120,000 

New Jei I tral.. 1 15,800 

New Haven 131,000 

New York Central.. 142,000 








end bill-, 

ti lick 



70 ft. 3</ 2 in. 




70 ft. 

4 n heel 



6.! ft. 




70 ft. 6 in. 

6 wheel 


1 ,690 

70 ft. 

The trucks under the Boston & Maine cars are of the four- 
wheel Commonwealth cast steel type, equipped with S'/j-'m. 

k- : s'io?-— 

Cross Sections of the Boston & Maine Coach 

natural light, the window sash is brass, of the narrow For- 
syth type, giving a Larger glass area than is possible with 
the wider style of wood sash. The seats are of the reversible 
type made to insure the greatest comfort to passengers togethei 
with simplicity of design. They were manufactured by Hey 
wood Brothers &; Wakefield Company, Wakefield, Mass. The 
seal covering consists of Chase's figured green frieze in the 
coaches, and in the smoking cars Chase's Gibraltar leather is 
used. All other construction details are the same for both 
coaches and smoking tars. The interior color scheme is 
cream whixe for the headlining and lower deck, dull cherry ior 
the walls above the belt rail and dirt gray below. The floor- 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

iag is of Flexolith cement, with color to match the lower side 
walls. Three ply Salamander insulation is used in the walls 
and roof, with Agasote headlining. 

Westinghouse PC brake equipment is used with 16-in. 
service cylinders and 14-in. emergency cylinders. The draft 
gear is Miner friction type A-3-P with Pitt couplers, and the 
buffers arc Miner friction type B-10. 


After a number of years, a growing sentiment on the 
part of the lumber manufacturers in favor of the trade- 
marking of lumber has crystallized into definite action. The 
Southern Cypress Manufacturers' Association has adopted 
this practice and other lumber associations are either formu- 
lating plans for carrying it into effect cr have the matter un- 
der serious consideration. In addition to this a few manufac- 
turers have commenced to mark lumber as individuals and it 
is expected that others will follow their example. 

The trade-marking of lumber is one method that will be 
used by the lumber manufacturers in their campaign to se- 
cure the proper recognition of their product for those pur- 
poses for which it is best suited and to establish a reputa- 
tion for fair dealing and standardized products. As 
carried out by the Cypress Manufacturers' Association each 
piece will bear the name of the association and a number 
designating the mill where the stick originated. By bring- 
ing the name of the association or individual manufacturer 
to the notice of the user a closer relation between them is 
brought about which will encourage the user to bring to the 
manufacturer's notice any irregularities from which he has 

In the case of the association mark, each mill is identi- 

The Bogalusa Brand of the Great Southern Lumber Co. 

tied and any objectionable practice by the mill or by the 
jobber can be quickly run down. A strict compliance with 
the association regulations will soon create a reputation for 
the trade-marked lumber which will mean a return to the 
manufacturers far in excess of the expense entailed in mark- 

One advantage of this system lies in the fact that it will 
mean as much to the small producer as to the largest. Any 
mill which will conform to the regulations of the associa- 
tion can share in the reputation which the marked lumber 
will enjoy. A few of the larger manufacturers have recently 
begun the practice of branding their product with individual 

trade-marks, thus establishing reputations for the individual 
manufacturers rather than the associations. Trade-marks 
of this kind are shown in the photographs. 

There have been cases in the past where the producer and 
user have suffered alike from irregular practices on the part 
of the middleman, who has sold lumber as belonging to a 
higher grade than it classified according to the manufac- 
turers' grading rules. It is apparent from this that the mark- 
ing of the grade of the lumber would be a desirable addi- 
tion to the brand. It has, however, been found impossible 
thus far to work out any practicable scheme for doing this. 
The rules for grading are not uniform in all localities and 
much lumber is used for purposes requiring special grad- 
ings or selections. Another objection arises from the possi- 

The "Newman" Brand on the Sides of Sticks 

bility of some change in the grading of individual sticks 
after they have been graded at the mill because of the dis- 
appearance of some defects and the appearance of new ones, 
through changes of temperature, humidity or other causes 
while the material is en route. 

However, with the trade-mark clearly shown on the stick 
the purchaser can readily trace down any irregularities in 
the grading. It is also entirely possible that select structural 
material classed as dense southern yellow pine, according to 
the recently adopted classification, will be placed on the 
market branded as to grade. 

The accompanying photographs show two schemes for 
branding the lumber: one on the side and the other on the 
end. The latter is the favored practice and is executed au- 
tomatically by a machine as the lumber leaves the trimmer 
table, the marks being a combination of an impression in the 
fibres and an ink mark. When the prices are branded on 
both ends the ink is commonly used on one end only. Mark- 
ing the sticks on both ends simplifies the process and has 
the advantages that when the lumber is piled the marks will 
always be visible on the ends of all the sticks exposed on 
any side, and the piece is still identified after one end has 
been cut off. The minimum size which it has been found 
practicable to mark is 1 in. by 3 in. 

The trade-marking of lumber will work to the advantage 
of the reputable dealers and to the disadvantage of the un- 
scrupulous. With this impetus to fair dealing the gain to the 
purchaser should be great, particularly to a large purchase!! 
such as a railroad. 

July 14, 1916 




Joseph Ramsey, Jr., president of the Wabash during the 
exciting period when the Wabash gained an entrance into 
Pittsburgh, died suddenly of apoplexy on July 7 at his home 
in East Orange, N. J. Although the scheme of using the 
Wheeling & Lake Erie and building the Wabash-Pittsburgh 
Terminal to give the Wabash and thus the Gould system an 
entrance to Pittsburgh and to connect the Wheeling & Lake 
Erie and the Western Maryland to give the system an At- 
lantic coast port is usually credited to George Gould, the 
Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal, part of the scheme at least, 
originated with Joseph Ramsey, Jr. The plans had to be 
carried out against the bitter opposition of both the Penn- 
sylvania and New York Central lines and were bold in the 
extreme. It was Mr. Ramsey who secured the contract with 
the Carnegie Steel Company for a volume of traffic, which if 
the Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal had ever been able to han- 
dle it, might conceivably have 
made it a fairly successful 
road instead of the monu- 
mental failure which it 
proved to be. 

In September, 1905, after 
the stock transfer books of 
the Wabash had been closed, 
Mr. Ramsey who had been 
president since 1901, adver- 
tised over his own signature 
as president, an appeal to 
the debenture and stock 
holders asking for proxies 
for use at the annual meet- 
ing on October 10. He said 
that he represented no finan- 
cial interests but that this 
action was taken solely by 
the desire to save the com- 
pany which he had been 
president of from the results 
which he thought would fol- 
low from further control by 
the Goulds. The Wabash 
had long been a Gould road 
and it was thought that 
George Gould and the Gould 
estate could control at least 
40 per cent of the proxies. 
When the annual meeting 
took place, Mr. Ramsey was 
not able to elect even one di- 
rector. The failure of his 

attempt to wrest control from George Gould appeared ab- 
surdly flat. The fact is not generally known and has prob- 
ably never been published before that the late Russell Sage. 
who held large blocks of the Wabash debentures as well as 
considerable amounts of stock, had told Mr. Ramsey that he 
could count on him for his proxies — the debentures had vot- 
ing rights as well as the stock. At the last minute Russell 
Sage changed his mind and decided to give his proxies to 
the Gould estate. Mr. Ramsey, embittered, turned his fight 
for proxies into a bitter attack on the treatment which he 
had received from the Goulds. 

While the Gould-Ramsey attempts to get into Pittsburgh 
and get an Atlantic coast outlet for the Gould system proved 
to be a disastrous failure, it is not entirely fair to judge 
the conception of Mr. Ramsey by the results. George Gould 
at that time was even less inclined to give others authority 
than he has been in more recent years, nor would he, it is 
generally believed, take time himself to study and properly 
conduct the affairs of his companies. It may be that Ram 

Joseph Ramsey, Jr 

sey's Wabash-Pittsburgh Terminal plans were inherently im- 
possible of successful fruition, but whether or not this is so, 
their failure was assured by the clash of Ramsey and Gould 
in the carrying out of these plans. 

Joseph Ramsey, Jr., was born on April 17, 1850, at Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., and was educated at Western University and 
began railway work in 1869, in an engineering corps of the 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis. He later served 
as engineer on construction and then as assistant engineer of 
the Cincinnati & Muskingum Valley. From May to October, 
1871, he was chief engineer on location of the Bell's Gap 
Railroad, then assistant engineer on the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road; from April, 1872, to 1873 he was engineer and then to 
187 ( ) chief engineer and superintendent of the Bell's Gap 
Railroad. He was then chief engineer and superintendent 
of the New Castle & Lake Erie. From November, 1879, to 
April, 1882, he was chief engineer and superintendent of 
the Pittsburgh Southern, after which he served as chief en- 
gineer and general manager 
on various roads until Au- 
gust, 1883, when lie became 
engineer on the Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton; and 
from 1886 to 1890 he was 
chief engineer of that road. 
He was then assistant to 
president of the Cleveland, 
Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis until June, 1891. Mr 
Ramsey also served on dif- 
ferent roads including the 
following: March, 1890, to 
March, 1895, president of 
the Peoria & Pekin Union; 
June, 1891, to April, 1893, 
general manager of the 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis; and from 
April, 1893, to December, 
1895, general manager of the 
Terminal Railroad Associa- 
tion of St. Louis. From De- 
cember, 1895, to June, 1901, 
he was vice-president and 
general manager of the 
Wabash, then to October, 
1905, was president. While 
at the head of the Wabash, 
he also served as president 
of the Wabash-Pittsburgh 
Terminal, the Wheeling & 
Lake Erie, the Western 
Man land and the Ann Arbor. His service with the Wabash 
terminated in 1905, and in 1906 he was chosen president of 
the New York, Pittsburgh & Chicago, a projected line de- 
signed to compete with the Pennsylvania. In 1°10 he be- 
came also president of the Ashland & Western and the 
Lorain, Ashland &: Southern. From 1910 to 1912 he again 
served on the Ann Arbor, and in 1912 also was president of 
the Wheeling & Lake Erie. At the time of his death he was 
president of the Lorain, Ashland & Southern. 

Women Railway Workers in Russia. — Following the 
satisfactory results of the employment of female labor during 
the war on the railways, and having in view the shortage of 
nun. the Minister of Ways of Communication has proposed 
to the southwestern railways to put women in place of the 
assistant station masters in fourth class stations and sidings. 
The necessary conditions of such employment are that the 
women should lie properly trained in a railway traffic school 
and be not under 25 years of age. 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

By Rudolph Welcker 

The attention of the writer was called two years ago to the 
methods pursued by the railroad inspection service of Hol- 
land to determine the effect of increased loading or speeds on 
structures and track. All structures, if exposed to new con- 
ditions of loading, are subjected to field tests which are made 
by a party especially trained for this purpose. The instru- 
ment used is shown in the photograph and has passed 
through a regular stage of development. The results have 
been so important from an economic point of view that some 
of the railroads have followed suit and make their own tests 
to extend the knowledge of their structures. The material 
collected at that time seemed so valuable and the matter it- 
self so susceptible of future development that the writer 
decided to investigate the applicability of these methods for 
the requirements in the United States. 

In the course of these experiments it became obvious that 
the taking of these stresses should be made automatic. The 
instruments as used in Holland are operated by hand and 
require an operator for every four units on track work and 
one for each instrument in bridge work. By improving the 
mechanical means of moving the paper tape on which the 
records are made and by resorting to a winder with a special 
electrical escapement, it became possible to control an unlim- 
ited number of extensographs from one central point. This 
contrivance makes the instruments self-recording and auto- 
matic. The method is also to be preferred from the stand- 
point of safety and simplicity. 

It would be impossible to describe in detail in this space 
the principles and construction of the instruments involved 
and all the results obtained thereby. As an example of the 
results some diagrams are shown in the accompanying draw- 
ing. Series A was taken in Holland in 1914 and series B 
in the United States in the following year. Both diagrams 

has become evident in so far as the examination of American 
rails is concerned that the stresses do not prove to be greater 
than those which are caused by European train loads under 
the same conditions. This is contrary to the general impres- 
sion and deserves further investigation. The experiments 
have been made in both cases with the same set of instru- 

In the case of freight trains hauled by two engines greater 
stresses were observed under the driving wheels of the 
second engine. The high speed of the trains is more con- 
ducive to high stresses than an increase in axle load, espe- 
cially on curves which are not properly lined. 

The Recording Instrument 

The examinations of bridges also have been most interest- 
ing. The instruments, for instance, indicate plainly whether 
cracks in the material of a beam or girder are of importance 
from the standpoint of safety. It does not need explanation 
that in such experiments it is absolutely essential to have the 
instruments under central control. 

They have also been used to examine stone and concrete 

o no oo 

o o OO 

oo o o o o 

OOO o o oo o o 

O O Oo o 


Tension [ 


/^— • ~ /\A. — 










Empty Freight Train (American) 

Diagram A stresses 
inside outer rail. 

Diagram B stresses 
outside outer rait. 

Paris-Amsterdam Express. 
Typical Stress Diagrams 

show stresses in rails during the actual operation of fast 
trains. As an additional improvement the American diagram 
shows a number of tally points which represent time marks 
spaced 0.6 sec. apart. By means of these points it is possible 
to compute the speed of the train accurately. This complete 
diagram therefore shows the load, the speed of the load and 
the -tress caused by their combined influence. 

Since the record can be controlled from any place and dis 
tance from the track it is possible to get a check on the train 
SDeed by this means. This factor in itself is of great impor- 
tant- in cases where the train speed is restricted. 

By way of results a few general conclusions are given. It 

bridges. In such cases, however, it is necessary to increase 
the gage length of the standard instrument to register the 
much smaller displacements. These instruments offer an 
unlimited field of investigation and the time will come when 
their extended use will result in a more accurate knowledge 
of engineering structures. 

Lai«;k British Simi, Output in 1915. — The British 
output of steel ingots for 1915, according to statistics just 
published by the Iron, Steel and Allied Trade Federation, 
was 8,^50,944 gross tons. This is the largest output in the 
last six years. — Iron Age. 

July 14, 1916 




The Atlantic Coast Line has recently placed in service 
automatic block signals on its double-track line from Selma, 
N. C, southward to Parkton, N. C, 62 miles. Selma is 160 
miles south of Richmond. Parkton is at the end of double- 
track and is the junction of the main line and the Bennetts- 
ville branch. This installation completes the automatic sig- 
nal system between Richmond and Parkton, 222 miles. The 
line was formerly operated by the manual block system and 
the installation of automatic signals has made it possible to 
discontinue the service of many operators. On a similar 40- 
mile section of the road a reduction in payrolls was made at 
the time automatic signals were put in service which was suf- 
ficient to pay for the maintenance and depreciation of the 

Double Mechanism Case; Primary Battery in Lower Part 

signals and show a clear profit of $7,000 a year; and beyond 
this was the increased capacity of the road by reason of the 
shorter block sections and the increased safety and efficiency 
of operation. The saving in train detention in one month 
as compared with the same month the year previous amounted 
to approximately 21 hours. 

The signal system adopted for this section is the Union 
Switch & Signal Company's standard "wireless" control, the 
blocks averaging about 5,400 ft. in length, without cut sec- 
tions. The signals are of the U. S. &. S. style S, operating 
in three positions in the upper right-hand quadrant. Night 
indications are red for stop, green for caution, and white for 

There are two features of this installation of particular in- 

terest — the method developed for housing the signal and track 
circuit battery in a lower mechanism case, and the exclusive 
use of duplex channel pins for bonding. Primary battery 
of the "BSCO" caustic soda type is used to operate both 
the signals and the track circuits, fifteen 500-a. h. cells 
being used on the signal circuits and five on the track circuits. 
Rectangular jars were used to economize space, the arrange- 
ment of cells being shown in the accompanying illustration. 
It would also be possible to arrange these cells lengthwise in 
three rows of 4 cells each on both shelves, making the total 
capacity of a case 24 cells. This arrangement would expose 
to view the flat surface of the plates, insuring the best oppor- 
tunity to see the indications of approaching exhaustion. 

The housing of battery in the mechanism case has a num- 
ber of advantages. In the first place, it is an inexpensive 
installation, as it eliminates the cost of concrete wells or 
other underground housing, reduces the amount of wire re- 
quired for the installation and eliminates all trunking and 
other conduit. There is also a saving in the length of signal 
posts and connecting rods. Trouble from broken wires 
through accident or corrosion because of exposure in trunking 
is eliminated and the shortening of the wire between the bat- 
tery and the motor eliminates most of the drop in potential 
at this point. The possibility of a battery being flooded is 
practically eliminated and with the battery so conveniently 
located there is less excuse for inattention on the part of in- 
spectors and maintainers. Since the signal cases afford little 
protection from the cold, it is necessary in latitudes subject to 

Standard Bond Wires with Duplex Channel Pins 

low temperatures to compensate for the increased internal 
resistance and consequent loss of voltage to which the batteries 
are subject during cold weather by providing additional 
cells. The number required on this account depends of 
course upon the degree of cold to be provided for, but the 
manufacturer's tests indicate that it is not likely in any case 
that more than 20 cells per signal would be required to 
replace 16 cells located in a well. 

In the track bonding on this installation ^s-in. duplex 
channel pins were used. These have been found to be most 
economical and advantageous. On previous work, soft-drawn 
E. B. B. galvanized bond wires 46 in. long had been used, but 
in this case 44-in. No. 6 B. & S. gage copper-clad bond wires 
were used, the adoption of the shorter length being made 
possible by the ability to bend the copper-clad wires to a 
smaller radius than iron. With the use of the duplex pins, 
only two are required for each joint, instead of four as in 
single bonding. The breakage of the JH$-in. drills is much 
less than the 9/32-in. used with single pins, and the cost of 
drilling and bonding is less. All bond wires were bent to a 
template and the holes were drilled at the joints exactly the 
same distance from the ends, thus making all the bonding 

In order to determine exactly how good a connection re- 
sulted from the use of duplex pins several were driven 
through with a punch, and in each case it was found that 
the wires had been somewhat flattened where they came in 
contact with the rail web and the pins had gripped so tightly 
as to give them the appearance of having been welded or 
brazed. It is the standard practice on this road, within track 
circuit limits, to turn the lip of the joint spike toward the 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

center of the track, the object being to save wires from being 
worn off, cut in two, or interfered with by the section forces. 
This work was installed under the direction of C. J. Kel- 
loway, signal engineer, to whom we are indebted for the 
above information. 


The illustration shows one of a number of steel ore cars 
recently built by the Ralston Steel Car Company, Columbus, 
Ohio, under its own patents, for the Duluth, Missabe & 

The features of special interest in the design are the door 
operating mechanism and the ability to quickly dump the 
load. A test was made recently with one of these cars loaded 
with 52 tons of ore, to ascertain the length of time required 
to dump the load, one man doing the work. From the time 
the operator applied the wrench to the operating shaft, in- 

mesh with worm segments. A transverse shaft passes through 
the worms for rotating them, and this shaft is mounted near 
its ends in bearings secured to the side sills. The ends of 
the shaft project beyond the side sills for the application of 
a device for manually operating it. 

Sprocket wheels are secured to the cross shafts and these 
sprockets are connected by a chain so that when one or the 
other of the shafts is rotated, motion will be imparted to both 
worms for turning the worm gears. When the doors are 
closed they are kept so by the worm gearing, without the 
necessity for the use of pawl or ratchet devices. When the 
sub-shaft has been rotated sufficiently to overcome the dead 
centers of the link mechanism, the weight of the load in 
the hopper body forces the doors fully open. 

The side sills of the car are composed of channels having 
their flanges turned inwardly to provide a flush surface for 
the application of channel side stakes. The end sills are 
connected to end sill side sills, to which the corner posts are 
attached. The upper ends of the corner posts are connected 

Steel Ore Car with Quick Operating Doors 

eluding dumping the load and closing the doors, the car was 
made ready for the return trip to the mines in 35 seconds. 

The door operating mechanism consists of links suspended 
from brackets secured to the draft sills at the ends of the 
lower portion of the hopper. The links at the two ends of the 
hopper bottom are connected by shafts disposed under the 
doors, and on these shafts rollers are mounted running in 
a trackway on the doors. Near the end of the hopper body, 
short shafts are mounted in bearings, having applied thereto 
armed crossheads with curved links attached to the arms and 
the door shafts. 

A worm segment is mounted on each short shaft and the 
hub of the segmenl is made with a clutch member having a 
lug on it. Another clutch member is secured to each shaft 
and made to co-operate with the lugs on the other clutch 
members The LugS in the tWO Clutch members are so pro- 
portioned as to permit of relative movements of the segment 
and shaft, Worms are mounted between the draft sills near 
the ends of the hopper body and are disposed over and en- 

to top end angles, to which the upper ends of the front and 
rear inclined hopper sheets are secured. The draft sills ex- 
tend forward beyond the end sills and back to the inclined 
sheets, to which they are secured. 

The bolsters are composed of diaphragms connected to the 
side and center sills and bottom cover plate. The upper 
edges of the diaphragms are riveted to a floor plate which 
covers the entire portion of the frame from the hopper sheet 
to striking plate. This floor cover plate is riveted to the end 
sill angles, draft sills, and side sills, and has a flange at its 
rear end which is connected to the hopper slope sheet, form- 
ing a girder which permits of the buffing stresses being 
equally distributed over all parts of the undcrframe. 

Secured to and extending, from one bolster to the other are 
longitudinal or sub-sills spaced a short distance from the side 
Sills. These serve to increase the strength and rigidit) of 
the underframe, and also provide a connection for the door 
bracket hinges and sloping side floor sheets. This sub-sill 
is connected to the side sill proper. 

Grade Crossing Elimination in Camden, N. J. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Is Elevating the Atlantic 
City Line Tracks, Using Several Types of Street Subways 

THE Pennsylvania Railroad is completing the elevation 
of tracks on the Atlantic City line of the West Jersey 
& Seashore in Camden, N. J., involving the construc- 
tion of 1 2 under-crossings for city streets. The project forms 
one step of a plan for a somewhat complete elimination of 
grade crossings in that city, and is unique in several ways. 
No two- subways are exactly alike. Four different varieties 
of steel bridge floors have been used, and, unlike most other 


Tracks on Surface 
Tracks Previously Elevaled- 

Map Showing Progress of Track Elevation 

track elevation projects, the filling material has been obtained 
within one-quarter mile of one end of the track elevation 
limits, and was handled with narrow gage equipment. 

In 1905 the Pennsylvania Railroad entered into a contract 
with the city of Camden for the elimination of grade cross- 
ings in that city, and by the end of 1913, the progress on this 

present work involves the elevation of the Atlantic City line 
south from this junction for a distance of 1*4 miles. This 
portion of the line crosses all the streets on a skew with the 
result that there is only one square subway, that at Whitman 
street, where the street was relocated to obtain a right angle 
crossing. At the north end of the work, where the line crosses 
Mt. Ephraim avenue on a very flat skew, it was found de- 
sirable to provide a steel viaduct about 500 ft. long crossing 
also Mt. Vernon and Walnut streets, which intersect Mt. 
Ephraim avenue under or near the structure. 

As seen on the accompanying profile, the original grade 
line had an ascending grade of 0.5 per cent southward, begin- 
ning at Sycamore street. This made it possible to make the 
descent from the south end of the track elevation with a 0.25 
per cent grade, commencing at Atlantic street. This is the 
critical point in the new grade line, as governed by the head- 
room requirements for the subway at this street. The mate- 
rial depression in the natural ground surface and the old 
grade line, north from this point as far as the Mt. Ephraim 
avenue viaduct, resulted in a large variation in the severity 
of the head-room conditions at the various subways within 
those limits and advantage was taken, in the more favorable 
cases, to use more economical designs of subway floors than 
were permissible where the head-room requirements were 
more difficult to fulfill. 

The Subways 

The subways are all steel girder bridges with the exception 
of the one at Sycamore street, which is a 20 ft. skew arch, 
and with this exception all of them embrace the full width of 
the streets. At Whitman street the superstructure makes a 
clear span from abutment to abutment. At all of the other 
steel subways, intermediate supports are provided at the curb 
lines and in the Mt. Ephraim a\enue viaduct, a third row 
of columns is placed in the center of the roadway. The ver- 
tical head-room was made 14 ft. at Kaighn avenue and Mt. 
Ephraim avenue to provide for the existing car line on the 
former and afford provision for a future line on the latter. 
On all of the other streets, except Lemon and Whitman 
streets, it is 1.3 ft. At these two, which are located in the 
run-off on the south end, a vertical clearance of 12 ft. was 

The subway floor in all cases is composed of structural 
steel encased in or covered by a concrete slab to provide bal- 
lasted tracks, but, as mentioned above, the designs were modi- 

o.zs%- ^ 

-0.2 %-~ Grade level. 

Map and Profile of the Work 

work was marked by the elevation of the Trenton division 
tracks from the Camden terminal to the Cooper river, and on 
the Cape Mav line of the West Jersey & Seashore as far as 
Van Hook street. The Atlantic City line, which connects 
with the Cape May line at Division street, reached the eleva- 
tion by an incline commencing at W 7 alnut street. This re- 
quired a grade of 3 per cent for northbound trains and one 
of 4.6 per cent for southbound (down grade) trains. The 

fled as the clearance conditions permitted. At Whitman 
street the floor consists of steel troughs, spanning transversely 
between the girders with a floor thickness of 3 ft. from base 
of rail to under clearance. At Lemon and Atlantic streets 
12-in., 40-lb. I-beams encased in concrete were used with a 
floor thickness of 2 ft. 10 l / 2 in. At the subway for the inter- 
section of Louis street and Mechanic street and the one at 
Liberty street, sufficient head-room was available to permit 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

the use of through girders with a floor beam and stringer 
type of floor, the concrete slab resting on the top flanges of 
the stringers, and giving floor depths of 5 ft. 3 in. and 4 ft. 
iy 2 in., respectively. At Kaighn avenue and Chestnut street, 
deck girders with concrete deck slabs were used, with a total 
depth from base of rail to clear of 7 ft. 10^8 in. and 6 ft. 

4 drain. -j 

s l2}Is-40*-/3"ctrs.J ^f^rDrain channel. 
* 13-0 

Types of Floors Used for the Subways 

5y«i in., respectively. In the Mt. Ephraim avenue viaduct, 
the same type of floor was used as at Lemon and Atlantic 
streets, except that 15-in. I-beams were used which were 
raised materially above the lowest possible position, thereby 
giving a total floor depth of 4 ft. 5 l /g in. 

These structures embody a number of interesting details. 

Subway at Intersection of Lewis and Mechanic Streets 

All floors were waterproofed with pitch and five-ply felt 
paper protected by a course of brick, laid on a sand cushion, 
i cepl a1 Lemon street, where tile one inch thick were used 
to give ;i smaller floor thickness. In all cases where the floor 

consisted of slabs supported on top of the steel work, drainage 
was afforded by pipes passing through the slabs to steel 
troughs underneath and draining to down spouts at the col- 
umns. Where these slabs rest on the back walls of the abut- 
ments, expansion was provided by a lead bearing plate, which 
consists of sheets of lead soldered together. Where the floor 

Looking North Toward Spruce Street Junction. Atlantic 
City Line Incline on the Right, Mt. Ephraim Avenue 
Viaduct on the Left 

consisted of I-beams encased in concrete, steel aprons were 
provided which curve downward over the back walls. 

The Mt. Ephraim avenue viaduct is supported on 2 abut- 
ments, 18 columns and 1 concrete pier. The latter is located 
on the south side of Walnut street and serves as the fixed 
point, expansion bearings being provided at each abutment 
with the columns acting as rockers. 

In only three cases was any change made in the existing 

A Section of the Heavy Timber Crib Retaining Wall 

grade of the street. Lemon street and Whitman strict were 
materially depressed to obtain the desired head-room. At 
Kaighn avenue it was necessary to lower the street grade by 
the amount which it had been originally elevated to cross the 
tracks which had been located somewhat above tin natural 
ground surface at that point. 

Construction Program 

The traffic on the Atlantic City line is largely passenger,, 
and is much heavier in summer time than in winter. The 

July 14, 1916 



winter schedule provides for 40 trains daily, while the sum- 
mer schedule, plus an average of about 16 extra trains daily, 
amounts to about 76 trains on Monday to Friday, inclusive, 
and approximately 88 trains on Saturday. The old line on 
the surface consisted of two main tracks, and the right of way 
permits of a maximum development of four tracks, although 
the present authority is for the elevation of only two tracks. 
The need of avoiding interference with traffic during con- 
struction and the anticipated addition of more tracks in the 
future, resulted in a plan providing for the location of the 
two elevated tracks adjacent to the west right of way line. 
Owing to the restricted right of way this required a full 
height retaining wall along the west property line for prac- 
tically the entire distance and with the operated tracks on 
the surface thrown as far toward the east side of the right 
of way as possible, and a temporary timber crib wall along- 
side the near track, it was possible to provide a full em- 
bankment for only one track on the elevation, until surface 
operation was discontinued. This crib wall was built of 12 
in. by 12 in. and 12 in. by 14 in. second-hand timbers, as 
shown in one of the photographs. 

It was the original plan to transfer the southbound traffic 
to the upper level as soon as the embankment was completed 
for one track and then build a second timber crib adjacent 
to the northbound track on the surface and complete the em- 
bankment for the northbound track. It was found that this 
plan would prove expensive, particularly because of the cost 
of the second timber crib, which at some points would need to 
be as much as 10 or 1 1 ft. high. Consequently, it was decided 
to transfer both northbound and southbound trains to the 
upper level as soon as the embankment was completed for 
one track, by the use of gauntlet tracks, and with operation 
removed entirely from the surface it would be possible to 

The Concrete Plant. Locomotive Crane Raising the Con- 
crete Bucket 

complete the embankment without the use of a second crib 
retaining wall. 

Construction Methods 

This project involves 100,000 cu. yd. of embankment. 
25.000 cu. yd. of concrete and 1,830 tons of structural steel. 
The total cost is about $700,000, all of which is borne by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad, except $13,000, or one-half of 
the cost of the bridges at Sycamore street and Whitman street, 
which were required to be built by the city of Camden after 
the passage of the original ordinance, under the terms of 
which additional bridges, when required, were to be paid 
for jointly by the railroad company and the city. The James 
McGraw Company, Philadelphia, has a contract for all the 

work except the steel erection, which is being done by the 
Pittsburg Construction Company. The concrete work was 
started in May, 1914, and all footings were completed by 
July of that year, and the neatwork of all structures by April, 
1915. All concrete was provided from a plant located at 
Lemon street west of the tracks. As shown in one of the 
photographs, the mixer was located under an elevated bin 
which was filled by a stiff-leg derrick and a clam-shell 
bucket. The concrete was delivered to the work in a hopper 
bottom box mounted on a narrow gage car handled by a 
Brown-hoist locomotive crane, which also served to transfer 
the concrete from the mixer to the hopper car by means of a 

South End of Track Elevation Looking North. 
Tracks on the Right 


bottom dump bucket. For the concreting of footings, the car 
was transported on a track laid on the surface. When the 
neatwork of the walls and abutments was being concreted the 
car was moved over a light trestle on a level with the tops of 
the abutments and which was also used for transporting the 
filling material. The retaining walls and abutments are of 
mass concrete and are damp-proofed on the back. 

Work was commenced on the placing of the embankment 
in February, 1915, after a sufficient amount of the retaining 
walls and abutments had been completed so that the work of 
filling would not interfere. The filling material was all ob- 
tained from a borrow pit located west of the tracks at the 
end of the south runoff. The material was loaded with a 
70-ton Marion steam shovel and handled in narrow gage 
side-dump cars by dinky locomotives operating over the light 
trestle previously mentioned in connection with the concrete 
work. The embankment was entirely completed for one track 
by April, 1915, after less than two months' work. 

The erection of the structural steel work was not com- 
menced until the embankment had been finished for the one 
track. This work was started at the south end and continued 
progressively northward, using standard gage equipment run- 
ning on a track, laid on the embankment and the bridges as 
the work progressed. This track was provided witli a third 
rail to permit the operation of the narrow gage equipment for 
the transporting of concrete for the deck slabs and for addi- 
tional filling, etc. 

The southbound track was placed in service on the upper 
level early in January, 1916. The gauntlet track installed 
extends from the south end of the Mt. Ephraim avenue via- 
duct to a point half way between the Lemon street and the 
Whitman street bridges. This gave the minimum length of 
gauntlet tracks and avoided complications with the junction 
at Spruce street. Operation of the northbound trains over this 
^auntlel: track was commenced on March 21 and work was 
then resumed en the embankment to complete a sufficient 
width for two tracks. This work was practically completed 
about June 1, when the summer passenger schedule with 
greatly increased service became effective. 

The design and construction of this work were under the 
general direction of A. C. Shand, chief engineer of the Penn- 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

sylvania Railroad. The design of the subways was under 
the immediate direction of H. R. Leonard, engineer of bridges 
and buildings, and C. W. Thorn, assistant engineer, is in 
direct charge of construction. 


In addition to those mentioned in previous issues many 
railroads have issued circulars to their train employees re- 
garding the wage controversy, asking them to consider the 
situation carefully before voting for a strike. 

Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh 

A circular by T. F. Brennan, general manager of the Buf- 
falo, Rochester & Pittsburgh, is addressed especially to the 
older men in the company's employ. Mr. Brennan says: 

"I hope that before casting your vote you will give care- 
ful consideration to the position of this company which is 
striving to justly compensate all of its employees for their 
service and at the same time fairly compensate investors for 
the use of their money. Your welfare, as well as that of the 
company, depends on the company's ability to do this. 

"The vote of a stockholder in a corporation counts in pro- 
portion to the capital he has invested. The vote of a com- 
pany in the larger railroad associations, when taken on mat- 
ters of importance, counts in proportion to its mileage. The 
matter regarding which you are about to cast your vote is 
of vital importance to you, especially to those of you who 
have been many years in the service of this company. Your 
experience and years of service constitute your capital and 
you are concerned in the result of this vote in proportion 
thereto; but as the vote of an older employee will count for 
no more than that of a younger man, who has comparatively 
little at stake, I most earnestly urge the older men, who be- 
cause of their longer experience have a better understanding 
of conditions, to advise the younger men with a view of bring- 
ing about an impartial adjustment of the present con- 

Santa Fe 

A. G. Wells, general manager of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe Coast Lines, has issued a circular saying in part: 

"Some of you have never been through a strike. Take 
my word for it; such have much to be thankful for, especially 
those who have wives, mothers, sisters or children dependent 
upon them for support. 

"Here on the coast lines we have by intelligent effort and 
hearty co-operation built up a transportation organization 
that is second to none in the world. Do not let us disrupt it. 

"Yours are preferred jobs, and in the event of a strike men 
will flock in from all parts of the country to take your places, 
because it is known you have good conditions, good pay and 
good treatment. This is what happened in 1894, and history 
always repeats itself. 

"There has never yet been a big railway strike that the men 
won. Furthermore, the Santa Fe has never been forced to en- 
gage in a strike it did not win. 

"The present demands are unjust and impossible. Your 
insurance against sacrificing the seniority which by years of 
toil you have Unit up is to see that your ballot on the im- 
pending issue bears the Legend 'No.' I appeal to you in the 
name of that great Santa Fe family of which we are all mem- 
bers, of which we are all so proud, and which your industry 
and intelligence have helped to Create: in your own self- 
interesl and that of those dear to you, and as a man who has 
your welfare very mini) at heart, to vote 'No' on the mi 

pending is 


In a circular issued to the employees of the (Imago, Bur 
lington 82 Quincy, Vice President II E. Byram says: 

"The present road schedules, based entirely on the 10- 
mile-an-hour basis, are the outgrowth of many years of ami- 
cable negotiations and arbitrations between the company and 
your representatives. 

"It is not the desire of this company, as a participant in 
the movement, to deprive you of any of the privileges either 
in compensation or working conditions that are accorded to 
you by the existing agreements, but any attempt to apply all 
the existing rates and favorable rules that produce additional 
compensation and which have been based on a 10-mile-an- 
hour basis, to a 12^-mile-an-hour basis in road service, and 
8-hour basis in yard service at the 10-hour rates, would have 
the result of destroying the very foundation of our present ba- 
sis of payment and produce a result that would be entirely un- 
fair to the company. It is the desire of this company to con- 
tinue the agreements that are now in force on the 10-mile-an- 
hour basis as they are at present. 

"In the interest of the harmony and fair dealing that has 
heretofore prevailed in the handling of such matters between 
the Burlington company and your representatives, I feel it 
my duty to call your attention to these facts and to ask you 
to consider them in making up your minds whether to vote 
in favor of extreme measures which might disrupt and de- 
stroy the harmonious conditions that prevail on the Burling- 
ton railroad at this time." 

Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe 

F. G. Pettibone, vice-president and general manager of the 
Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, has issued a circular to the pub- 
lic, explaining the demands of the brotherhoods and of the 
railways' proposals for arbitration. The circular is in a series 
of 14, giving a comparison of the earnings of a train crew 
on various local runs, under the present basis of wages and 
the proposed basis. In conclusion the circular says: "We 
address this communication to you, our patrons who travel 
and ship over our line, for the reason that it is you who must 
ultimately pay the bill. Regardless of whether the railways 
or the men are right in this thing, is it not proper that you, 
the third party, should have a voice in the proceedings? It 
is fair to both men and railways that an impartial tribunal 
should sit in judgment upon the case in its entirety and it 
is your right that this should be done. Is it not, therefore, 
your duty to exert your influence to bring this about?" 

Colorado & Southern 

E. S. Roller, vice-president and general manager of the 
Colorado & Southern, has issued the following circular to 
the employees: 

"We note that the statement accompanying the ballots on 
which the engineers, firemen, conductors and trainmen are 
voting, contain the following statement: 

"'It (the answer of the railroads) also abolished the "tirst-in. fust out" 
rule and "automatic release," and allowed crews to be run through terminals 
and around Other crews.' 

"This statement is misleading, and to avoid misunder- 
standing we submit for your information the following: 
Conferences with the committee representing the men devel- 
oped the fact that there are many different rules and prac- 
tices calling for release of trews, etc, It was not the inten- 
tion of the National Conference Committee of the Railways 

to disturb these rules and practices as they now exist on nidi 
vidua! roads, except to the extent necessary to ((inform to the 
following principles, without interfering with existing senior- 
ity rules : 

"First I ail shori turn-around runs with definiti limifations as to 

mill 1 and hi 

"Second: To permit at the beginning oi thi day, thi 
trip w ith ■ long trip. 

"This proposed limited operation of crews through termi- 
nals or turning at terminals, does not justif) the broad a 
tion that 'firsl in, firsl out' rules and 'automati< release' 

where they now- exisl are to be abolished." 

July 14, 1916 



Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 

John Howe Peyton, president and general manager of the 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, issued a circular to 
officers and employees, giving actual amounts of payrolls on 
that road for the month of May. 

Dividing all employees into three classes: (1) train and 
yard service employees, (2) general officers (president, vice- 
president, general counsel, treasurer, division superintend- 
ents, etc.), and their assistants and clerks, and (3) all other 
employees not included in the other two classes, and analyz- 
ing the payroll, it is found that the actual compensation paid 
these three classes for the month of May, 1916, was as fol- 
lows : 

- Total Average 

compen- Total Average Total per day 

Class 1 — sation hours per hour days of 10 hrs. 

Enginemen $46,839 79,447 59 cts. 7,944 $5.90 

Firemen 26,874 76,758 35 cts. 7,676 3.50 

Conductors 23,138 45,139 51 cts. 4,514 5.10 

Other trainmen 66.180 190.384 35 cts. 19,038 3.50 

Total (Class 1) trainmen.. $163,032 391,728 42 cts. 39,172 $4.20 
Class 2— 

General officers, assistants and 

clerks $94,421 296,245 32 cts. 29,624 $3.20 

! Class 3 — 

All other employees $314,039 1,760,880 18 cts. 176,088 $1.80 

Total (Classes 2 and 3)... $408,460 2,057,125 20 cts. 205,712 $2.00 

"It will be seen that during the month of May, the equiva- 
lent of 39,172 ten-hour days at $4.20 per day was worked 
by the train and yard employees. It is evident that if a strike 
be effected by about 1,600 of these employees because their 
demands for greatly increased compensation are not granted, 
jtrains must cease to run, and about seven thousand other 
employees who, during the same month, worked the equiva- 
lent of 176,088 ten-hour days at an average pay of $1.80 
per day, must, sooner or later, be thrown out of work. 

"This company confidently expects, if a strike is called by 
those dissatisfied with their present working conditions and 
who are now paid more than twice the average wages of all 
other employees, that its employees from all departments will 
volunteer to fill vacancies in order to prevent the discontinu- 
ance of trains, which would result in inconvenience to the 
public, privation among employees and their families, and 
serious loss to the company. 

"If the emergency arises, There will be a call for volun- 
teers. Are you prepared to serve?" 

The Association of Western Railways has compiled for 
distribution a collection of newspaper editorials commenting 
on the proposal of the railways that the wage issue be sub- 
mitted to the Interstate Commerce Commission or to arbi- 

The Brotherhoods 

At the recent convention of the Brotherhood of Locomotive 
Firemen and Enginemen at Denver, Colo., the general secre- 
tary and treasurer was directed to send a communication to 
Washington protesting against any interference by Congress 
in the wage controversy. The protective committee also re- 
ported a resolution, which was adopted, declaring that the 
[work of the locomotive firemen is "skilled labor." Another 
resolution was adopted urging the employment of white men 
(exclusively as train service employees. 

The brotherhoods are conducting an extensive advertising 
campaign by the use of large posters, giving their arguments 
in support of their demands, which are tacked on fences and 
trees, and displayed in stores, barber shops, etc. One of these 
posters states that an "eight-hour day" for train employees 
lis favored by the governors of 10 states, as follows: Wood- 
bridge N. Ferris, of Michigan; Frank M. Byrne, of South 
Dakota; William C. McDonald, of New Mexico; M. Alex- 
jander, of Idaho; James E. Ferguson, of Texas; Frank B. 
Willis, of Ohio; Samuel V. Stewart, of Montana; Locke 

Craig, of North Carolina; George W. P. Hunt, of Arizona; 
G. W. Clarke, of Iowa. 

They have also furnished slides containing arguments for 
an "eight-hour day" to a large number of moving picture 
houses throughout the country. 


By W. L. Stoddard | 

Washington, July II, 

This week marks the last date for the filing of briefs on 
the tentative draft of rules prepared by the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission for the enforcement of section 10 of the 
Clayton Anti-Trust act. This law requires that in specified 
cases purchases of railroad supplies shall be made and deal- 
ings shall be had "with the bidder whose bid is the most 
favorable to such common carrier, to be ascertained by com- 
petitive bidding under regulations to be prescribed by rule 
or otherwise by the Interstate Commerce Commission." The 
section under discussion goes into operation October 15, and 
representatives of railroads and of railroad supply manu- 
facturers appeared before the commission last month to 
present their views. 

The act provides that common carriers shall make or have 
no contracts for construction or maintenance at any time 
to the amount of more than $50,000 a year with any firm 
when the carrier has upon its board of directors or as an 
agent any person who is at the same time an officer of the 
company from which supplies are bought, or who has "any 
substantial interest" in such a company. Within thirty 
days after making any purchase every common carrier must 
file a statement with the Interstate Commerce Commission 
setting forth fully the transaction, naming the bidders; and 
must describe the manner of the competitive bidding. The 
commission is empowered to investigate such transactions, 
and when it has reason to believe that the law has been vio- 
lated, it must turn over its papers and findings to the attor- 
ney general. Besides providing heavy fines for violations of 
this law, the statute prescribes that bids shall be advertised 
in newspapers and trade papers setting forth in detail the 
conditions of the purchase. 

Among those who appeared at the hearings before the 
Commission were J. Kruttschnitt, Alfred P. Thorn, Henn 
B. Spencer, W. A. Worthington, George A. Post, and other 
representatives of corporations and railroads involved. Mr. 
Thorn presented an elaborate analysis of the proposed rules. 

Mr. Thorn urged the commission first to define the field in 
which the proposed regulations should operate. Dealings 
between a company and its subsidiaries ought not to be con- 
sidered as coming within the law. He argued that section 80 
of the Clayton law did not prohibit interlocking directorates 
in common carriers, and therefore section 10, to be consistent 
with section 80, must have the same purpose. He read a 
letter from the treasurer of the Pennsylvania Railroad who 
said, in part, "Under the Clayton act it would appear that we 
would have to restrict transactions to less than $50,000 per 
annum; any amount over $50,000 must be subject to com- 
petitive bidding. This would require us to offer outside 
bidders opportunity to purchase stock in subsidiaries where 
we now own entire capital stock, and thereby work a great 
hardship upon us." 

Such corporations, declared Mr. Thorn, referring to the 
supply companies owned by the railroads, are merely, "the 
alter ego of the same corporation. It seems to me that there 
is not a purchaser, on the one hand, actuated by an unfair or 
dishonest interest toward the seller, on the other; because, in 
effect, the purchaser is buying from itself." 

The speaker also asked the Commission to define the 
phrase, "substantial interest" and to make clear the meaning 
of the word "the most favorable bid" so that in case a bid 
not the lowest were accepted, the carrier would not be 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

prosecuted. The question of advertising specifications was 
discussed ,at leng^i; also the question of emergency purchase 
by permission of the commission, and the delays arising from 
the necessity of publishing detailed specifications. 

Representing the railway business association, George A. 
Post summed up the situation when he said, after endorsing 
the principle of the bill, that "All that I would ask of the 
commission is that it shall carefully abstain from any inter- 
ference with the orderly course of business or put unneces- 
sary burdens upon those who are called upon to bid under 
the circumstances of the interlocking status. . . . All that the 
rules should require would be that after the bids are in, the 
railroad officer whose function it is, upon a review of the 
case, to decide which is the most favorable bid, all things 
considered, should award the contract." Some such pro- 
cedure, Mr. Post declared, would assure the integrity of the 
buyer and would do away with the "shoestring buyer," a class 
denounced by Mr. Thorn as "the harpies which will seek to 
fasten their fangs upon the railroads," so that "honest roads 
and honest business men will hereafter be confronted, by vir- 
tue of this system," with a horde of competitors whose activ- 
ity would force up the price of railroad supplies. 


In 1914 the Baldwin Locomotive Works built for the Erie 
Railroad a Triplex articulated compound locomotive,* de- 
signed in accordance with patents granted to George R. 
Henderson. This locomotive attracted wide attention because 
of the novelty of its design and its great hauling capacity. 
It develops a tractive force, working compound, of 160,000 
lb., and in this respect is still unsurpassed, as far as is known, 
by any other steam locomotive. 

This locomotive has been used in pushing service on the 

grate area being 121.5 sq. ft. This is probably the largest 
grate ever used in a locomotive. The grate bars are divided 
by longitudinal bearers into three groups, and each group is 
arranged to rock in two sections. The grates are shaken by 
power, two operating cylinders being placed low down on the 
back head. These rotate a transverse steel shaft of 2 34 in. 
square section on which are mounted suitable arms having 
square fits and therefore rotating with it. The grate-shaking 
levers are mounted on bushings which are slipped over the 
shaft. They may be latched to the fixed levers so that the 
different sections of the grate may be rocked independently 
as desired. There are two drop-plates, located right and left 
in the back of the firebox, and they can also be operated by 
the power shakers. 

The firebox is built with a combustion chamber 54 in. 
long which extends forward into the boiler barrel. All seams 
in the firebox and crmbustion chamber are welded, as are 
also the seams in the two fire-door openings; and the inside 
and outside shells are welded to the mud-ring at the corners. 
The arch tubes extend from the bottom of the combustion 
chamber to the back sheet of the firebox. A vertical wall is 
built across the throat of the combustion chamber, and the 
foot of the arch abuts against the top of this wall. 

As the firebox is located above three pairs of driving 
wheels, the space available for the ash-pan is necessarily 
limited. A large pan of the Talmage type, however, has been 
applied. This pan has four hoppers, and provides an air 
opening amounting to 16.6 per cent of the grate area. 

The machinery, running gear, cylinders and steam piping 
of these locomotives are practically duplicates of those used 
on the first engine. The rear truck has been moved back one 
foot, thus lengthening the total wheel base from 90 ft. to 91 
ft. ; and the capacity of the tank has been increased from 
10,000 to 11,600 gallons. The feed water heater under the 
tank is retained, and the water drawn from the heater is 
forced into the boiler by a centrifugal pump which is placed 


^-Br~+r f ft^A. 

r — i- ■ 

«S « « P ] 3016 g 


■ dm • 

A4m^4p^^^^a^=:^K ^^^k t^^^^* 

* — — — 

Erie Triplex Locomotive 

Susquehanna Hill, where the grade is 1.5 per cent, and where 
three helper locomotives were formerly required in handling 
a. full tonnage train. The results obtained have been so sat- 
isfactory that two additional locomotives of the same haul- 
ing capacity as the first one have recently been completed. 
In general design these locomotives closely follow their prede 
cessor, and the majority of the machinery and struc- 
tural details are interchangeable in all of them. Based on 
experience with the first engine, a number of changes have 
been made, but these in no way affect the general principles 
on which the locomotive is designed and operated. 

Experience with the firsl engine indicated the desirability 
■of securing additional grate area. Accordingly in the new 
locomotives, the Gaines bridge wall is omitted, and the 

grates extend the full length of the furnace, 13 ft. 6 in., the 

»Foi ' di ii i iption pjf thi lo e Maj 8, 19,14, I sue oi thi Rail 

way /' 1021 

under the running board on the right hand side. The pump 
and injector checks are placed well forward on the top cen- 
ter line of the boiler. The front sand boxes are placed right 
and left on top of the boiler, instead of in the forward cyl- 
inder saddle as in the previous design. 

This type of locomotive has proved its efficiency for heavj 
pushing service. As far as its machinery, articulated frame 
connections and steam piping are concerned, the details are 
so similar to those of Mallet locomotives that any organiza- 
tion trained to handle Mallets should have no difficulty in 
caring for the Triplex locomotive. On the Susquehanna Hill 
grade conditions and tonnage rating are particularly favor 
able to the use of these locomotives, the three pushers for 
merly required per train being replaced by one Triplex. 

Where similar conditions prevail On other lines, the Triplex 

locomotive is worth) of consideration as a means of reduc 
ing the expense of heavy grade operation. 

July 14, 1916 



The principal dimensions and data are as follows: 

General Data 

Gage 4 ft. 8J4 in. 

Service Pusher 

Fuel Bituminous Coal 

Tractive effort 160,000 lb. 

Weight on drivers 766,300 lb. 

Weight on leading truck 32,050 lb. 

Weight on trailing truck 62,000 lb. 

Weight of engine and tender in working order 860,350 lb. 

Wheel base, driving 71 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, rigid 16 ft. 6 in. 

Wheel base, total 91 ft. 


Weight on drivers — tractive effort 4.8 

Total weight -=- tractive effort 5.4 

Tractive effort X diam. drivers — equivalent heating surface* 1,092.5 

Equivalent heating surface* -j- grate area 75.9 

Firebox heating surface ~ equivalent heating surface,* per cent 4.7 

Weight on drivers -:- equivalent heating surface* 83.1 

Total weight -j- equivalent heating surface* 93.2 

Volume equivalent simple cylinders 51.32 cu. ft. 

Equivalent heating surface* -r vol. equiv. simple cylinders 179.8 

Grate area -r- vol. equiv. simple cylinders 2.4 


Kind Compound 

Diameter and stroke (2 H. F. and 4 L P.) 36 in. by 32 in. 




Diameter 16 in. 

Type of valve gear Baker 


Driving, diameter over tires 63 in. 

Driving, thickness of tires 3 1 / 2 in. 

Driving journals, main, diameter and length 11 in. by 13 1/16 in. 

Driving journals, others, diameter and length 11 in. by 13 1/16 in. 

Engine truck wheels, diameter 33 in. 

Engine truck, journals 6 in. by 12 in. 

Trailing truck wheels, diameter 42 in. 

Trailing truck, journals '. 9 in. by 12 in. 


Style Conical 

Working pressure 210 lb. per sq. in. 

Outside diameter of first ring 94 in. 

Firebox, length and width 162 in. by 108 in. 

Firebox, plates, thickness tube, fjs in. ; others, Y% in. 

Firebox, water space front, 6 in. ; back and side, 5 in. 

Tubes, number and outside diameter 326 — 2 54 in. 

iFlues, number and outside diameter 53 — 5'/i in. 






Tubes and flues, length 24 

Heating surface, tubes and' flues 6,418 sq. 

Heating surface, firebox! 433 sq. 

Heating surface, total 6,851 sq. 

Superheater, heating surface 1,584 sq. 

Equivalent heating surface* 9,227 sq. ft. 


*Equivalent heating surface — total evaporative heating surface + 1.5 
times the superheating surface. 

tlncludes 1C8 sq. ft. combustion chambers, and 74 sq. ft. arch tube heating 


The Railway Commission of Canada on July 6 issued its 
decision on the application of the railways in eastern Canada 
| for general increases in freight rates, allowing advances in 
jthe class rates of from 1 to 6 cents per 100 pounds and a 
(large number of increases in commodity rates. The advances 
allowed are in many cases less than those proposed by the 
; railways. The advances are approved on the ground that 
'they are necessitated by increases in operating expenses, in- 
iduding wages, and in the cost of fuel and supplies. The 
icommission has issued an official summary of the decision. 
Regarding the reasons for an increase it says: 

"Operating expenses have increased generally. While 
'from 1899 to 1914 train mile earnings increased 89 per cent, 
'the cost of service per train mile increased 112 per cent, not- 
withstanding economies attributable to increased locomotive 
power, lower grades, better loading and increased traffic. In 
!the period 1910 to 1914 earnings increased 10.6 per cent; 
expenses, 17.7 per cent. In 1915 earnings increased 5.3 per 
cent; expenses, 12.4 per cent. 

"Railway ties cost 38 per cent more in 1914 than in 1907; 
in 1915 they were 45 per cent higher. 

"The cost of fuel to operate 100 miles was 30 per cent 
higher in 1914 and 1915 than in 1907. The average cost 

of fuel increased 21.8 per cent in the period 1909 to 191.4. 
"Salaries and wages represent three-fifths of the total rail- 
way expenses. This item has increased rapidly. The wage 
bill of the Grand Trunk alone increased in the period 1909 
to 1914 by 52 per cent, and for 1915 the increase was 50 
per cent. 

"The increase in labor cost is mainly due to increases in 
wages, as there have been economies in the number of men 
employed per 100 miles of track. Decreases in wages are 
not a feasible means of economizing. The wages on the 
Grand Trunk have increased by 4.3 per cent since the 

"The Canadian Pacific divisions in eastern Canada are 
the Atlantic, Eastern, Ontario and Lake Superior. The 
Atlantic division is operated at a loss. There is but little 
local traffic on the Lake Superior division. The Canadian 
Pacific and the Grand Trunk are both engaged in business 
in the Eastern and Ontario divisions, and here the freight 
business of the Canadian Pacific gives only 20 per cent of 
its total freight revenue, and represents only three-fifths of 
the business done by the Grand Trunk. 

"The Grand Trunk was built to meet the needs of eastern 
Canada. It runs into all the large producing centers ; it has 
a well established and well worked up business. In eastern 
Canada it does the largest business and obtains the greatest 
earnings. It is fair to accept for primary consideration the 
actual results of the Grand Trunk's earnings as a basis of 
rates. The rates cannot be based on the total capital cost 
of the Grand Trunk as carried on the company's books, 
which would represent a cost of $131,000 per mile.' 

The new lines of the Canadian Pacific from Glentay to' 
Agincourt and from Toronto Sudbury, cost respectively $71,- 
000 and $56,000 per mile. This includes nothing for ter- 
minals. The Intercolonial cost, including equipment and . 
terminals, $75,000 per mile. 

"The Hydro-Electric Company has recently made an esti- 
mate that 138 miles between Toronto arid London would cost 
$100,000 per mile, including terminals and equipment. 

"The net earnings per mile of line of the Grand Trunk, 
at their highest in 1913 amounted to $3,500 per mile. In 
1914 they were $3,059 and in 1915 $2,477. 

"The financial relations of the Grand Trunk to the Grand 
Trunk Pacific, as well as to its United States lines, are: 
analyzed, and it is ruled that outside investments cannot be 
considered as bearing on the reasonableness of freight rates. 

"Economical financing of the Grand Trunk has been ren- 
dered extremely difficult, if not impossible. Appropriations,, 
of all kinds have been cut and repairs have been postponed... 
On December 31, 1915, over 4,000 cars were held for repairs, 
notwithstanding the lighter traffic of the year. 

"In order to keep the equipment in proper shape, it will be 
necessary to obtain 1,249 new freight cars at an expenditure 
of $2,238,000. Normal track renewals would require 431 
miles; for the period 1913 to 1915, inclusive, the track re- 
newals were only 45 per cent of this standard; and for the 
year 1915 the renewals fell to 67 miles. The renewal work 
on bridges and culverts during the year 1915 is $20,000 he- 
low the average yearly expenditure of the period of 1906 
to 1915. 

"The economies so made cannot continue indefinitely with-, 
out great loss and inconvenience to the public. 

"In the Western rate case, the government expert computed 
that six per cent should be allowed so as to provide four per 
cent for interest charges and two per cent for surplus. 

"Money is now more expensive. Taking the cost of the 
Glen Tay-Agincourt line and adding $10,000 per mile for 
equipment, the net earnings would have to be $4,800. If the 
Toronto-Sudbury line is taken as a basis, net earnings per 
mile would have to be $4,001 ; while if the Intercolonial is 
taken they would have to be $4,500. 

"Aside entirely from the terminal expenses, the Grand 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

Trunk net earnings in the best year are far short of these 

"The western rates case points out the difference in condi- 
tions between eastern and western Canada and, notwithstand- 
ing material reductions, the general schedule in the west is 
higher. The Railway Act requires and the general public 
interest of the country demands that if practicable eastern 
rates should be advanced so that the different schedules may 
more nearly approach a parity. 

"The effect of new competing lines, the Canadian Northern, 
recently constructed, is not considered in striking a reasonable 
basis. The increases made are justifiable entirely on the 
mere fact of the increases in Grand Trunk expenses, and hav- 
ing regard to traffic of normal years." 

The increases in rates allowed are described as follows : 

"Besides the class tariffs of general application, the appli- 
cation of the railway companies comprises over ISO excep- 
tional or special single rates and more or less comparative 
schedules of exceptional rates, lower than the class rates, ap- 
plicable to various commodities. 

"To quote the judgment — 'No fiat increase of 5, 10 or other 
percentage could be applied simply to augment railway 
revenue. Each rate of notice has to be considered having re- 
gard to its reasonableness for the service performed.' 

"As each of these items has thus been separately dealt with 
on its merits it is impossible within the limits of a press notice 
to give any clear synopsis of the board's conclusions. The 
application with respect to some of the commodity items has 
been declined and in numerous instances less has been granted 
than asked for by the railway companies. 

"The findings regarding the class tariffs may, however, 
briefly be summarized. In the territory bounded on the west 
by, but not including, Port Arthur, and by the Georgian Bay, 
Lake Huron and Detroit river, and on the east by Quebec 
and Megantic, also between C. P. R. stations in New Bruns- 
wick, the class rates, provided they are now lower than the 
standard or maximum mileage tariff, may be increased by 
two cents in the first and one cent in the fifth classes, the 
rates for the other classes to be properly proportioned in 
accordance with the standardized scale. An exception is 
made of the lines of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian 
Northern between Parry Sound and Sudbury, otherwise no 
increases are allowed. 

"Because of the comparatively lower level of the rates to 
the Maritime Provinces great increases are permitted. Be- 
tween points in the provinces of New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia and points west of Quebec, Levis and Megantic as 
far as Montreal and Valleyfield and north of the Ottawa 
river the first class will be advanced four cents and the fifth 
class two cents. The other classes in proportion. 

"Between the same maritime sections and points west of 
Montreal the carriers are authorized to increase their rates by 
six cents for the first class and three cents for the fifth, the 
remaining rates fitting in from the standardized scale. 

"Here, again, an exception is made of the line of the 
C. P. R. in the St. John River Valley, where the rates, instead 
of being advanced, will be lowered by the company so as 
not to exceed the St. John rates, this relief being due to the 
opening of the National Transcontinental south of Edmund- 
ston, N. B. 

"As the government railways are not subject to the juris- 
diction of the board, the Intercolonial and National Trans- 
continental management is, of course, free to fix its own rates. 
Nevertheless, the judgment provides that the through rates 
of the Grand Trunk, Canadian Pacific and other independent 
companies in Quebec and Ontario, to Intercolonial points 
east of St. John, to Halifax and Sydney are to preserve the 
same differences, if any, over the St. John rates as at 

Commodity rates have been increased on iron and steel 
articles by one-half cent per 100 pounds on all rates not over 

IS cents per 100 pounds, one cent on rates between 15 and 
25 cents, and \ l /z cents on rates over 25 cents. Pig iron, 
billets, wire rods, rails and crop ends bear a rate increase of 
about five per cent. Cement increases one-half cent per 
hundred pounds on all rates under 15 cents, and one cent 
on all rates over 1 5 cents. On crushed stone, sand and gravel 
there is a general increase of about five cents per ton. On 
lumber there is one-half cent of an advance on all rates under 
15 cents and one cent on all rates over 15 cents for distances 
over 60 miles, with an exception covering districts affected 
by the Ottawa rate. 

On paper there is an advance of one to two cents on less 
than carload movements. On carload shipments the. com- 
modity rates advance- three-fifths of a cent to districts west 
of Quebec, Levis and Megantic, and three cents per 100 
pounds to districts in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and 
Quebec east of Levis. 

Hay reverts from the commodity to the tariff rates. In- 
creases on the rates oil cattle, sheep and hogs are approxi- 
mately one cent for distances from 31 to 40 miles, 1^2 cents 
for 46 to 50 miles, and two cents for distances over 50 

There is a 10 per cent increase in coal rates, with a maxi- 
mum of 10 cents per ton, subject to certain exceptions, which 
reduce some rates. An advance of five and 10 cents per ton 
has been allowed on coke. 

Commodity rates have been abolished on leather so as to 
restore it to the fourth and fifth class rates. 

On canned goods there is a uniform increase of 1^4 cents 
to Quebec points and one to four cents to St. John. On cheese 
there is an advance of two cents per hundred pounds to 

The proposed increases on fruits are postponed until they 
can be considered along with proposed increases in icing and 
salt for refrigeration, which are now under suspension. 


Two devices for use on the dampers of ventilating ducts 
have recently received extensive introduction. One is a 
damper quadrant with which a damper may be secured in 
any position. It consists entirely of malleable iron parts. 
The axle of the damper is attached to a short lever which 
rotates in contact with a frame containing a quadrant slot 
which is secured to the side of the duct. A wing nut in the 
end of the lever makes it possible to lock the lever at any 

The Damper Quadrant and Damper Clip 

point in the length of the quadrant slot, thus insuring a fixed 
position for the damper. 

In the case of dampers which require frequent adjust- 
ment where a positive lock would be a source of incon- 
venience, a damper clip has been provided known as the 
"Sure Lock Clip." This is provided with one or two 
handles to which chains may be attached for hand operation 
and has a special adjustment in the barrel whereby the 

July 14, 1916 



damper is securely held in any position in which it is set. 
Ventilating ducts and other sheet metal work require ac- 
cessories especially adapted to the purpose; thus a special 
form of screw has been designed to cover the special re- 
quirements. The threads of these screws extend the entire 
length so that the metal may be drawn up flush with the 
head. The edges of the threads are sharp, causing them to 
cut into the metal in the manner of a tap. Another feature 
is that the screw, is tapered only at the point, the sides of the 
screw being parallel for the larger portion of the length. 
These accessories are manufactured by the Parker Supply 
Company, New York. 


The Interstate Commerce Commission has issued Accident 
Bulletin No. 57 containing the record of railway accidents in 
the United States during July, August, and September, 1915. 
The number of persons killed in train accidents was 127 and 
of injured 1,837. The total number of casualities of all 
classes reported was 46,049; or 2,531 killed and 43.518 
injured. With this bulletin the commission begins its new 
classification of casualties, announced last year. In the prin- 
cipal totals there is no important change. The injuries to 
trainmen, fatal and non-fatal, are divided, in table IB, into 
14 classes. A new class, "non-train accidents," includes the 
cases formerly classed as "industrial." The condensed sum- 
mary, Table 1, is as follows: . 

Table No. 1 — Casualties to Persons — Steam Railways 

Passengers Employees Other persons 

and persons (including (trespassers 

carried employees and non- Total 

under contract not on duty) trespassers) persons 

-~\ r~ 

Table No. 2 — Collisions and Deiailmi 

Class Killed Inj'd Killed Inj'd Killed Inj'd Killed Inj'd 
Train accidents. 

Collisions 9 514 31 314 4 13 44 841 

Derailments 13 481 40 324 21 36 74 841 

Miscellaneous, includ- 
ing boiler explosions .. 11 8 139 1 5 9 155 


Train-service accidents 



79 777 26 54 127 1,837 

434 8,589 1,812 2,915 2,286 12,935 

Total 62 2.437 513 9,366 1,838 2,969 2,413 14,772 

Nontrain accidents 

100 28,337 


118 28,746 

Grand total 62 2.437 613 37.703 1,856 3,378 2,531 43.518 

Table No. 1A presents figures of the current bulletin, 
the bulletin next preceding, "and that covering the corre- 
sponding quarter of the previous fiscal year, as follows : 

Table No. 1a — Condensed Summary of Fatalities 

Bulletin Bulletin 

No. 57 No. 56 
(July, (Apr., 
Aug., May, 

andSept., and June, 

No. Item 1915) 

1 — Passengers killed in train accidents 22 

2 — Passengers killed, all causes 62 

3 — Employees on duty killed in train accidents.. 78 

4 — Employees on duty killed in coupling 30 

5 — Employees on duty killed, total 438 

6 — Total passengers and employees (items 2 and 

5, above) 500 

7 — Other persons killed, incl. tresp., nontre-p., 

and employees not on duty, all causes 1,936 

8 — Employees killed in industrial accidents 95 

.. 2,531 










No. 53 


and Sept. 


2 7 



2,058 2.748 

Grand total (items 6. 7, and 8) . . . 

The non-train accidents — mostly accidents to employees 
at work (not on or around trains) — are divided, Table 1BA, 
into 13 classes of accidents and 5 classes of employees; but 
the number of hours worked, and the "man-hours,'' reported 
by the roads, do not appear in the bulletin. The total num- 
ber of collisions and derailments reported was 2,853 (974 
collisions and 1,879 derailments). These are classified as 




Broken train 


Number of 

persons— Damage to 

i A \ road and 

Number Killed Inj'd equipment 


















44 841 $587,800 

Derailments due to: 

Defects of roadway 

Defects of equipment 

Negligence of trainmen, signalmen, etc. 
Unforeseen obstructions of track, etc.. 
Malicious obstruction of track, etc.... 
Miscellaneous causes 

























T°t al 1,879 

74 841 $1,672,800 

Total collisions and derailments 2,853 118 1,682 $2,260,600 

Total for same quarter of — 

!9H 3,085 

!913 3.913 

1912 3,935 

172 2,329 $2,342,511 
208 3,760 3,239,159 
276 4,100 3,366,401 

The bulletin gives the usual tables classifying certain kinds 
of accidents in detail, all shown (for employees) under the 
14 heads above mentioned. 

Twenty-one accidents occurring during this quarter were 
investigated by the inspectors of the commission and the 
reports of these investigations fill 40 pages of the bulletin. 
The accidents occurred as follows: 

Spokane & Inland Empire and Idaho & Wash. 

No. — McGuires, Idaho July 

Chic, Mil. & St. Paul— Rainier, Wash 

Denver, Boulder & West.— Salina, Colo 

Minneapolis & St. Louis — Haydenville, Minn.. 

Norfolk & Western — Roanoke, Va 

Chic, Rock Island & Pac— Mickles. Ark 

Missouri, Kan. & Tex. — Lockhart, Tex 

Chic, Rock Island & Pac— Waveland, Ark.. 

N. Y., N. H. & H.— Atlantic, Mass 

Norfolk & Western — Swords Creek, Va 

Pitts., Cinn., Chic. & St. L. -Cumberland, Ind. . 

Bait. & Ohio So. West.— Orient, Ohio 

Ches. & Ohio — Altman, W. Va 

Southern Pacific — Riverdale, Ore 

Colorado Midland — Idlewild, Colo 

Norfolk & Western— Welch, W. Va 

Missouri, Kan. & Tex. — Smithville, Tex.... 

Denver & Rio Grande — Deen, Colo 

Memphis, Dallas & Gulf— Bingen, Ark 

Kansas City, Mex. & Orient — Mertzon, Tex.. 
Missouri Pacific — Plattsmouth, Nebr 

1 Side collision 

3 Derailment 
5 Derailment 

7 Derailment 
22 Butting collision 

29 Rear collision 

30 Derailment 
ug. 1 Butting collision 

4 Side collision 

5 Derailment 
9 Derailment 

12 Rear collision 

17 Derailment 

20 Butting collision 

27 Butting collision 

28 Butting collision 
Sept. 1 Butting collision 

8 Butting collision 

9 Butting collision 
9 Derailment 

24 Butting collision 

Electric Railways reporting to the commission (not includ- 
ed in the foregoing statistics) had 150 persons killed during 
the quarter and 1,303 injured; and there were 30 collisions 
and 18 derailments. Train accidents are charged with 5 
fatalities. The total number of passengers killed from all 
causes was 9; and of employees 14 (5 non -train accident-). 
The number of trespassers struck or run over by cars was 63 ; 
46 killed and 17 injured. 

The Automobile Industry.— During the year, 1914 to 
June, 1915, about 600,000 automobiles were built in the 
United States, as compared with 445,000 during the preced- 
ing year. It is believed that the total production for 1916 
will be about 900,000. 

The Murman Railway of Russia. — More than 15,000 
men are working on the Murman Railway, which will be 
completed in August or September. The terminus of the Mur- 
man Railway is as ice-free port on the Arctic Ocean, 700 
miles north of Petrograd. 

Discharged Prussian Soldiers as Ticket Collectors. 

— It is stated that in future as many armless and one-armed 
men discharged from the army as possible will be employed 
on the Prussian State railways as ticket collectors. A ticket- 
punching apparatus worked by the feet has been adopted. 

General News Department I 


A fire at the shops of the Seaboard Air Line, at Portsmouth, 
Va., July 6, destroyed the coach shed and ten passenger cars; 
estimated loss, $100,000. 

The Southern Pacific has announced an increase of wages of 
25 cents a day for all section laborers, except Mexicans and 
Chinese, employed on its lines in California, Nevada, New Mex- 
ico and Arizona. 

The United States Civil Service Commission announces exam- 
inations August 28 and 29 for the positions of inspector of 
safety appliances and inspector of hours of service under the 
Interstate Commerce Commission; salary, $1,800 a year. Appli- 
cants must be between 25 and 50 years of age. Persons who 
desire to take the examinations should apply to a civil service 
board for form 1933. 

Herbert Deeming, for 13 years secretary of the Chicago 
General Managers' Association and the Association of Western 
Railways, has become associated with D. C. Buell in the man- 
agement of the Railway Education Bureau at Omaha, Neb. 
His headquarters will be in Chicago temporarily, but later at 
Omaha. Mr. Deeming was formerly chief clerk to the president 
and general manager of the Chicago & Western Indiana railroad 
and the Belt P.ailway of Chicago. 

The employees of the Pullman Car Works, Pullman, 111., have 
organized a baseball league to consist of 10 competing teams. 
J. S. Runnells, president of the Pullman Company, has offered 
a permanent cup for the winning team and a set of medals for the 
individual members. The company will furnish uniforms and all 
necessary incidental equipment. LeRoy Kramer, vice-president 
of the Pullman Company, has been made honorary president of 
the league ; R. Thompson is president, C. Swingle, vice-president ; 
E. A. Backlin, secretary-treasurer. 

The board of directors of the Pennsylvania Railroad at its 
meeting on June 12 authorized an appropriation not to exceed 
$100,000, to be expended under the direction of the proper execu- 
tive officers for the relief of the families and dependents of em- 
ployees who have been enlisted in the army or navy of the 
United States through membership in the national guard or 
otherwise, and who have been called into active service. Each 
case vvill be dealt with on its own merits, so that the relief will 
in every case be directed into channels where there is an estab- 
lished necessity for its application. 

Anderson Pace, manager of the Bureau of Railway Publicity 
of Illinois, has sent out a circular and also has published an 
advertisement in Chicago newspapers announcing the organi- 
zation of the bureau by the railway companies operating within 
the state of Illinois, for the purpose of promoting "a better 
acquaintance between the public and the railways of Illinois, 
a better understanding by the railways of what the public wants 
and thinks, a better understanding by the public of railway 
needs and problems, and increased co-operation between the 
railways and those whom they serve." 

Violent Storm in the Gulf States 

Railroads throughout large sections of the states of Florida, 
Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama sustained great damage from 
a tropical hurricane moving inland from the Gulf of Mexico on 
July 5. After striking the vicinity of Pensacola, Fla., and Mobile, 
Ala, it moved through southern Mississippi as a violent rainstorm 
which caused washouts all through that section and much 
carnage to bridges. At Bond, Miss., on the Gulf & Ship Island, 
an engineman and a fireman were killed in a derailment 
caused by a washout. Near Pensacola, a Louisville & Nashville 
bridge, three miles long, over the Escambia Bay, was washed 
out, necessitating a long detour for eastern traffic. Several 
days elapsed before conditions were generally restored to any- 
thing approaching normal. 

Georgia's State Railroad 

In accordance with recommendations contained in the report 
of the Western & Atlantic releasing commission of the state of 
Georgia, a bill has been introduced into the legislature, which is 
now in session, amending the releasing act by providing that 
the next lessee, with the written consent of the governor, may 
sublet trackage rights. This was previously prohibited. Another 
bill would give the commission complete authority to handle 
all matters pertaining to encroachments on the right of way. 
The commission, in its report, states that it is investigating the 
ownership of property by the state at St. Mary's, in connec- 
tion with the proposed construction of deep-water terminals 
at that port. The commission has not yet reached any con- 
clusions as to the extension to the sea. The report contains 
an appreciation of the aid extended by John Howe Peyton, 
president, and Hunter McDonald, chief engineer of the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, present lessee. 

Slow Orders and Hand Signals* 

Inspectors spoke of the necessity of men being very careful 
when working at a bridge where there is a slow order, not to 
wave at engineer on passing trains and not to make any signal 
with the hands, as the engineer is liable to mistake it for a "high 
ball" and not slacken speed across the bridge. Cases were cited 
in the past where the engineer approaching with his train to 
where men were working waved with his hand at the foreman 
in charge, who returned the salute by waving his hand ; and the 
engineer thought, or pretended he thought, it was the go ahead 
signal, and did not slacken speed ; an accident resulted and the 
foreman received the blame. 

It was decided that if the engineer waves or signals to the 
foreman, and foreman feels that he must acknowledge the cour- 
tesy, then the best thing to do is to nod the head ; but in any 
case keep the hands down so that nothing can be construed as 
a signal to continue at regular speed. In case of an accident 
where slow orders have been disregarded, if the foreman has 
waved or signaled in any way to the engineer, then the engineer, 
can easily lay all blame on the foreman. 

American Shipbuilding During the Year Ended June 30, 1916 

The Bureau of Navigation, Department of Commerce, reports 
that 1,030 vessels of 347,847 gross tons were built in the United 
States and officially numbered during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1916, compared with 1,266 vessels of 215,711 gross tons 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915. The seaboard yards 
have built 35 large steel merchant steamers aggregating 191,859 
gross tons, the largest merchant steel output in their history. 
Of these, 21 steamers are each over 5,000 gross tons, the largest 
being the H. H. Rogers of 10,050 gross tons ; and 14 are between 
3,000 and 5,000 gross tons each. The Newport News Ship- 
building and Dry Dock Company built 6 of 40,329 gross, Mary- 
land Steel Company, Sparrows Point, Md., 8 of 35,665 gross, 
Union Iron Works, San Francisco, Cal., 5 of 32,665 gross, New 
York Shipbuilding Company, Camden, New Jersey, 7 of 32,164 
gross, and Fore River Shipbuilding Company, Quincy, Mass., 
4 of 24,932 gross. The Newport News, Camden and Quincy 
yards were also engaged in naval construction. Of these steel 
ocean steamers 24 of 138,858 gross tons have been registered 
for foreign trade, 8 of 34,386 gross tons enrolled for the coast- 
ing trade, one, of 6,034 gross tons, was sold to Norwegians and 
up to June 30 the two remaining had not been documented. Of 
the relatively small output of the Great Lakes, 8 vessels of 
14,775 gross tons are each under 2,500 tons, built for the ocean 
trade of which 4 are for foreign trade and one has been sold 
to Norwegians. 

! . i ii 1 1 ■ ■ Minutes of a Frisco Staff Meeting. 

July 14, 1916 


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Vol. 61, No. 2 

Transportation of the National Guard 

Following a meeting of the military committee of the jftssenger 
traffic officers ol the western railroads at Chicago on July 7. 
E. L. Bevington, chairman of the Transcontinental Passenger 
Association, gave out a statement as a reply to some of the 
newspaper criticisms regarding the transportation of the National 
( luard. I te said in part : 

"Some of the published criticisms of the railroads and of the 
government regarding the method of transporting the National 
Guard to the Mexican border fail to take into consideration the 
conditions under which the movement had to be handled. 

"The principal objection seems to be the fact that it was neces- 
sary to transport some of the troops for a part of the way in 
day coaches, instead of in sleeping cars. The regulations of 
the war department for this traffic do not provide for the use 
of standard sleeping cars, except for officers. 

"If all of the tourist sleeping cars in the United States could 
have been placed at the disposal of the war department and 
assembled at the mobilization camps at once it would have taken 
nearly six weeks to transport the entire 120,000 men to the bor- 
der, if they all required sleeping car equipment. 

"Cars were placed at the disposal of the government as rap- 
idly as possible, but it must be remembered that they were scat- 
tered all over the country and that it took time to move them. 
Neither the railroads nor the Pullman Company had any ad- 
vance notice of the emergency, although by prior arrangement 
with the war department routes had been arranged in advance 
for the movement of troops from every military post in the 
United States, so planned as to distribute the traffic among the 
railroads, to avoid congestion on any one line, to secure the 
most direct route and to enable cars and engines to be brought 
into service in the shortest possible time. 

"However, as compared with the experience during the Span- 
ish war in 1898, the movement has been handled with remarkable 
precision. Great credit is due to Col. Chauncey B. Baker, 
deputy quartermaster-general at Washington, for the foresight 
he displayed in co-operating with the railroads long in advance, 
in planning the routings and as many of the arrangements as 
could be planned in advance, without which provision delays 
and congestion must inevitably have occurred." 

Representative Charles Bennett Smith, of Buffalo, has offered 
a resolution in the National House of Representatives calling 
upon the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce to 
"conduct an inquiry for the purpose of determining the cause 
and fixing the responsibility for the failure of the railroads to 
provide adequate and proper accommodations to transport the 
National Guard of New York to the Mexican border," and ask- 
ing that "the committee recommend to Congress such remedies 
as may be deemed fit to prevent a recurrence of the conditions 
described, and a punishment of the person or persons responsible 
for them." 

The resolution says : "The railroad facilities provided for 
transporting the National Guard of the State of New York to 
the Mexican border are said to have been indescribably bad, 
three men being compelled in many instances to occupy one seat, 
and no sleeping accommodations of any kind having been fur- 
nished, except for the officers of the regiments. 

"Great suffering has resulted from the failure of the railroads 
to provide suitable and necessary equipment to meet the require- 
ments of the situation. 

"Sufficient time was given the railroads to provide an adequate 
number of cars, and to supply at least the ordinary comforts of 
travel to the members of the New York National Guard on their 
way to the border to protect American lives and property." 


The following list gives names of secretaries, date of next or regular 
meetings and places of meeting of those associations which will meet during 
the next three months. The full list of meetings and conventions is pub- 
lished only in the first issue of the Railway Age Gazette for each month. 

American Association of Railroad Superintendents. — E. H. Harman, 
Room 101, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. Annual meeting, August 
16-18, 1916, Memphis, Tenn. 

American Electric Railway Association. — E. B. Burritt, 8 W. 40th street, 
New York. Annual convention, October 9-13, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association. — H. G, Mc- 
Connaughy, 165 Broadway, New York. Annual convention, October 
9-13, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Il- 
linois Central, Chicago. Annual meeting, August 24-26, 1916, Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. 57th 
St., New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in month, 
except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. 
Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels. George W. Lyn- 
don, 1214 McCormiclic Bldg., Chicago. Annual convention, October 
10, 1916, Waldorf-Astoria, New York. 
Canadian Railway Clue. — James Powell, Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings. 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. — Clement H. McLeod, 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October, 
November, December, February, March and April. Annual meeting, 
January, Montreal. 
Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave., 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago. 
Central Railway Club. — H. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual meeting, 2d Thursday in March, Hotel Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Cincinnati Railway Club. — H. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cin'ti 
Rys., 101 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday, 
February, May, September and November, Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati. 
Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Hiles, 2511 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesday, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — A. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular meetings, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month. Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 
International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, C. H. & D., Lima, Ohio. Next meeting, August 15-17, 1916, 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 
International Railway General Foremen's Association. — -Wm. Hall, 1126 
W. Broadway, Winona, Minn. Annual meeting, August 29 to Sep- 
tember 1, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 
Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association of the United States 
and Canada. — A. P. Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Next annual 
meeting, September 12-14, 1916, "The Breakers," Atlantic City, N.J. 
New England Railroad Club.— W. E. Cade, Jr., 683 Atlantic Ave.,. Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meeting, 2d Tuesday in month, except June, July, 
August and September, Boston. 
New York Railroad Club. — -Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 
Regular meeting 3d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 
' 29 W. 39th St., New York. 
Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. N. Frankenberger, 623 Bris- 
bane Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings, 3d Wednesday in month, New 
York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Peoria Association of Railroad Officers. — M. W. Rotchford, 410 Masonic 
Temple Bldg., Peoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 
Jefferson Hotel, Peoria. 
Railroad Club of Kansas City. — Claude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 

City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas City. 
Railway Club of Pittsburgh. — J. B. Anderson, Room 207, P. R. R. Sta., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 4th Friday in month, except June, 
July and August, Monongahela House, Pittsburgh. 
Railway Fire Protection Association. — Frank C. Irvine, 1125 Pennsyl- 
vania Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. Annual meeting, October 10, 1916, 
Railway Signal Association. — C. C. Rosenberg, Myers Bldg., Bethlehem, 
Pa. Next annual convention, September 12-14, 1916, Grand Hotel, 
Mackinac Island, Mich. 
Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O., Richmond, Va. 
Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 
Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Association. — L. C. Ryan, C. & 
N. W., Sterling, 111. Next annual convention, September 19-22, 1916, 
New York. 
St. Louis Railway Clue. — B. W. Frauenthal, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. 
Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 
St. Louis. 
Salt Lake Transportation Club.— R. E. Rowland, David Keith Bldg., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 1st Saturday of each month, 
Salt Lake City. 
Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmunds, 3868 Park Ave., New 
York. Meetings with annual convention Railway Signal Association. 
Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grand Bldg., 
Atlanta, Ga. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday, January, March, May, 
July, September, November, 10 A. M., Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 
Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo, Ohio. Regular 

meetings, 1st Saturday in month, Boody House, Toledo. 
Traffic Club of Chicago. — W. H. Wharton, La Salle Hotel, Chicago. 
Traffic Club of Newark. — Roy S. Bushy, Firemen's Bldg., Newark, N. J. 
Regular meetings, 1st Monday, in month, except July and August, 
The Washington, 559 Broad St., Newark. 
Traffic Club of New York. — C. A. Swope, 291 Broadway, New York. Reg- 
ular meetings, last Tuesday in month, except June, July and August. 
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. 
Traffic Club of Pittsburgh. — D. L. Wells, Gen'l Agent, Erie R. R., 1924 

Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings, bi-monthly, Pittsburgh. 
Traffic Club of St. Louis. — W. S. Crilly, 620 South 7th St., St. Louis, 
Mo. Annual meeting, December 5, 1916. Noonday meetings, Octo- 
ber to May. 
Transportation Club of Detroit. — W. R. Hurley, Superintendent's office, 
N. Y. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. Meetings monthly, Normandie Hotel, 
Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. R. R., 
Cleveland, Ohio. Next meeting, September 5-8, 1916, Hotel Sherman, 
Utah Society of Engineers. — Frank W. Moore. 1111 NewhmiM- Bldg., 
Salt Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, ex- 
cept July and August, Salt Lake City. 
Western Canada Railway Cluh. — L. Kon. Immigration Agent, Grand 
Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg, Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept June, July and August, Winnipeg. 
Western Railway Club. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago. 
Regular meetings, 3d Tuesday in month, except June, July and 
August, Grand Pacific Hotel, Chicago. 
Western Society of Engineers. — E. N. Layfield, 1735 Monadnock Block, 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 1st Monday in month, except January, 
July and August, Chicago. Extra meetings, except in Julv and 
August, generally on other Monday evenings. Annual meeting, 1st 
Wednesday after 1st Thursday in January, Chicago. 

July 14, 1916 




Traffic News 

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I Commission and Court News I 

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T. C. Tipton, hitherto freight agent of the Fort Smith & 
Western, at Atlanta, has been chosen traffic manager of the 
Jacksonville Traffic Bureau, Jacksonville, Fla., and will take up 
his duties July 15. The Jacksonville Traffic Bureau is an in- 
corporated concern, succeeding the traffic department of the 
Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce. Its president is John Ball. 

The American International Terminal Company has been or- 
ganized under the laws of Delaware, with a capital of $100,000, 
to study the problems of railway, steamship, and industrial termi- 
nals, apparently at New York City, with the purpose of pro- 
viding better facilities for the extension of export trade. This 
concern seems to be a combination of interests connected with 
the National City Bank, of New York, and Stone & Webster. 
W. H. Lyford, general counsel of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 
lias been retained as consulting expert by the new company. 

The New York, New Haven & Hartford had to extend its 
:emporary embargo on traffic moving via the Harlem river and 
Maybrook gateways to July 12, the congestion having continued 
to increase. The accumulation of freight was caused in part by 
he holiday interval ; by the New England troop movement to 
:he Mexican border, and the heavy summer and Independence 
Day travel. A large number of freight engines had to be used 
n passenger service, necessitating some curtailment in freight 
service. On June 3 there were 1,758 cars being held under 
lemurrage ; on July 1 this had decreased, through better as- 
sistance of consignees, io 994 cars. The company calls for the 
;ontinued co-operation of consignees and asks them not to order 
n excess of actual requirements. 

Ticket Frauds on the New York Central 

The Interstate Commerce Commission has suspended a para- 
graph in a tariff of the West Shore division of the New York 
rentral, giving notice that commutation tickets will not be sold 
o passengers who have misused such tickets ; and public hear- 
ngs have been held in New York City on the question of the 
easonableness of such a provision. The paragraph in question, 
vhich has been in force several months on other divisions of 
he New Y'ork Central, in connection with tariffs which name 
ntrastate rates only, is as follows : 

In consideration of the reduced rate at which monthly commutation tick- 
ts are sold, their limitations must be strictly observed, and no commutation 
icket will be 'old to any person who, having previously purchased such a 
icket, shall have used it, or permitted it to be used, in violation of the 
irovisions therein contained. 

)fficers of the road think that their traffic hag suffered many 
housands of dollars annually by the misuse of commutation 
ickets. Merchants and others buy tickets and sell coupons, to 
lersons not entitled to ride on them, at rates much below the 
ingle-ticket fares. For example, the monthly commutation rate 
rom Poughkeepsie to New York, 73 miles, is but 28 cents a 
rip, while the regular one-way fare is $1.58. and the single 
ound-trip fare is $2.80. leaving a margin of $1.30 on a single 
ide and $2.24 on a round-trip. 

It is said that some of these scalpers have made such large 
irofits that the lifting of a book by a conductor, when wrong- 
ully used, has not deterred them ; they have bought more books. 

Railway Extension in Argentina. — The Buenos Aires West- 
rn Railway was authorized by a decree of February 7, 1916, to 
mild a branch line extending westward for 100 miles from 
"olonia Alvear (Mendoza). 

New Locomotives for the South African Railway. — The 
South African Railway has recently received five large locomo- 
ives, built by the North British Locomotive Company, accord- 
rig to the designs and specifications of the railway's chief 
nechanical engineer. These engines, which are of the Mallet 
ompound type, are said to be the largest in the world to run 
n the 3-ft. 6-in. gage. It is probable that these locomotives will 
>e assigned to the Witbank Line, in the Transvaal, where the 
oal traffic is heavy. 


A complaint on behalf of Newark, Jersey City, Hoboken and 
Elizabeth has been filed with the commission asking: That rates 
to and from New Jersey cities on traffic shipped to or from 
trunk line territory and beyond, via the trunk line railn 
with terminals at Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken, 
be established lower than those charged by the same lines on 
traffic to and from New York and Brooklyn, to and from 
the same territory, to the extent of the difference of t! 
service. That reciprocal switching arrangements and reasonable 
joint rates be established for the interchange of freight between 
the railroads having their terminals at Jersey City, Hoboken and 
Weehawken at a reasonable distance from these terminals; that 
all freight originating at and delivered to the defendant' rail- 
roads at Jersey City, Hoboken or Weehawken be required to be 
given the same handling and dispatch as New York tonnage, 
and that all freight consigned to New Jersey towns be allowed 
the same period of free storage as New York and Brooklyn. 

Rates on Salt 

Swift & Co. v. Union Pacific et al.: 

A rate of 27 ] / 2 cents per 100 lb. on bulk salt in carloads from 
Kansas producing points to Fort Worth and North Fort Worth, 
Tex., is found unreasonable and maximum rates are prescribed 
for the future. (39 I. C. C, 665.) 

Livestock Switching at Nashville, Tenn. 

Nashville Abattoir, Hide & Melting Association et al. v. 
Louisville & Nashville et al. Opinion by Commissioner Clark: 

Defendant's refusal to deliver and receive carload shipments 
of live stock at complainant's private siding in Nashville, Tenn., 
found not to lie unreasonable or discriminatory. (40 ICC 

Lumber from Louisiana Points 

Opinion by Commissioner Meyer: 

A proposed cancellation of joint through rates on yellow- 
pine lumber from producing points on the Louisiana Western, 
the Lake Charles & Northern and Morgan's Louisiana & Texas 
to points on the Santa Fe system in Texas is found not justified 
(39 I. C. C, 688.) 

Grain to Arkansas Points 

Opinion by the Commission: 

A proposed cancellation of joint rates on grain in carloads 
from points in Kansas and Missouri on the St. Louis & San 
Francisco by way of Bridge Junction, Ark., to points in Arkan- 
sas on the Rock Island is found justified in part. Schedules 
under suspension are ordered cancelled, but without prejudice 
to respondents' right to file a new tariff conforming to the find- 
ings herein. (40 I. C. C, 4 ( >. > 

Lumber from Helen, Ga. 

Byrd-Matthews Lumber Company et al. v. Gainesville & 
Northwestern ei al. Opinion by Commissioner Clements: 

The present adjustment of rates on lumber to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and other Ohio river crossings from Helen, Ga., and 
from Murphy, \ T . C. and certain other points in North Caro- 
lina on the lines of the Southern Railway is found prejudicial 
to Helen, and a reasonable relationship is prescribed. (40 
I. C. C, 116.) 

Rates from New Orleans, La., to Tulsa, Okla. 

Opinion by Commissioner Hull: 

The commission finds that the class rates from New Orleans, 
La., to Tulsa, Okla., are not unreasonable. Rates on certain 
commodities from New Orleans, and Galveston. Tex., are also 
not found unreasonable hut a readjustment of rates to certain 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

Oklahoma points is suggested. Applications of defendants for 
relief from the long-and-short-haul provision of the fourth sec- 
lion with respect to lower class and commodity rates from New 
Orleans to Joplin and Neosho, Mo., than to Tulsa, Okla.. are 
granted. (40 I. C. C. 9.) 

Illinois Grain to Chicago 

In the matter of rates applicable oh grain from points in Illi- 
nois, via Chicago, to interstate destinations. Opinion by Com- 
missioner ( 'lark : 

The principal question involved in this controversy is whether 
the interstate or the intrastate rates should be charged to Chi- 
cago. 111., on grain originating at points in Illinois, billed to Chi- 
cago, and there stored in, or transferred through, elevators and 
ultimately moved therefrom on local rates to destinations be- 
yond the limits of the state. In nearly every instance the inter- 
state rate on grain from Illinois points to Chicago is higher than 
the intrastate rate. 

The commission finds as follows : 
: Grain originating in Illinois, shipped locally intrastate to Chi- 
cago, there sold, and subsequently shipped all rail, under local 
rates, or via lake, to interstate destinations, is subject to the 
local intrastate rates from points of origin to Chicago. 

Gram originating in Illinois, moving interstate to Chicago via 
the Elgin, Joliet & Eastern, unloaded into elevators at Chicago, 
and subsequently shipped via lake under independent water line 
rates or charges, is subject to the local interstate rates from 
points of origin to Chicago. (40 I. C. C, 124.) 

Hardwood Lumber Reshipped from Nashville 

Nashville Lumbermen's Club v. Louisville & Nashville et al. 
Opinion by Commissioner Harlan: 

The rates and regulations applying on hardwood lumber 
shipped to Nashville, Tenn., and subsequently reshipped to points 
north of the Potomac and Ohio, rivers are not found unreason- 
able or discriminatory. 

Discrimination was alleged because a lumber dealer at any 
of the Ohio river crossings may bring hardwood lumber from 
mills in Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida 
and Georgia into his lumber yards and there assort, grade, dry 
and dress it and, after storing it for an indefinite period, may 
finally ship it out to the markets in official classification territory, 
paying through charges from the mills to the ultimate destina- 
tion based on the rates to and from the crossing. Nashville is 
not a rate-breaking point, as are the Ohio river crossings; and 
lumber originating at stations on the Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis or on the Tennessee Central takes the local rate into 
Nashville and, when reshipped, the established local charge 
from Nashville to the ultimate destination is exacted, making 
through charges from the mills that, as a rule, exceed the combi- 
nation of rates on the Ohio river crossings by from 0.1 cent to 
5 cents per 100 lb. (40 I. C. C, 59.) 

Cement to Texas Points 

Opinion by Commissioner Daniels: 

The Kansas City, Mexico & Orient of Texas, in connection 
with the St. Louis & San Francisco, participated in an 18^4-cent 
rate on Portland cement from Ada, Okla., to the first three 
points on its line in Texas. It also participated in a 22^4-cent 
rate to the same points from Harry's and Eagle Ford, Tex., in 
connection with the Texas & Pacific and Fort Worth & Denver 
City, the distance from the latter points being slightly less than 
from Ada. Moved by an attack threatened upon its intrastate 
rates unless the interstate rates from Ada were increased, and 
failing to obtain the assent of the St. Louis & San Francisco 
to such increases, the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient of Texas 
directed the cancellation of rates on cement from Ada to all 
points on its line in Texas. Upon inquiry into the reasonable- 
ness of the proposed cancellation and of certain substitute rates 
suggested at the hearing, the commission holds that no evi- 
dence has been introduced tending to show that the proposed 
cancellation or the suggested substitute rates would lie just or 
reasonable, and that respondent's apprehension of reductions in 
its intrastate rates constitutes no justification for canceling or 
increasing interstate rates when the propriety of the resulting 
increased rates is not established. (40 I. C. C, 94.) 

Coal and Coke from Bon Air, Tenn. 

Opinion by Commissioner Clements: 

Over the protest of the Southern Railway but acting under its 
concurrence, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis reduced 
rates on bituminous coal from its Tennessee mines to Southern 
Railway stations in Georgia and changed the relationship be- 
tween these mines and the Southern's Tennessee mines. The 
Southern withdrew its concurrence in such rates, necessitating 
their cancellation. The resulting combination rates are held by 
the commission not to have been justified, but the Southern is 
found to have justified increased rates in the amounts of those 
in effect prior to the reduction referred to. (40 I. C. C, 180.) 

Express Rates from Sioux City, Iowa 

Traffic Bureau of the Sioux City Commercial Club v. American 
Express Company et al. Opinion by Commissioner Meyer : 

The commission finds that the express rates between Sioux 
City, Iowa, and points in South Dakota are not unreasonable. 

The present relation of rates for transportation by express 
between Sioux City, Iowa, and points in South Dakota, and 
between the same South Dakota points and Sioux Falls, 
Mitchell, Aberdeen, Watertown and Yankton, S. D., is held, 
however, to give an undue preference to Sioux Falls, Mitchell, 
Aberdeen, Watertown and Yankton, and to result in prejudice 
and disadvantage to Sioux City. The defendants are ordered to 
remove this discrimination. (39 I. C. C, 703.) 


At the request of the Georgia Shippers' Association, the hear- 
ing on the proposed adjustment of freight rates by Georgia 
roads has been postponed by the State Railroad Commission to 
August 17, which is the day after the close of the legislative 
session. Attorneys for the railroads were ready but ac- 
ceded to the request. The commission has announced a program 
of hearings for eleven divisions of tariffs. The date set for the 
final hearing is September 2. The statement, which has been 
widely published in connection with this investigation of pro- 
posed increases, that freight rates are already higher in Georgia 
than in other Southern States, has been answered by the rail- 
roads in a long letter, sent to the principal newspapers, showing 
the incompleteness and unfairness of the comparison on which 
the statement was based. It is declared that on the great bulk 
of the freight the rates in Georgia are in reality lower. The com- 
parison, based on the numbered classes alone, covers a com- 
paratively small volume of merchandise. 


Relief Associations 

The Indiana Appellate Court holds that an action for benefits 
against a railroad employees' relief association cannot be main- 
tained where the establishment of such relief association is void 
under the Indiana statute of 1907. prohibiting railroads from 
maintaining any relief association the rules of which require an 
employee to waive personal injury claims on becoming a member. 
— B. & O. S. W. v. Duncan (IndV), 112 N. E, 898. 

Limitation of Liability for Loss by Freezing 

A shipper, not wishing to wait for a refrigerator car, accepted 
a box car in which to ship potatoes from Kaleva to Chicago, 
expressly assuming by indorsement on the shipping order the 
risk of freezing. FrOm a directed verdict for the plaintiff in an 
action for damages, the potatoes being frozen on the ground of 
unreasonable delay at Kaleva, the railroad appealed. It was not 
shown that the potatoes did not freeze before the delay at Kaleva 
had become unreasonable. The Michigan Supreme Court held 
that the plaintiff could not recover notwithstanding Michigan 
Uniform Bills of Lading Act, permitting the carrier to insert in 
the bill of lading only such conditions as do not impair his 
obligation to exercise the "degree of care in the transportation 
and safe-keeping of the goods intrusted to him which a reason- 
ably careful man would exercise in regard to similar goods of 
bis own." This could not be intended to require the carrier to 
take precautions with goods which the owner himself deemed it 

July 14, 1916 



unnecessary or undesirable to take. The owners were equally 
aware of the danger of freezing, anticipated it, yet relied upon 
chance by their failure to put a stove in the car.— Lardie & Son 
v. Manistee & North Eastern (Mich.), 158 N. W., 31. 

Proper Notice of Claim for Damages 

In a suit for negligent delay in a shipment of live stock the 
defense was set up that no notice of claim for damages was 
given as required by the shipping contract. The Kansas City 
i of Appeals held that a letter from the railroad's superin- 
tendent of freight loss and damage claims, which was on its face 
an admission that a claim was filed with the road concerning the 
shipment, but which did not show when it was received, the letter 
treating the matter as though notice had been given in proper 
time, was sufficient evidence that notice was given within the 
required time. This, the court said, was not treating the letter 
as showing any waiver of notice, but holding that the evidence 
showed notice was given and inferably, from the facts and con- 
duct of the parties, within the required time. — McFall v. St. 
Louis & San Francisco (Mo.), 185 S. W., 1,157. 

Crossing Accident — Standing on Track 

Where a person at a crossing stood on one track in broad 
daylight, waiting for a train to pass on another track, the Michi- 
gan Supreme Court holds that the engineer of an approaching 
freight train on the track on which the person stood had a right 
to assume that the latter would seasonably step aside, and until 
it became apparent that he would not do so there could be no 
ence of the engineer "after discovery of the plaintiff's negli- 
gence," and the railroad was entitled to a directed verdict. — 
er v. Grand Trunk Western (Mich.), 158 N. W., 3. 

Delivery of Goods 

A bill of lading of hay to the order of the consignor was de- 
livered by the bank to the buyer that he might exercise the right 
-pection, which the shipping contract allowed him to do. 
The hay was promptly returned after inspection, and the buyer 
ed to receive it because it was not in good condition. The 
station agent by mistake marked the bill canceled by delivery. 
After a delay of more than a month, during which the consignor 
insisted on treating the transaction as a delivery, the hay was 
returned to and sold by him. He then sued the railroad and 
the bank for the difference between the price realized and the 
contract price. The Kansas City Court of Appeals held that the 
station agent's mistake did not entitle the plaintiff to treat the 
hay as delivered, so as to render the railroad liable for wrongful 
cancellation. The mistake was corrected immediately, and, of 
course, before any injury could have resulted. The damage was 
the result of the plaintiff's own fault. — St. Joseph Hay & Feed 
Co. v. Missouri Pacific (Mo.), 185 S. W., 1162. 

Routing Shipments — Different Rates Between Two Points 

The Pittsburgh Coal Company and the Zenith Furnace Com- 
pany delivered 14 carloads of coal to the Northern Pacific at 
Duluth, Minn., to be carried to Hitterdal, Minn., for delivery 
to the consignee, the plaintiff in an action to recover excess 
freight rates. The Northern Pacific owned and operated two 
lines out of Duluth, over either of which it could have carried 
the coal to Hitterdal. One line, 228.1 miles long, was wholly 
within Minnesota, and the legal rate for such shipments over 
that line, as fixed by the state statute of 1907, was $1.28 per 
ton. The other line, 234.7 miles long, ran through Wisconsin 
for 11.7 miles, and the legal rate for such shipments over this 
line, as fixed by tariffs filed with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, was $2 per ton. The railroad, having received no in- 
structions as to the line over which the coal should be shipped, 
transported it over the interstate line, and collected from plaintiff 
$2 per ton. The railroad's only defense was that the shipment 
was subject to the interstate rate. 

The Minnesota Supreme Court holds that where a railroad 
operates two lines between the same points and the freight rate 
over one line is less than over the other, if other conditions are 
reasonably equal, it is the duty of the company to transport 
shipments between those points over the line which will give 
the shipper the benefit of the cheaper rate ; or to show that 

shipper selected the other line, or that a proper regard for his 
interests required the shipment to be made over it. The rates 
prescribed by the state statute were held to be the lawful rates 
for transporting intrastate shipments from the time that act de- 
clared such rates to be in effect, notwithstanding the fact that 
the enforcement thereof had been enjoined for a time. The 
railroad was not relieved from its duty by the fact that the 
validity of the lower rate was in litigation, and until the judg- 
ment of the United States Supreme Court established its validity 
and annulled the injunction. The fact that owing to easier 
grades it was more economical to transport the shipments over 
the interstate line did not justify disregard of the plaintiff's 
right.— Solum v. Northern Pacific (Minn.), 157 X. W., 506. 

Sufficiency of Bridge Tell-Tales 

In an action against a railroad for the death of a brakeman, 
killed by striking a low bridge while on top of a train, it was 
shown that there was a telltale within 247 feet of the bridge, and 
that the train was moving 25 miles an hour. The New York 
Appellate Division held that it was a question for the jury 
whether the telltale was too near the bridge. While the evidence 
showed that the brakeman had been employed by the railroad as 
a fireman and brakeman for a year, it also showed that he had 
made only from 7 to 10 trips on this branch of the road, and 
that the time of the accident was the first time he had ever been 
on the top of the train when it passed under the bridge. Did he 
know, or should be have known, the distance of the telltale from 
the bridge? It was held that this was a question for the jury. 

Was the engineer of the train' negligent in not signalling with 
the engine whistle as the train neared the bridge? There was 
no rule of the company requiring such signals. Was it im- 
putable negligence on the part of the engineer not to give 
them of his own volition? The engineer testified that he some- 
times whistled as the engine neared a low bridge if he thought 
the brakemen might be unaware. Perhaps he might not have 
occasion to do this twice in a year, and then only when he 
thought that he noticed that the brakeman was unconscious at 
the moment of the situation. It was held that it was error to 
submit to the jury any question of negligence on the part of 
the engineer. The court distinguished the case from Curren v. 
Lake Champlain & M., 211 N. Y. 60, 105 N. E. 105, where the 
practice of signaling relied on was uniform. Judgment for the 
plaintiff was reversed and a new trial granted. — Marus v. Central 
of New Jersey (N. Y.), 155 N. Y. Supp., 586. 

The Right to Work Is Property 

The Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts holds that the 
state statute of 1914, declaring that the right to work shall no longer 
be a property right and prohibiting injunction in violation of 
employment contract cases where no irreparable damage is about 
to be committed on property, was beyond the power of the legis- 
lature to enact, since it deprived the laborer of property without 
due process of law. The right to work is property of which one 
cannot be deprived by simple mandate of the legislature, but is 
• protected by the 14th amendment to the Constitution of the 
LInited States, and by numerous guaranties of the state constitu- 
tion. The mere fact that it is also a part of the liberty of the 
citizen does not affect its character as property. A further effect 
of the statute was to deprive laborers of the equal protection of 
the laws. It provides in substance that the property right to 
labor of any individual or number of individuals associated to- 
gether shall not be recognized in equity as property when assailed 
by a labor combination, unless irreparable damage is about to be 
committed, and no relief by injunction shall be granted save in 
like cases where there is no relief at law. 

"If a laborer must stand helpless in a court while others there 
receive protection respecting the same general subject which is 
denied to him, he is not being afforded his constitutional right of 
the equal protection of the laws. The right to make contracts 
to earn money by labor is at least as essential to the laborer as is 
any property right to other members of society. If as much pro- 
tection is not given by the laws to this property, which often 
may be the owner's only substantial asset, as is given other kinds 
of property, the laborer stands on a plane inferior to that of 
other property owners. Absolute equality before the law is a 
fundamental principle of the Constitution. The courts musl be 
open to all upon the same terms. Doubt less the legislature, may 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

make many classifications in laws which regulate conduct and to 
sonic extent restrict freedom. So long as these have some ra- 
tional connection with what may be thought to be the public 
health, safety, or morals, or in a restricted sense, so as not to 
include everything that might be enacted on grounds of mere 
expediency, they offend no constitutional provision. Weekly 
payment laws, employers' liability acts, workmen's compensation 
acts, inspection laws based on number of employees, and numer- 
ous statutes similar in principle have been upheld. But these 
are all quite different from that in question." 

The action in which the question arose was one in which a 
labor union was alleged to be conspiring to deprive the com- 
plainants of their employment if they did not desert their own 
and join the defendant organization, by using unlawful pressure 
on employers by threats of sympathetic strikes and otherwise. — 
Bogni v. Perotti (Mass.), 112 N. E., 853. 

Crossing Accident— Contributory Negligence 

Action was brought by a chauffeur for personal injuries sus- 
tained in attempting to cross the Lehigh Valley tracks near 
Valois, N. Y. The automobile was struck by a train and two 
of its occupants were killed. In the Federal District Court the 
plaintiff secured a judgment, from which the railroad appealed. 
It did not dispute the negligence of the engineer in failing to give 
warning by bell or whistle, or the amount of the verdict, and the 
only question in the case was whether the plaintiff exercised the 
care which the law required of him. "What the plaintiff did or 
did not do before he got upon the track," the Circuit Court of 
Appeals for the Second Circuit said, in affirming the lower 
court's judgment, "is of the greatest importance. . . . The 
plaintiff knew for a distance of half a mile south of the crossing 
that he was approaching it. When he was about 825 feet from 
it he shut off the power and let his automobile coast to a point 
146 ft. short of the crossing, where he brought his car to a stop. 
He then looked both ways along the tracks, and, seeing no sign of 
a train, started towards the crossing, and continued to look as 
well as he could, both ways, until he got on the crossing and 
saw the engine approaching him from about 200 feet away. He 
heard no sound of the engine before he saw it. At that time his 
seat in the automobile was right over the first track. He then 
put on power, all he dared to, in an effort to get across ahead 
of the train, because, he said, he knew he couldn't stop to clear 
it. The locomotive hit the rear end of the automobile and 
threw it from the track, smashing it pretty well to pieces." The 
plaintiff testified that before he stopped to look and listen an 
orchard and cattle guards obstructed his view. It was held that 
whether the plaintiff told the truth and whether he exercised 
sufficient care were questions for the jury. Mr. Ward, Circuit 
Judge, dissented, on the ground that the plaintiff was guilty of 
contributory negligence as a matter of law, saying: "He em- 
ployed an engineer to take measurements on the ground, who 
testified that at a point 146 ft. south of the track on which the 
train was approaching there is an unobstructed view of the 
curve, that is, about 3,498 ft. from the crossing, and at a point 
100 ft. south an unobstructed view for 3,380 ft. Such obstruc- 
tions as were spoken of, as for instance, fences, cattle guards, 
telegraph poles, interfered no more with the plaintiff's vision 
than would a balloon or a bird flying in the air. Giving the train 
60 miles and the car 8 miles an hour, which are the highest 
speeds testified to, the train would move 88 ft. and the car nearly 
12 ft. a second; in other words, at a point 146 ft. south of the 
place of collision, one could see the train approaching about 
1,520 ft. away, and one who started from that point, as the 
plaintiff says he did, would at 8 miles an hour arrive at it in 15 
seconds, with the train in full view all the time. The plaintiff 
testified he stopped at the 146-ft. point, looked and did not see 
the train, and then started up and looked and did not see it until 
the train was within 200 ft. This testimony cannot be believed. 
If he had looked he must have seen it in time to avoid the col- 
lision, because he said he could stop his car in 6 ft." — Lehigh 
Valley v. Kilmer, C. C. A., 231 Fed., 628. 

In an action arising out of the same facts by the executor of 
a female passenger who was killed while riding in the back seat 
of the automobile, it was held that the decision in the Kilmer 
<asc ruled this, and the question whether the deceased was guilty 
of contributory negligence in not doing something to stop the 
chauffeur from driving in front of the train was a question for 
the jury.— Lehigh Valley v. Emeus, ('. C*. A., 231 Fed., 636. 

H. w. Bikle 

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Railway Officers 

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Executive, Financial, Legal and Accounting 

George R. Allen has been appointed assistant general solicitor 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with office at Philadelphia, Pa., 
succeeding Henry W. Bikle, promoted. Effective August 1. 

Henry Wolf Bikle, whose appointment as assistant general 
counsel of the Pennsylvania Railroad, with office at Philadelphia, 
Pa., has already been announced in these columns, was born on 
October 20, 1877, at 
Gettysburg, Pa. He pre- 
pared for college at 
Steven's Hall, in Gettys- 
burg, and later took a 
course at Pennsylvania 
College, graduating in 
1897 with degree of A.B. 
Mr. Bikle studied law at 
Gettysburg until the fall 
of 1898, and then en- 
tered the law depart- 
ment of the University 
of Pennsylvania, gradu- 
ating from this institu- 
tion in 1901. In June of 
the same year he was 
admitted to the bar, and 
since 1904 he has been 
first a lecturer and later 
assistant professor in the 
law department of the 
University of Pennsyl- 
vania. He was appointed assistant general solicitor of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad on December 1, 1907, which position he 
held at the time of his recent appointment as assistant general 
counsel of the same road as above noted. 

A. W. Thompson, whose appointment as vice-president in 
charge of traffic and commercial development of the Baltimore & 
Ohio system, with headquarters at Baltimore, Md., has already 
been announced in these 
columns, was born on 
May 8, 1875, at Erie, 
Pa., and was graduated 
from Allegheny College, 
Meadville, in 1897, as a 
civil engineer. The fol- 
lowing year he began 
railway work in the en- 
gineering department of 
the Pittsburgh & Lake 
Erie, and in 1899 was 
appointed assistant engi- 
neer of surveys on the 
Pittsburgh division of 
the Baltimore & Ohio. 
He was made assistant 
engineer of the Pitts- 
burgh division in 1900, 
and the following year 
was appointed engineer 
of the Cumberland di- 
vision. In 1902 he re- 
turned to Pittsburgh as division engineer, and the following yea 
went back to the Cumberland division as superintendent. H« 
was transferred to Wheeling, W. Va., in 1904, as superintendent 
of the Wheeling division, and from 1907 to April, 1910, he was 
i Iik if engineer of maintenance of way. In April, 1910, he was 
promoted to chief engineer of the Baltimore & Ohio system, in- 
cluding the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern, and remained in 
this position until December, 1910, when he was made general 
manager of the same roads at Baltimore, Md. On April 11, 
1912, he was elected third vice-president of the same mads and 

A. W. Thompson 

July 14, 1916 



the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, with office at Baltimore, and 
now becomes vice-president in charge of traffic and commercial 
development of the Baltimore & Ohio system, as above noted. 

C. S. Sikes, auditor for the receivers for the Pere Marquette, 
has been appointed general auditor for the receivers, the posi- 
tion of auditor having been abolished. J. O. Talbott, assistant 
auditor, has been appointed assistant general auditor; A. J. 
Anderson, auditor of traffic accounts, has been appointed auditor 
of freight traffic, and F. W. Niemann has been appointed auditor 
of passenger traffic The positions of assistant auditor, auditor 
of traffic accounts and assistant auditor of traffic accounts have 
been abolished, effective July 1. 


The headquarters of the dining car and hotel department of 
the Union Pacific system have been transferred from Omaha, 
Neb., to Ogden, Utah. 

R. E. Orr, acting trainmaster of the Grand Trunk at Lindsay, 
Ont., has been appointed trainmaster of the eighth, ninth and 
tenth districts, with headquarters at Lindsay. 

J. H. Carlisle, assistant to general superintendent of transporta- 
tion of the Chesapeake & Ohio and the Chesapeake & Ohio of 
Indiana, at Richmond, Va., has been appointed assistant to the 
general manager, with headquarters at Richmond. 

T. B. Burgess, trainmaster of the Baltimore & Ohio at Gar- 
rett, Ind., has been appointed assistant superintendent with of- 
fice at Cleveland, Ohio. Lyman H. Campbell has been pro- 
moted from a position in the operating department at Baltimore, 
Md., to trainmaster of the Chicago division, with office at Gar- 
rett, succeeding Mr. Burgess. 

Carl A. Mitchell, trainmaster of the New York, New Haven 
& Hartford at Hartford, Conn., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of the Hartford division, succeeding A. W. Honywill, 
assigned to other duties, and Charles H. Motsett has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of the New London division, with head- 
quarters at New London, vice P. T. Litchfield, assigned to other 

J. G. Bloom, division engineer of the Chicago, Rock Island & 
Pacific, at Little Rock, Ark., has been appointed superintendent 
of the Amarillo division, with headquarters at Amarillo, Tex., 
vice H. J. Sewell, transferred to the Louisiana division with 
office at Eldorado, Ark. D. Van Hecke, superintendent of the 
Louisiana division, has been transferred to the Indian Territory 
division with headquarters at Haileyville, Okla., vice H. F. 
Reddig, transferred to the Oklahoma division, with headquarters 
at El Reno, Okla. C. L. Ruppert, superintendent of the Okla- 
homa division, has been transferred to the Missouri division, 
with beadquarters at Trenton, Mo., vice F. W. Rosser, resigned. 

James Paul Stevens, whose appointment as general manager 
of the Chesapeake & Ohio and Chesapeake & Ohio of Indi- 
ana, with headquarters at Richmond, Va., has already been an- 
nounced, was born on December 28, 1885, at Peru, Ind., and was 
educated in the common schools. He began railway work in 
January, 1901, on the Chesapeake & Ohio and served to 1904 
consecutively as clerk, telegraph operator and despatcher, at 
Hinton, W. Va., and at Richmond, Va. In January, 1904, lie 
was appointed chief despatcher on the Cincinnati division at 
Covington, Ky., remaining in that position until February, 1907, 
when he was promoted to assistant superintendent of the same 
division. In January of the following year he was appointed 
superintendent of the same division. On May 1, 1910, he was 
appointed general superintendent, and since that time has served 
in this capacity on all three general divisions of the same road 
until his appointment on July 1, as general manager of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio and the Chesapeake & Ohio of Indiana, as 
above noted. 

B. B. Greer, whose appointment as assistant to the vice-presi- 
dent in charge of operation of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy 
has been announced, was born in Chicago in 1877. He was 
educated at Armour Institute and Dartmouth College and began 
railway work in 1899 with the Great Northern. He remained 
with that company until 1908, filling various positions, including 
roadmaster's clerk, chief clerk to the superintendent, roadmaster 
and assistant superintendent. Mr. Greer then entered the service 

of the Burlington as transportation inspector on the general 
manager's staff, and has since been consecutively superintendent 
of terminals at St. Louis, Mo., division superintendent at Han 
nibal, Mo., and St. Joseph, and assistant to the general manager 
of the lines east of the Missouri river, with headquarters at 
Chicago. On January 1, 1915, he was promoted to assistant gen- 
eral manager of the lines east, with office at Chicago, and on 
March 1, of the same year, was transferred to Omaha, Neb., as 
assistant general manager of the lines west. As assistant to 
the vice-president he has headquarters at Chicago. 

Thomas B. Coppage, whose appointment as general superin- 
tendent of the first district of the St. Louis & San Francisco 
has been announced, was born on June 23, 1864, at Danville, Ky. 
He entered railway service in 1879, as an employee of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville, and from 1880 to 1890 was successively opera- 
tor, despatcher and trainmaster of the Cincinnati Southern and 
its successor, the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific. 
From 1890 to 1892 he was assistant superintendent of the Louis- 
ville, New Orleans & Texas, at Greenville, Miss. He was 
despatcher and chief despatcher of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe, at Marceline, Mo., until 1894, when he entered the employ 
of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, at Van Buren, Ark., 
as chief despatcher. He was later trainmaster of the same road 
at Van Buren, and, in 1902, became trainmaster of the Gulf, 
Colorado & Santa Fe at Temple, Tex. He was later division 
superintendent, with office at Temple, Tex., and, in 1907, en- 
tered the service of the St. Louis & San Francisco as superin- 
tendent of the Northern division at Ft. Scott, Kan. On March 
1, 1914, he was appointed superintendent of transportation, with 
headquarters at Springfield, Mo., and on July 1, 1916, was pro- 
moted to general superintendent of the first district, with head- 
quarters at the same city. 

J. H. Dyer, whose appointment as assistant general manager 
of the northern district of the Southern Pacific, with head- 
quarters at Portland, Ore., has already been announced in 

these columns, was born 
in Colfax, Cal., in 1872. 
He began work witli 
the Southern Pacific as 
a track laborer in 1888. 
on the Sacramento di- 
vision. In the follow- 
ing year he entered train 
service as a brakeman, 
and subsequently was a 
conductor, yardmaster 
and trainmaster on the 
same division. He was 
appointed superintendent 
of the Shasta division 
in 1908, and superintend- 
ent of the Tucson di- 
vision in 1911. He was 
transferred to the Sacra- 
mento division as su- 
perintendent in 1914. and 
continued in that posi- 
tion until July 1, 1916, 
when his appointment as assistant general manager was 


J. W. Ellingson has been appointed traffic manager of the 
Salt Lake & Ogden, with headquarters at Ogden, Utah. 

Willard G. Wilson has been appointed commercial agent of 
the Southern Pacific, with headquarters at Ogden, Utah, vice 
M. D. Shortz, resigned. 

W. H. Gardner has been appointed assistant general livestock 
agent of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, with headquarters at 
Ft. Worth, Tex., vice K. D. McKenzie, resigned. 

T. H. Simmons, commercial agent of the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, having retired, W. B. Metcalf 
has been appointed commercial agent, with headquarters at Cedar 

J. R. Morrow, traveling passenger agent of the New Orleans 
& Northeastern, the Alabama & Vicksburg, and the Vicksburg, 

J. H. Dyer 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

Shreveport & Pacific al Dallas, Tex., has been appointed western 
passenger agent; with headquarters at Dallas, vice C. F. Woods, 

(i. S. Rains, whose appointment as freight traffic manager of 
the Seaboard Air Line, with office at Norfolk, Va., has already 
announced in these columns, was born on February 16, 1879, 
at Gainesville, Fla., and was educated at the grammar schools. 
He entered railway service on December 1, 1893, as office boy in 
the general freighl office of the Florida Central & Peninsular at 
Jacksonville, Fla. When that company became part of the Sea- 
board Air Line in July, 1900, he was transferred to the general 
freight office of the Seaboard Line, at Portsmouth, Va., and was 
consecutively chief rate clerk, assistant chief clerk and chief 
clerk of rate department. In July, 1909, he was appointed assist- 
ant general freight agent of the Seaboard Air Line at Norfolk; 
in November, 1912, he was promoted to general freight agent 
and now becomes freight traffic manager of the same road, as 
above noted. 

Kugene Fox, recently appointed general traffic manager of the 
El Paso & Southwestern System, the Morenci Southern and the 
Nacozari, with heaquarters at El Paso, Tex., was born at 
Winterset, Iowa, on 
January 18, 1877, and 
was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of Stuart, 
Iowa, and Hutchinson, 
Kan. He began railway 
work as a bill clerk for 
the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific at Hutchinson, 
in January, 1898. He 
was subsequently weigh- 
master, ticket clerk, bill 
clerk and cashier in the 
freight department until 
September, 1899, when 
he was appointed travel- 
ing freight agent, with 
headquarters at Salt 
Lake City, Utah. In 
October, 1901, he was 
transferred to St. Louis, 
Mo., in the same capa- 
city, and in 1902 was 

made traveling freight agent, with headquarters at El Paso, Tex. 
In June, 1905, he left the Rock Island to beco~ne general agent 
of the El Paso & Southwestern system at Los Angeles, Cal. 
He was transferred to Chicago, 111., as general agent, in Novem- 
ber, 1906, and in June, 1909, was made assistant general freight 
agent at El Paso. From 1910 to 1913 he was general freight and 
passenger agent at El Paso, and from the latter date until July 1, 
1916, was assistant general traffic manager at Chicago. As gen- 
eral traffic manager Mr. Fox will have his headejuarters at El 
Paso, Tex. 

Engineering and Rolling Stock 

The office of the mechanical superintendent of the Texas & 
Pacific has been transferred from Marshall, Tex., to Dallas. 
The jurisdiction of the mechanical superintendent has been ex- 
tended over the fuel bureau. 

D. C. Cunningham, superintendent of shops of the Denver & 
Rio Grande at Salt Lake City, Utah, has been appointed super- 
intendent of motive power of the Denver & Salt Lake, with 
headquarters at Denver, Colo. 

Robert Fafriham, Jr., assistant to the engineer of bridges and 
buildings of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Philadelphia, Pa., has 
been appointed assistant engineer of bridges and buildings, and 
the position of assistant to the engineer of bridges and buildings 
lias beeen abolished. 

C. B. Woticky has been appointed electrical engineer of the 
Lehigh Valley, and D. J. Cartwright, electrical engineer at 
South Bethlehem, Pa., has been appointed assistant electrical 
engineer, both with offices at South Bethlehem. 

C. F. llinehman, assistant engineer maintenance of way of 
the I leveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, at Mount Car- 
mel, 111., has been appointed engineer maintenance of way of 

Eugene Fox 

the Indianapolis terminal division, with headquarters at India- 
napolis, Ind. 

Arthur Engh, whose appointment as assistant bridge engineer, 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, lines cast of the Missouri river, 
has been announced, was born at Chicago, 111., on June 9, 1885. 
Prior to entering railway service he was employed by Ralph 
Modjeski and the American Bridge Company. From August, 
1905, to 1913, he did detailing and designing work in the bridge 
department of the Burlington. He was then made office engi- 
neer in charge of the office of the bridge engineer, being re- 
lieved of these duties in 1914, to become office engineer of the 
Paducah & Illinois, in charge of the design of the Metropolis 
(111.) bridge. In 1915 and 1916, he was again office engineer 
of the Burlington in charge of the design and plans for the 
double-track bridge across the Missouri river at Kansas City. 
As assistant bridge engineer he will have headquarters, as here- 
tofore, at Chicago, 111. 

Arthur E. Owen, whose appointment as chief engineer of the 
Central of New Jersey, with headquarters at New York, has 
already been announced in these columns, was born on January 
19, 1876, at Montclair, 
N. J., and was educated 
in the Montclair high 
school and later attend- 
ed Rutgers College, 
New Brunswick, N. J. 
In 1898 he began railway 
work as a draftsman in 
the tax agent's office of 
the Central of New Jer- 
sey at New York and 
has been in the continu- 
ous service of that road 
ever since. In August, 
1899, he was transferred 
to the chief engineer's 
office as a rodman, and 
the following November 
was appointed assistant 
engineer, at Mauch 
Chunk, Pa. He was 
transferred in the same 
capacity to Jersey City 

in 1901, remaining in that position until January, 1907, when he 
was appointed principal assistant engineer ; and he now becomes 
chief engineer of the same road as above noted. 


William G. O'Fallon has been appointed purchasing agent of 
the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, vice J. E. 
Williams, Jr., assigned to other duties. 

G. T. Ingold has been appointed storekeeper of the Baltimore 
& Ohio lines at New Castle Junction, Pa. He was formerly 
connected with the storekeeper's department at Pittsburgh. 

A. E. Owen 


Robert B. Thomson, treasurer of the Chicago Junction and 
the Union Stock Yards & Transit Company, died at his home in 
Morgan Park, 111., on July 9. 

A. J. Cota, division master mechanic of the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, lines east of the Missouri river, with office at 
Chicago, died at his home in La Grange, 111., on July 9. 

J. L. Brass, assistant to the general manager of the Oregon- 
Washington Railroad & Navigation Company, with headquarters 
at Seattle, Wash., died at that city on June 30. after an illness 
of several weeks. 

John Norment Powell, general counsel of the Carolina, Clinch- 
field & Ohio, at Johnson City, Tenn., died on July 8, at Wythe- 
ville, Va. Mr. Powell was born on September 15, 1877, at Co- 
lumbia, Va. He studied law privately and was admittted to the 
bar in 1899. In September, 1901, he was appointed general coun- 
sel of the South & Western Railroad, and since 1908 had been 
general counsel of the Carolina, CHnchfield & Ohio, which ab- 
sorbed the South & Western. 

July 14, 1916 



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Equipment and Supplies 

Supply Trade News 

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The Rhodesia Railways, Ltd., have ordered 6 Mountain 
type locomotives from the American Locomotive Company. 
These locomotives will have 23 by 24-in. cylinders, and a total 
weight of 172,000 lb. 

The Union Minere de Haut Katanga has ordered 5 six- 
wheel switching locomotives from the American Locomotive 
Company. These locomotives will have 10 by 16-in. cylinders, 
and a total weight of 45,000 lb. 

The Pennsylvania Equipment Company, 1438 S. Penn 
Square, Philadelphia, Pa., is in the market for one 50-ton 
Heisler locomotive, one 30-ton Climax geared locomotive, and 
one 42-ton Shay geared locomotive. 

The Central of Brazil, reported in the Railway Age Gazette 
of June 30 as being in the market for 7 Pacific and 12 ten-wheel 
locomotives, has ordered 2 Pacific and 12 ten-wheel locomotives 
from the American Locomotive Company. The Pacific type lo- 
comotives will have 2\y 2 by 28-in. cylinders, and a total weight 
of 207,000 lb. The ten-wheel locomotives will have 21 ]4 by 
28-in. cylinders, and a total weight of 175,000 lb. 


The Lehigh Valley is inquiring for 1,500 box car bodies. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy is inquiring for one steel 
four-wheel coal car. 

The Chicago & North Western is inquiring for 200 nar- 
row gage mine cars. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul will soon build 1,100 
42-ft., 40-ton box cars at its Milwaukee shops. 

The Duluth, Winnipeg & Pacific has ordered 750 box cars 
from the Haskell & Barker Car Company. 

The Havana Central has ordered 50 30-ton flat, 150 30-ton 
box and 10 30-ton caboose cars from the Standard Steel Car 
Company. These cars are for the Cuban Central. The Havana 
Central was also reported in the Railway Age Gazette of June 
30 as having placed orders for 940 other freight cars. 

The Pennsylvania Equipment Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 
is in the market for 15 to 20 second-hand standard gage tank 
cars, with wood or steel underframes, and with a capacity of 
5,000 to 7,000 gallons of molasses, weighing 12 lb. to the gallon. 
The Pennsylvania Equipment Company is also in the market 
for 15 to 20 second-hand, 100,000 lb. capacity steel hopper cars, 
25 to 30 No. 2 Russell log cars and several log loaders. 


The Philadelphia & Reading is in the market for 2 to 6 din- 
ing cars. 

The Delaware & Hudson has ordered one private car from 
; '.illman Company. 

The Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha is inquiring 
for 2 lounging and cafe cars. 

The Boston Elevated has ordered 42 all steel elevated car 
1 odies from the Pressed Steel Car Company. 


The Russian Government has placed orders with American 
companies for approximately 425,000 tons of rails, divided about 
as follows: United States Steel Corporation, 150,000 tons; Cam- 
! ria Steel Company, 150,000 tons; Lackawanna Steel Company, 
75.000 tons, and Bethlehem Steel Company, 50,000 tons. In 1915 
t\- Russian Government ordered 400,000 tons of rails in the 
I nited States. 

H. Fischer 

D. E. Garrison, president of the Corrugated Bar Company, of 
St. Louis and Buffalo, died on July 4 at his home in St. Louis, 
Mo., at the age of 77. 

\\. L. Brown, who has been associated with the M. C. B. I 
pany, Chicago, has been appointed special representative of the 
Curtain Supply Company. Chicago. 

Atkinson & Utech, Inc., Ill Broadway, New York, have been 
appointed Eastern sales agents for J. R. Johnson & Co., Rich- 
mond, Va., manufacturers of open hearth steel car axles. 

Henry Fischer, sales agent at Chicago for the Verona Tool 
Works, of Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed general sales 

manager of the com- 
pany, with headquar- 
ters at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Mr. Fischer was born 
on June 4, 1880, in 
Brooklyn, X. Y. He was 
employed by the Shutt 
Improvement Company, 
railroad contractors, at 
St. Louis, Mo., from 
1S01 to 1903. From 1904 
to 1911 he was in the 
engineering department 
of the Cleveland, Cin- 
cinnati. Chicago & St. 
Louis, at Cincinnati, 
Ohio, during the last 
three years of which 
time he was chief clerk- 
to the chief engineer. 
From 1911 until July 1, 
1916, he was sales agent 
of the Verona Tool 
Works at Chicago, as 
above noted. 

George R. Boyce, railroad representative of A. M. Castle & 
Co., Chicago, 111., has been appointed assistant general manager 
of sales and in that capacity will retain supervision of the rail- 
road sales for the company. 

Aaron Dean, formerly resident manager of the New York 
office of the Union Switch & Signal Company, has been ap- 
pointed special representative, with headquarters in New York. 
W. P. Allen has been appointed resident manager. 

The Franklin Railway Supply Company has granted leave of 
absence to its employees already active in the National Guard or 
those who may join later. Married or single men with depend- 
ents will receive full pay and their positions will be reserved for 
their return. 

Harry S. Whitehair, formerly with the railway department of 
the Chicago Varnish Company in the New York office, has been 
appointed Eastern representative of the Kay & Kss Company, 
Dayton, Ohio. Mr. Whitehair was with McCord & Company, 
Chicago, for two years before his connection with the Chicago 
Varnish Company. 

J. M. Buick, vice-presidenl of tin- American Car & Foundry 
Company, has been appointed general manager also. William 
.W. Hager, formerly secretary of the company, has been elected 
assistant to the president, and has been succeeded as secretary 
by II. C. Wick, formerly assistant to the secretary and also sec- 
retary to I'. 11 Eaton, the late president of the company. F. W. 
Tuttle has been appointed assistant secretary. 

At the recent commencement exercises of the Rensselaer Poly- 
technic Institute, the degree of Doctor of Engineering was con- 
ferred upon Robert W. Hunt, who has been a trustee of the 
institute since 1886, and has done much to further the interests 
of tin school. \t the same time a portrait of Mr. Hunt by 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

Lewis Betts was presented to the institute. Mr. Hunt has con- 
tributed largely to the erection of some of the institute's new 

A. E. Crockett, vice-president of the Standard Chain Com- 
pany. Pittsburgh, Pa., has been appointed assistant general sales 
manager of the chain department of the Jones & Laughlin Steel 
Company. F. D. Grunder, assistant general sales manager of 
the National Tube Company, has been appointed assistant gen- 
eral manager of sales of the new tube department of the Jones 
& Laughlin Steel Company, with headquarters at Pittsburgh. 
S. E. Hackett, assistant to the president of Joseph T. Ryerson 
& Sons, has been made manager of the Chicago branch of the 
Jones & Laughlin Steel Company, vice David N. Barker, re- 

The net earnings of the American Car & Foundry Company 
for the fiscal year ended April 30, were $2,816,017.55, after de- 
ducting $1,779,341.07 for renewals, replacements, repairs, etc. 
Dividends of $2,700,000 were paid at the rate of 7 per cent on 
preferred capital stock and 2 per cent on common stock, leaving 
$116,017.55 surplus earnings for the year. In his remarks, Presi- 
dent Woodin stated that about $7,300,000 worth of munitions 
contracts had been undertaken by the company, and added that 
the company's export department had obtained a fair share of 
the foreign orders for equipment, which assumed considerable 
proportions during the past year. Additions to the Chicago 
(111.) and Berwick (Pa.) plants and the improvement of the 
facilities in the Milton plant for the more economical produc- 
tion of tank cars, called for an expenditure of $474,774.55. 

Bethlehem Steel Company 

Official announcement has been made of the acquisition of the 
Pennsylvania and Maryland steel companies by the Bethlehem 
Steel Company, and also of the future policy of the companies. 
The announcement states : 

"All of the properties and businesses as going concerns of the 
Pennsylvania Steel Company and Maryland Steel Company have 
been acquired by Penn-Mary Steel Company, a subsidiary of 
Bethlehem Steel Company, and such properties and businesses 
will hereafter be operated under lease by Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, which has taken over all contracts, has acquired all current 
accounts, and is prepared to meet all outstanding obligations of 
such companies when due. 

"All unfinished contracts of these companies will be carried 
out and performed by the Bethlehem Steel Company without in- 
terruption. The books of account will be kept at, and all pay- 
ments will be made from, South Bethlehem, Pa., and checks for 
accounts due to the Pennsylvania Steel Company or Maryland 
Steel Company should be drawn to the order of Bethlehem Steel 
Company, and mailed to South Bethlehem, Pa. The executive, 
treasury, accounting, sales and purchasing departments will have 
their headquarters at South Bethlehem, Pa., to which letters in- 
tended for their attention should be addressed. 

"Bethlehem Steel Company, by E. G. Grace, president. 
"Pennsylvania Steel Company, by E. C. Felton, president." 

L. W. Adams has been appointed superintendent of the 
Saucon plant, vice R. F Randolph, general superintendent, re- 
signed. R. M. Bird has been appointed superintendent of the 
rolling mills of the Lehigh plant, succeeding Mr. Adams, and 
William Bangster will succeed Mr. Bird as superintendent of the 
treatment department of the Lehigh plant. 

The following changes have been made in the sales depart- 
ment : The general sales offices of the Pennsylvania Steel Com- 
pany, the Maryland Steel Company and the Titusville Forge 
Company have been consolidated with the general sales office 
of the Bethlehem Steel Company. R. W. Gillispie, general man- 
ager of sales for the Pennsylvania and Maryland Steel Compa- 
nies at Philadelphia, and Paul Mackall, sales agent for the 
Bethlehem Steel Company in the district of Pittsburgh and 
west, have been appointed assistant general sales agents at 
So. Bethlehem, Pa. Edward S. Knisely is general sales agent. 
R. E. Belknap, district sales manager Pennsylvania Steel at New 
York, will become sales agent at Chicago, and J. M. Price, sales 
agent of the Chicago district, has been transferred to St. Louis as 
sales agent. 

The sales agents of the various branch offices will be as 
follows: H. A. Jackson, Oliver building, Boston; J. M. Ellis, 111 

Broadway, New York; VV. 15. Kennedy, Morris building, Phila- 
delphia ; Jesse A. Davis, Continental building, Baltimore;' 1 1 \\ 
Eisenhart, hirst National Bank building, Pittsburgh;' J N 
Clarke, 1266 Ontario street, Cleveland; J. S. Hcgeman, Majestic 
building, Detroit; R. E. Belknap, People's Gas building, Chicago; 
J. M. Price, Chemical building, St. Louis; E. S. Illig, Crocker 
building, San Francisco. 

Charles M. Schwab, chairman of the company, has announced 
that improvements will be made in the Steelton, Pa., plant cost- 
ing $15,000,000. It is understood that expenditures totaling 
$20,000,000 will be made on the Sparrows Point, Md., plant, and 
that $1,000,000 will be spent for the Saucon plant. 

G. T. Cook 

Kansas City Bolt & Nut Company 

In the Railway Age Gazette of June 23 announcement was 
made that on June 15 the stock of the Kansas City Bolt & Nut 
Company was purchased by Kansas City interests from the J. H. 
Sternbergh estate of 
Reading, Pa., and that 
coincident with the 
transfer of the property 
the following officers 
were elected : George T. 
Cook, president ; Solo- 
mon Stoddard, vice- 
president and general 
manager ; H. R. War- 
ren, secretary and treas- 

George T. Cook, the 
new president of the 
company, was born in 
Kansas City, Mo., Octo- 
ber 14, 1871. He was 
educated in the public 
schools of Kansas City 
and graduated from the 
University of Kansas. 
He was in the purchas- 
ing department of the 

Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis for several years, and 
moved to St. Louis at the time the Kansas City, Fort Scott & 
Memphis was absorbed by the St. Louis & San Francisco. He 
remained in St. Louis 
about a year and left to 
go with the Kansas City 
Bolt & Nut Company as 
general sales manager 
in June, 1902. He re- 
signed from the Kansas 
City Bolt & Nut Com- 
pany in 1910, however, 
but continued in the 
railway supply business 
in Kansas City. On 
June 15, 1916, he was 
elected president of the 
Kansas City Bolt & Nut 
Company, as above 

Solomon Stoddard, 
vice-president and gen- 
eral manager, was born 
in Boston, Mass., and 
educated in Trinity Col- 
lege, Stratford, Conn. 
He entered the service of the Kansas City Bolt & Nut Com- 
pany in a minor position in February, 1900, and has worked up 
to the position of vice-president and general manager. 

S. Stoddard 

Steel Corporation's Unfilled Orders Decrease 

The United States Steel Corporation reported 9,640,450 tons 
of unfilled orders on hand June 30. This is a decrease of 297,340 
tons, as compared with the orders on hand at the beginning of 
the month, when the record total of 9,937,798 tons had accumu- 
lated. The June 30 figures are also below those of April 30, 
when orders amounted to 9,829,551 tons. They are, however, 

July 14, 1916 



more than double the 4,678,196 tons on the books June 30, 1915. 
The decrease in tonnage is the first reported since August, 1915. 


Foundry Equipment. — The Whiting Foundry Equipment Com- 
pany, Harvey, 111., has recently issued catalog No. 120, dealing 
with tumblers and dust arresters; catalog No. 121, dealing with 
coke oven equipment, including ovens, racks, cars, trucks and 
coke-over doors, and catalog No. 122, dealing with ladles. All 
three bulletins are well illustrated. 

The Logic of the Dean. — This is the title of a booklet which 
has recently been issued by the William B. Pierce Company, 
Buffalo, N. Y. The booklet deals with the Dean boiler tube 
cleaner made by the company. It shows how scale is formed 
and asserts that the formation of scale cannot be prevented 
absolutely by boiler compounds. It then takes up the problem 
of scale removal and describes the Dean tube cleaner and its 
operation. A list of users is also given. 

Varnishes, Enamels and Japans. — The Moller & Schumann 
Company, Brooklyn, N. Y., has recently issued Bulletin No. 1, 
dealing with the company's Hiio black enamels and japans. The 
bulletin describes the range of blacks available for wood, steel, 
cast iron, tin, brass or other materials. It contains lustre stand- 
ards whereby one may readily obtain a clear idea of the mean- 
ing of the terms, gloss, semi-gloss, rubber, dull rubber or flat, 
and be enabled to pick out the finish best suited to his needs. 
Each article is described in a manner to indicate its use. The 
bulletin also gives the necessary reduction for applying; the va- 
rious methods of brushing, spraying, dipping and tumbling, and 
it also indicates the heat and time of baking. 

Southern Pacific. — "Across America" is a new folder pub- 
lished by the Southern Pacific for distribution in Australasia and 
the Orient. Besides two maps, it contains over 60 half-tone 
illustrations of the attractions of California and the Pacific Coast 
in addition to characteristic views of Chicago, New York, Wash- 
ington and other Eastern cities. The text describes, in an inter- 
esting manner, the four routes across America of which the 
tourist arriving in San Francisco has the choice when traveling 
over the Southern Pacific. Most valuable to over-sea travelers 
is the "Landing and Customs" information, which states clearly 
the requirements of the law as to declaration and entry of per- 
sonal baggage, besides the rates of duty on some of the prin- 
cipal classes of merchandise usually brought in by passengers 
in their baggage. 

Car Wheels. — The American Steel Foundries have issued an 
attractive catalogue descriptive of the Davis steel wheels made 
by the company. The booklet names the advantages of the 
Davis one-wear steel wheel asserting that, "It retains the ad- 
vantages of the cast iron wheel — a hardened tread and flange, 
a softer plate and hub, and a one-wear construction" and in ad- 
dition is stronger, is of less weight, has absolute rotundity be- 
cause of its ground treads and has a lower maintenance cost on 
account of fewer removals for common wheel defects. The 
booklet is well illustrated, there being given sections, pictures of 
the wheels, and a number of views, some in colors, showing the 
manufacture. One section deals with wheels for electric rail- 
way service and another gives comparative data of Davis and 
other wheels in tests and actual service. 

Standard Safety Devices. — The "Conference Board on Safe- 
ty and Sanitation," 928 Western Avenue, West Lynn, Mass., 
has issued an eight-page leaflet describing the "N. A. S. O." 
safety devices, with illustrations and prices. These devices 
have been approved by the Conference Board, which represents 
the National Affiliated Safety Organizations, namely, the Nat- 
ional Founders' Association, the National Association of Manu- 
facturers, and the National Metal Trades Association ; and all 
of the articles are made under the supervision of the board. 
The aim is to sell these articles at cost, or nearly so ; but any 
profits derived from sales are utilized for further research in 
connection with the promotion of safety in industrial estab- 
lishments. Among the things described are goggles ; leggins 
for foundrymen; respirators; the N. A. 3. O. Sanitary Stretcher; 
Safety Feet for Ladders, and a Metal Danger Sign. The 
N. A. S. O. Standard First Aid Jar was described in the Railway 
Age Gazette of January 8, 1915, page 64. 

fmiiiimiiiiiiiMiiiiiMiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiiiMiiiiiimmimiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiii: 

Railway Construction 


Alabama & Mississippi. — Work has been completed, it is said, 
on the extension of the Pascagoula-Moss Point Northern from 
a point near Leakesville, Miss., south to Lucedale, 20 miles, and a 
train was recently run from the northern terminus at Vinegar 
Bend., Ala., south to Pascagoula, Miss., on the Gulf Coast. (Mav 
12, p. 1059.) 

Anthony & Northern. — This road has been extended from 
Fellsburg, Kan., north to Gibson, 13 miles. 

Canadian Northern. — A new branch has been opened for 
business from Camrose, Alta., south to Alliance, 59.8 miles. The 
Victoria Beach subdivision of the Central division has been ex- 
tended from Grand Marais, Man., north to Victoria Beach, about 
13.8 miles. 

Canadian Pacific. — This company will extend its Expanse 
south line, seven miles beyond Vantage, Sask., and connect it 
with the line west of Weyburn, at Assiniboia. It will also extend 
the branch running from Stirling, Alta., to Foremost, ten 
miles east. Grading contracts have not yet been let. Track 
laying and all other work will be completed by the company's own 

Central Florida Interurban. — This company with $100,000 
capital and headquarters at St. Cloud, Fla., plans to build an inter- 
urban railway, it is said, from St. Cloud north to Sanford. 
about 40 miles, thence to a point on the Atlantic seacoast. C. E. 
Carlson, president, W. Hall, secretary and treasurer. 

Crosbyton-South Plains. — This company, a subsidiary of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, has asked for a charter for a line 
from Lubbock, Tex., 65 miles southwest, through Brownfield 
to Seminole. Locating will be started soon. 

Denton-Krum Line. — The city of Dallas, Tex., is making an 
effort to interest some company in the construction of a steam 
railroad between Denton and Krum, a distance of eight miles. 
This road would connect the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe at 
Krum, with the Missouri, Kansas & Texas at Denton. The 
city of Dallas agrees to take $50,000 worth of first mortgage 
bonds on this road, should it be built. 

Electric Standard Railways Company. — A charter has been 
granted by the state of Delaware to this company with $1,000,000 
capital, it is said, to build and operate railways. G. L. Campbell, 
H. R. Noll and H. W. Lukens, Williamsport, Pa., are said to be 

Great Northern. — This company has given a contract to 
Morris, Shepard & Dougherty, St. Paul, Minn., for building an 
extension from Wildrose, N. D., to Grenora, 36 miles at an 
estimated cost of $675,000. About 5 per cent of the work has 
been completed. 

Martinez & Concord Interurban. — This company will build 
a line from Martinez, Cal., via Avon t.> connect with the Oak- 
land, Antioch & Eastern at Government Ranch, a distance of 
6.5 miles. A contract for the grading will be let in about 60 
days. About 15,000 cu. yd. of material per mile will be handled. 
The maximum curvature is about 4 deg. and the maximum 
grade about 2 per cent. About 900 lineal ft. of open deck pile 
trestle will be constructed. Clifford McClellan, president, and 
J. B. Rogers, chief engineer, San Francisco, Cal. 

McConnei.i.siurg & Fort Loudon.- -A contract for the con- 
struction and equipment of the line building from McConnells- 
burg. Pa., to Fort Loudon, 11 miles, has been let to Clyde E. 
Coon and a sub-contract for construction work has been let to 
Walter F. Patterson. Sr . & Son. Pittsburgh, Pa. (June 16, p. 

Northern Ohio Traction & Light Co. (Electric).— This com- 
pany proposes an expenditure of about $2,000,000 for improve- 
ments. The work will be extended over a long period of time, 
and will include double tracking on the Akron, Bedford and 
Cleveland division, $387,000; improvements from Bedford, Ohio. 



Vol. 61, No. 2 

to Newburg, $U>0,000; double track from Canton, Ohio, to 
Massillon, $200,000; double tracking the Canton-Akron line be- 
tween Bine Point, Ohio, and Springfield Lake, $175,000; double 
track from the Akron (Ohio) terminal over private right of 
way to Gorge, $340,000; the completion of a high tension line 
to Canton, $280,000. and the purchase of an Akron terminal 
station site, $355,000. 

Northern Pacific— The construction of a branch line from 
Dixon, Mont., to Poison, 33.75 miles in length, has been author- 
ized, but construction work has not yet been started nor have 
bids been" asked for. The work will involve about 23,000 cu. 
yd. of material per mile, and the construction of a few small 
timber bridges. The maximum grade is 1 per cent. 

Oregon Short Line. — This company will complete an exten- 
sion from Marshfield, Idaho, to Idahome, a distance of 19 
miles. Grading of this line was completed in 1911. Track laying 
will be done by company forces. 

Pascagoula-Moss Point Northern. — See Alabama & Missis- 

Southern Railway. — The Tennessee & Carolina Southern has 
been extended from Chilhowee, Tenn., south to Alcoa, 6 miles. 
A contract has been let by this company to the Brooks-Gal- 
loway Company, Atlanta, Ga., for building double track from 
Duluth, Ga., to Suwanee, 5.50 miles, and from Spartanburg, 
S. C, to Lawsons Fork, 1.50 miles. 

Tennessee & Carolina Southern. — See Southern Railway. 

Winston-Salem Southbound. — A new branch has been 
opened for business between Whitney, N. C, and Badin, 5 miles. 

Yazoo & Mississippi Valley.— This company is preparing to 
raise the grade of its tracks, from three to six feet, for about 
12 miles between Vicksburg, Miss., and the Yazoo river. The 
work will be done by company forces and will involve handling 
about 250,000 cu. yd. of material. The company is also raising 
its grade for a distance of about 17 miles south of Vicksburg, 
14 miles of which will be entirely new line, including a new 
crossing over the Big Black river. The work involves about 
500,000 cu. yd. of material. The contract for the grading has 
been let to the H. W. Nelson Company, Chicago, 111. 


Brewster, Ohio. — The Wheeling & Lake Erie has awarded a 
contract to W. C. Handshy & Son, Zanesville, Ohio, for con- 
structing the Y. M. C. A. building at Brewster mentioned June 
9, page 1246. 

Houston, Texas. — The Missouri, Kansas & Texas has awarded 
a contract to the American Construction Company of this city, 
for the erection of a reinforced concrete cotton platform at an 
estimated cost of $50,000. 

Mattion, III. — The Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. 
Louis will open bids in about three weeks for a brick and con- 
crete station and office building to be 40 ft. by 150 ft. and two 
stories in height to be built at Mattoon. 

Menominee, Mich. — The Chicago & North Western has 
awarded a contract to Leyden & Ortseifen, Chicago, 111., for 
the construction of a brick depot to cost about $14,000. 

North Regina, Sask. — The Canadian Northern is constructing 
a frame store building, 25 ft. by 58 ft., and 18 ft. in height, to cost 
about $3, ( ''00. It is also rebuilding a portion of its machine shop 
recently destroyed by fire at a cost of about $3,000. George 
McLeod, Winnipeg, Man., lias the contract. 

Rock Island, III. — The Tri-City Railway will receive bids 
soon for a brick and reinforced concrete shop building, 160 ft. 
by 300 ft., to be built at Rock Island." The building will be part 
one Story and part two stories high, and the cost will be 
about $80,000. 

San It \< i CO, Cal. I he Southern Pacific is preparing plans 
for a 10-story office building to be constructed at the corner of 
Market and Spear streets. 


Railway Financial News 


Boston & Maine. — The directors' meeting was held July 11 after 
a joint meeting of a committee representing directors of the 
Boston & Maine and some lessor companies. On this com- 
mittee were, President Hustis and Henry Day, representing 
the Boston & Maine; Gordon Abbott, representing the Fitch- 
burg; Phillip Dexter, representing the Boston & Lowell; W. 
H. McClintock, Richard Olney and Charles E. Gross, repre- 
senting the Connecticut River, and Benjamin A. Kimball and 
Walter M. Parker, representing the Concord & Montreal. 
At the directors' meeting of the Boston & Maine which 
followed the joint conference it was decided to ask holders 
of the $13,300,000 six per cent notes maturing July 17 to ex- 
tend these notes to August 31, and it was announced that this 
action was the result of the joint conference mentioned above. 
The Boston & Maine directors also asked the directors of the 
Vermont Valley and the Connecticut River to arrange for 
the renewal of the notes of these companies which amount 
to $2,300,000 for the Vermont Valley and $2,450,000 for the 
Connecticut River, to August 31. These notes mature July 17. 

Denver & Rio Grande. — A conference was held on July 11 be- 
tween various interests in the Gould estate to consider a pro- 
posal that the estate surrender its interest in the Texas & 
Pacific and the International & Great Northern and receive 
In return the Missouri Pacific's interest in the Denver & 
Rio Grande. While no statement as to the decision is given 
out, it is believed that the proposal was looked on favorably 
and it is also believed that the bankers — Kuhn, Loeb & Com- 
pany — financing the Missouri Pacific, are favorable to this plan. 
Should the plan go through, it is quite possible that one sys- 
tem would be made of the Missouri Pacific, Texas & Pacific 
and International & Great Northern. 

Great Northern. — This company has bought the Watertown & 
Sioux Falls Railroad from C. O. Kalman for a price said to 
lie $1,250,000. The road runs from Watertown, S. D., to Sioux 
Falls, S. D., 103 miles. It was formerly called the South 
Dakota Central. 

International & Great Northern. — See Denver & Rio Grande. 

Missouri Pacific. — See Denver & Rio Grande. 

New York, Chicago & St. Louis. — A group of Cleveland capital- 
ists have bought from the New York Central Railroad that 
company's majority holdings of the stock of the New York, 
Chicago & St. Louis. The price paid for this stock was $8,- 
500.000. The par value of the stock held by the New York 
Central on December 31, 1915, was $15,018,000, the total stock 
outstanding of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis being $30,- 
000,000. The New York Central carried this majority stock 
of the Nickel Plate on its book at a valuation of $8,447,747. 
It will be seen, therefore, that the sale price was approximately 
the same as the book value. It is announced that the new 
directors of the New York, Chicago & St. Louis are as 
follows : O. P. Van Sweringen, M. J. Van Sweringen, Warren 
S. Hayden, J. R. Nutt, M. B. Johnston, Charles L. 
Bradley, E. W. Moore, F. E. Myers, E. R. Tinker, G. M. 
Murphy and G. W. Davidson. Chaunccy M. Depew for the 
time being remains chairman of the board and William H. 
Canniff, president, also remains on the board of directors. 
The Nickel Plate operates 523 miles of road, of which 495 
miles are owned and lias outstanding beside the $30,000,000 
stock $28,569,000 bonds. In 1915 its gross earnings were $12,- 
536,380. It is earning at the rate of very considerably more 
than that in the present calendar year. 

Pennsylvania Railroad. — This company has sold to Kuhn, 
I "(b & Company, New York, $20,000,000 nine months' notes 
bearing interest at 3 g per cent annually. The notes have 
been placed privatelj bj Hie bankers. 

Texas & Pacific— -See Denver & Rio Grande. 

Wheeling & Lake Erie. — For the twelfth time the sale of this 
road under foreclosure has been postponed. A press dispatch 
from Cleveland making this announcement says it is rumored 

that the Erie might bid for the Wheeling & Lake Erie. 


Volume 61 

July 21, 1916 

Table of Contents 

No. 3 


Nickel Plate Now Independent 91 

Average Wage of Railway Employee* 91 

A Vital Need of the Car Department ' 92 

Lift Platforms at Freight Houses 92 

Mechanical Department and Locomotive Development 92 

Investigation of Regulation 93 

Stale and Private Railway Deficits in Canada 94 



Station Facilities; J. E. Raker 95 

A Suggestion for Railway Publicity; S. II. Smith 95 

Railway Equipment Hire 95 

The Diversity of Rail Specifications 95 

The Lately Revised Standard Code; J. L. Coss 96 

: lit Rates in Georgia 96 


*The Reconstruction of the Keokuk Bridge , 97 

*.Tohn J. Bernet ' jqq 

Mr. Acworth's Latest Reviev of the American Situation [ 101 

Congressional Investigation Assured ' ]Q2 

*A New Sheet Piling Section ' jy? 

Failure of Government Ownership in Canada; Samuel Dunn ' nn 

*W. II. Canniff ' " ' ]()l> 

'Pacific Type Locomotives for the Reading iqj 

One System of Cheeking L. C. L. Freight; W. F. Northrup. ...... ... 109 

Train Accidents in May ,,q 

"Lift Bridges at a Freight Platform HI 

Railway Regulation Causes Locomotor Ataxia; Frank Trumbull 113 

*Car for the Transportation of Live Fish jj^ 

'Position Light Signals on the Pennsylvania 117 

The War Wearing Out Imperial Trains: Walter S. lliatt 119 



Nickel Plate 


The New York Central Railroad has sold its stock — a ma- 
jority of the total outstanding — of the New York, Chicago & 
St. Louis to a syndicate of Cleveland 
bankers. The stock of the "Nickel 
Plate" was carried on the books of the 
New York Central at approximately 
$8,500,000, and this is the amount 
which the syndicate has agreed to pay for the stock. The 
"Nickel Plate" runs from Buffalo to the Illinois state line 
and leases a line from its western terminus to Grand Cross- 
ing, Illinois, from which point it has trackage rights over the 
New York Central into Chicago. It was built parallel to the 
Lake Shore not because there was any economic need for an 
additional railroad between Buffalo and Chicago, but to 
force the Vanderbilts to buy it through the practice of cut- 
throat competition. The total amount of dividends which 
the New York Central has received from the "Nickel Plate" 
has been, roughly, $6,200,000, which is for a period of 23 
years, so that if the book value of $8,500,000, at which the 
stock was carried, represents approximately its net cost, the 
New York Central has received a little over $260,000 a year, 
or not much over 3 per cent per annum on its investment. Ob- 
viously this was not a profitable investment, except in the neg- 
ative sense of having prevented disastrous competition. The 
sale of the stock now indicates that cut-throat competition is 
no longer a thing to be greatly feared. The reasons for the 
sale, therefore are easily understood, but there still remains 
the question of why anyone should want to buy a controlling 
block of stock which has averaged for the past 23 years only 
about 3 per cent on the purchase price. Apparently it indi- 
cates a belief on the part of the Cleveland capitalists that as 
an independent and intensively managed road, the "Nickel 
Plate" can be made to earn considerably more than it did 
as a part of the New York Central system. This is a rea- 
sonable belief. Some of the most conspicuous successes in 
very recent years in successful and profitable railroad man- 
agement have been the intensive development of compara- 
tive!) short lines. At the present time the company is mak- 
ing a tine showing, but the present volume of traffic cannol be 

expected to continue. The road lacks terminals both at 
Buffalo and at Chicago. 

The statistics of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the 
fiscal year ended on June 30, 1915, show that railways oper- 

Average Wage 
of Railway 

ating 224,859 miles of line reported 
that they employed an average of 1,- 
409,342 persons during the year and 
paid them in salaries and wages a total 
of $1,164,844,430. This makes an 
average per employee of $826.52. This figure is especially 
interesting because of the fact that it is the largest average 
compensation figure which ever could be calculated from the 
statistics of the Interstate Commerce Commission. It is in- 
teresting for another reason. Until 1915 the commission 
gave the number of persons employed by the railways on 
June 30 of each year and the total compensation paid to them 
during the year. It has always been contended that the 
average annual compensation figure arrived at by dividing 
the number of employees in June into the total compensation 
paid during the year was misleading. As already indicated, 
the statistics for 1915 give the average number of men em- 
ployed throughout the year. The average wages per year for 
the five vears 1910-14, as arrived at by the old method, were 
as follows: 1910, $673; 1911, $724; 1912, $732; 1913, 
$756; 1914, $810. The average for 1915, arrived at by 
using the average number of persons employed during the 
year, is just two per cent greater than the average for 1914, 
arrived at by the old method and ') per cent greater than that 
for 1913. In view of the loud complaints made by profes- 
sional statisticians, especially those in the pay of organized 
labor, regarding the old method of calculation, the similarity 
of the results obtained by the old and the new methods is 
somewhat amusing. The old method was not strictly scien- 
tific; but it gave approximately correct results; and the aver- 
age figure arrived at b) the new method shows the same 
thing as those arrived at by the old, viz., that railway em- 
ployees are, on the average, the best paid classes of workers 
ill the United States. 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

A car inspector must not only be thoroughly familiar with 
the details of car construction and operation, but must under- 
stand the application of the rules of 
A Vital Need interchange, which are growing more 
of the Car and more complicated each year; must 

p. know tlie safety appliance requirements 

P in detail; ofltimes is required to pass 

upon the loading of long materials, which is regulated by an 
extensive set of rules, and must understand the regulations 
lor the loading and handling of explosives. The car in- 
spector may also prove a most important factor in reducing 
the claims for loss and damage to freight. To understand 
the construction of cars, he must have served for some time 
in the capacity of a car repairer. The number of inspectors 
is so large that great difficulty is found in getting a sufficient 
number of capable men for this purpose and this difficulty is 
not improved by the low salaries which are paid to these men. 
A live, modern apprenticeship system for car department em- 
ployees would pay handsome returns even if it did no more 
than help satisfactorily to select and train men for this posi- 
tion; on the other hand, changes in car construction and the 
necessity for greater care in the maintenance and upkeep of 
cars requires a large force of car repairmen, and these men 
to be really efficient must possess considerable skill. Car 
department officers freely admit that some system of develop- 
ing and training these men should be adopted, and yet most 
of them hold up their hands and say it is impossible. It is 
possible, and it is possible to do it right. It requires hard 
work and painstaking effort, but the results are well worth 
while. Of the 974 apprentices on the Santa Fe on May 31, 
1916, 148 were freight car carpenter apprentices and 25 were 
car builder and coach carpenter apprentices. What the Santa 
Fe is doing other roads ought to be able to do. 

As the amount of business handled through a less-than-car- 

load freight house increases, additional track capacity can be 

. secured either by increasing the length 

Lirt Platforms n f t jj e h ouse and the platforms or by 

at adding more tracks. Beyond a certain 

i- . I . u point, each of these measures has se- 

Freight Houses L ' ,. .. ,. A ., , 

& nous limitations. As the house is 

lengthened the freight trucking distances increase. E. H. Lee 
ascertained in a study some two years ago that the freight 
haul increases 27.8 feet for each additional 100 ft. in the 
length of the house. As additional tracks are added the dif- 
ficulty of reaching cars on those farthest removed from the 
house increases rapidly. As a result five or six tracks are 
generally considered a practical maximum. The common 
practice in reaching the outside cars is to truck through the 
doorways of the intervening cars. This requires that the run- 
ways be kept open and prevents the stacking of freight in the 
doorways. In an inbound freight house this practice requires 
the removal of all freight from the doors before the outside 
cars can be reached, resulting in an additional handling of 
a considerable tonnage, with increased liability of damage 
and a confusion of shipments. The practice of trucking 
through cars also results in interference between truckers, 
even under the most careful routing. To avoid this difficulty 
at some stations the cars have been divided at intervals of 
perhaps 200 ft. and temporary cross platforms have been 
constructed which can be removed readily whenever switch- 
ing is to be done. This is an improvement over the trucking 
through the cars but the placing and removing of these run- 
ways require attention and labor. To simplify this, the Santa 
Fe has installed platforms at its freight house at Los An- 
geles which are lifted mechanically as described elsewhere in 
this issue. This system has obvious merit, and will prob- 
ably meet with adoption at other stations. A further possi- 
bility is the raising of these transfer bridges vertically to clear 
• .ii rather than from one end as is done at Los Angeles. 


U"1(tHT or ten years ago there was a widespread belief 
that the end of a comparatively short period would see 
the steam locomotive largely replaced by electric power. To- 
day the steam locomotive in America has reached a point of 
development which even the greatest visionary would not 
have attempted to predict fifteen years ago. Moreover, the 
highest point in this development has not yet been reached; 
there is no question that the steam locomotive will gain much 
in both sustained power and economy within the next few 

In introducing refinements in the American locomotive it 
was natural that designers should follow, more or less closely, 
lines laid down in European practice. European railway 
engineers had forced on them the necessity for more refined 
design long before this was considered necessary in America. 
Many of the most meritorious examples of European locomo- 
tive work are results of the engineering practice of the rail- 
ways' own mechanical engineering officers. There was a time 
in the history of American railroads when a similar state- 
ment would have been true; allowing for a few brilliant ex- 
ceptions, such a statement cannot be made today. The pres- 
ent high point which has been attained in the development of 
the locomotive in this country has been reached mainly be- 
cause of the energy and resourcefulness of manufacturers of 
locomotives and locomotive equipment. 

It is a sad commentary on the mechanical department, but 
it is nevertheless true, that there is very little real mechanical 
engineering being done in the average American railroad 
drawing office, and this is said without any reflection on the 
ability of very many of our mechanical department officers. 
How many railroad executives have encouraged the mechan- 
ical department in the production of original work in loco- 
motive and car design? How many have been willing to 
provide the necessary funds to carry out such work intelli- 
gently and effectively, even if they were in favor of it? Very 
few. The mechanical department of the average American 
railroad has been treated as a necessary evil for years; it has 
been permitted a ridiculously inadequate and underpaid staff 
which has been forced to do its work with inefficient and very 
frequently antiquated equipment. There has been no pro- 
vision made, in any but a very few cases, to build up a staff 
of officers and men for the future and thus encourage the 
best work of employees from year to year, looking toward a 
continual improvement and expansion of the road's mechan- 
ical practice. The result has been haphazard, hand-to-mouth 

Fortunately, some few railway men and manufacturers of 
railway equipment were big enough and broad enough to se? 
the possibilities in the development of the locomotive and it 
is to them that the railways owe in large measure their pres- 
ent ability to move traffic in such large trainloads and at 
such low costs. Railway officers in general, and the higher 
executive officers in particular, may not like the idea of going 
outside their own organizations for advice and assistance on 
the improvement of their motive power and its operation, but 
the manufacturers are today and have been for some years 
providing a service to American railroads, the value of which 
is beyond stating in dollars and cents. It has been the manu- 
facturers who have developed and perfected the economv- 
and capacity-producing features of the present-day American 
locomotive and it will have to be generally admitted that they 
have done and still are doing their work exceedingly well. 

Much of the recent development might have been carried 
out by the railways themselves. The executives have them- 
selves to thank that it was not so carried out; but there is 
still enormous possibility for the railroad mechanical depart 
nient to improve the steam locomotive in the future, both by 
closer hi operation with the manufacturers and by closer and 

July 21, 1916 



more comprehensive attention to mechanical engineering mat- 
ters by the roads themselves. It remains with the executive 
officers as to whether at least part of the credit for future 
developments shall rest with the mechanical departments of 
our railways or whether all of it, like the credit for the great 
majority of the improvements of the past ten years, shall go 
to the manufacturers. 


DOTH houses finally have passed the resolution providing 
*-* for an investigation by a joint committee of Congress 
of the entire subject of regulation of railways. This in- 
vestigation will be, or at least should be, the most important 
affecting transportation ever conducted in the United States. 
There can be no doubt as to the question to which it will 
principally relate. It will undoubtedly be directed chiefly 
toward ascertaining the desirability of substituting exclusive 
federal regulation for the present system of both federal and 
state regulation, or at least of completely subordinating state 
to federal control. 

The more enlightened class of public men and the better 
informed part of the public already appreciate the fact tha< 
the present policy of regulation has many shortcomings, 
and that most of them grow out of the duplications and con- 
flirts of federal and state control. On the other hand, there are 
public men who believe that regulation should be made more 
rather than less drastic; who are aware that state regulation 
usually has been more drastic than federal; and who are 
therefore opposed to any interference by the federal govern- 
ment with state regulation. No man in public life has been 
so uniformly successful in getting on the wrong side of pub- 
lic questions as William J. Bryan. Naturally, therefore, 
we find him rushing to the defense of state regulation and 
denouncing in a recent issue of the Commoner as "Another 
Railroad Plot'' the movement for making federal regulation 
paramount. It must be admitted that a majority of railway 
managers have become convinced that it is desirable from 
the standpoint of the transportation companies for federal 
regulation to be made not only paramount but, if practicable, 
actually exclusive. Men like Mr. Bryan, Senator La Fol- 
lette and Clifford Thorne, who act always on the enlight- 
ened principle that whatever may be good for the railways 
must be bad for the public, have no difficulty, therefore, in 
deciding where they will take their stand. If the railway 
managers favored exclusive state regulation they would ad- 
vocate federal regulation. Since the railway managers favor 
exclusive federal regulation they leap to the defense of 
'States' rights." But experience has shown, contrary to the 
political and economic philosophy of the Bryan-LaFollette- 
Thorne school of statesmen, that what is bad for the rail- 
ways is not necessarily good for the public, and that what is 
good for the public is not necessarily bad for the railways. 
It is certainly true as to the subordination of state to fed- 
eral control that it is even more to the interest of the public 
than of the railways that the proposed change should be 

1 lie reasons why the public suffers from the present sys- 
tem of regulations were eloquently and forcibly pointed out 
by Frank Trumbull, chairman of the Chesapeake & Ohio, 
and also chairman of the Railway Executives Advisory Com- 
mittee, in a recent address to the National Hay Association, 
which is published elsewhere in this issue of the Railway 
Age Gazette. The duplication of federal and state regula- 
tion causes a very large amount of unnecessary expense to the 
national and state governments — in other words, directly to 
the public itself. It also causes a large amount of needless 
expense to the railways. For example, as a result of this 
duplication the carriers have to make nearly 2,000,000 re- 
ports of multifarious kinds to public bodies annually. The 
cost of making these reports goes into railway operating 

expenses and ultimately is paid by the public in the form of 
freight and passenger rates. The policies followed by the 
federal and state regulating authorities often are grossly in- 
consistent. For example, some states burden the railways 
with laws requiring extra men in train crews and fix tin- 
maximum passenger fare at two (cuts a mile. The Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, in its regulation of interstate 
commerce, does not require extra men in train crews, and 
allows a rate higher than two cents to be charged. Now, 
it cannot be reasonable, right or expedient for the Interstate 
Commerce Commission to regulate the interstate rates and 
operation of the railways in Ohio, for example, in one way, 
and for the state authorities of Ohio to regulate state traffic 
in Ohio in an entirely different way. Either the federal or 
the state regulation is unreasonable and unfair. 

Since federal and state regulation obviously result in un- 
necessary waste of public money, and since wherever they 
differ one or the other must be unreasonable and unfair, it 
necessarily follows that one or the other ought to be either 
completely subordinated or abolished. Mr. Bryan and those 
who think as he does defend state regulation and say it 
ought not to be abolished. Perhaps the joint committee of 
Congress appointed to make the investigation, and sub 
sequently Congress itself, will agree with Mr. Bryan. In 
that case let them be consistent. Let the joint committee rec- 
ommend the complete abolition of federal regulation and 
Cong-ess pass a law relegating regulation entirely to the 
states. On the other hand, the joint committee and Con- 
gress may differ from Mr. Bryan and those who think as 
he does, and believe that federal regulation is more desir- 
able than state. If so, let them be consistent and recommend 
and enact the measures necessary to either subordinate or 
abolish state regulation. Both the railways and the publii 
would be better off under either system than under both. 

Mr. Bryan quotes the plank of the Democratic national 
platform of 1908, which asserted "the right of Congress to 
exercise complete control over interstate commerce and the 
right of each state to exercise like control over commerce 
within its borders." This, he says, states the correct prin- 
ciple. It will be recalled that Mr. Bryan some years before 
he wrote this plank, which he now so highly approves, made 
a speech at Madison Square Garden in New York, in which 
he advocated government ownership of railways in the 
United States, and proposed that the federal government 
should own and manage the main lines and the states the 
branch lines. Everybody except Mr. Bryan saw at once that 
this proposal was the product of a mind constitutionally in- 
capable of thinking straight. The principle of regulation 
which he upholds is equally impracticable. Experience has 
demonstrated that it is not possible for Congress "to exercise 
complete control over interstate commerce" and at the same 
time for "each state to exercise like control over commerce 
within its borders." Experience has shown and is showing at 
this moment, that when the states exercise complete control 
over commerce within their borders they interfere- with similar 
regulation of interstate commerce by the national govern- 
ment, and vice versa. Commerce and transportation within 
the states and among the states are one and inseparable. 
Regulation which ignores this fact is based upon unsound 
principles and is bound to have bad results. 

The concentration of regulation in the national government 
and the- increase of federal regulation so that it would cover 
in a reasonable manner all the phases of rale making, opera- 
tion and finance which the puUic interesl ma) require would 
benefil the railways, but at the same time it would benefit 
the publii still more. Fortunately, whether the Repub- 
lican Or the Democratic candidate for President is elected the 
nation will have at its head during the next live wars a man 
whose mind is influenced not by the considerations that 
appeal to demagogues but by those that appeal to statesmen; 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

and \^ith such a man at the head of affairs both the railways 
and the public can rest assmvd that the question of federal 
vs. state regulation ultimately will be determined not by the 
fear that some good may be done to the railways, hut by 
the desire to do the greatest practicable good for the public. 

T H1 


tE subject of government ownership of railways in 
Canada is one of peculiar interest at this time. The in- 
crease in railway mileage in that country within recent years 
has been greater in proportion than ever took place in any 
other country, except in the years from 1860 to 1880 in the 
United States. In 1905 Canada had only 20,487 miles of 
railway. In 1910 it had 24,731 miles, and in 1915, 35,582 
miles. The increase in the 10 years from 1905 to 1915 was 
73 per cent, and in the 5 years from 1910 to 1915, 44 per 
cent. Part of this mileage was built by the government and 
a larger part by private companies, but the construction of 
most of the private mileage was subsidized by the government 
in various ways. There recently has been a crisis in railway 
affairs in that country. The two private companies which 
have built the most new mileage, the Grand Trunk Pacific 
and the Canadian Northern, have failed to earn their fixed 
charges and have had to appeal to the government to pay the 
interest it has guaranteed for them. The principal reasons 
why they have not earned their fixed charges are obvious. 
These are, that they are new lines in undeveloped territory, 
that, in respect of railways, the country is temporarily over- 
built; and that these lines were opened for traffic when the 
nation was involved in a great war. Most of the private mile- 
age of Canada has become able in due time to earn a return 
on its investment. It is fair to assume that in the course 
of a few years these new railways, if also left in private 
hands, will become able to do so. 

Nevertheless, the fact that the public has had to pay some 
of the interest that it guaranteed for them, is being used as 
an argument for the government taking them over and op- 
erating them. The Minister of Finance in discussing the 
matter in parliament on May 15, said: "This situation must 
be faced; there must be an end to this annual coming to the 
government by these two railway companies for relief." Com- 
parison of this statement with the facts regarding the way in 
which the affairs of the railways now owned by the Cana- 
dian government have been handled affords a delicious ex- 
ample of governmental inconsistency. The Intercolonial has 
been owned and managed by the Dominion since 1867. 
Never in a single year during that time has it earned both 
its operating expenses and interest on the investment in it. 
In other words, in every single year it has had an actual defi- 
cit, and has had to draw upon the public treasury at the 
expense of the taxpayers. The total loss it has inflicted on 
the taxpayers cannot be exactly stated because the accounts 
have been so kept that the amount of interest which the gov- 
ernment has had to pay on the investment in it cannot be 
ascertained. But, as shown in an article published in this 
paper last week, the total loss it has incurred is approximately 
$250,000,000. In another article published elsewhere in the 
present issue of the Railway Age Gazette the reasons why 
the government railways have been a financial failure are set 
forth. Nobody in Canada seems to suggest that the Inter- 
colonial, which government management has had 50 years 
of opportunity to make a paying property, shall be put on a 
self-supporting basis. It seems to be taken as a matter of 
course that it must annually for all time come to the public 
crib for relief. But when two new railways opened by pri- 
vate companies fail, in a period when conditions are alto- 
gether unfavorable, to earn interest which the government has 
guaranteed, the finance minister announces that "there must 
be an end to this annual coming to the government by these 

two railway companies for relief." And yet the results for 
the government and the taxpayers of paying the deficit of a 
railway owned by the government are exactly the same as 
those of paying the deficits of railways owned by private 

What remedy does the finance minister propose to apply 
if these private railways continue to have deficits which must 
be paid by the public? The temporary relief the government 
has given "enables these roads," the finance minister says, 
"to continue until such time as, upon the best advice that 
we can get, we shall be able to suggest some permanent solu- 
tion, which I believe will probably involve the taking over 
by this government of one or more of the existing railway 
systems, and which, as I stated, may involve later on the 
nationalization of all the railway systems of Canada." Oh, 
wise finance minister! The government railways of Canada 
never up to the present moment have earned even their operat- 
ing expenses; and yet, according to the finance minister, the 
proper remedy to apply to the deficits now being incurred by 
certain private railways is government ownership! If past 
experience in Canada may be taken as indicating future de- 
velopments, the government, by adopting the finance min- 
ister's remedy, would abolish the temporary deficits of the 
private railways by the device of converting them into much 
larger permanent deficits of state railways. What a happy 
prospect for the Canadian taxpayer! 

But let us not be too severe on the minister of finance. Not 
only he, but most of the people, and most of the public men 
of Canada spare themselves the inconvenience which would 
be caused by the feeling that something must be done to 
remedy the deplorable and costly situation of the government 
railways by the simple expedient of ignoring that situation 
or of actually keeping themselves in ignorance about it. On 
the other hand, they cannot avoid knowing what the situa- 
tion is with respect to the private railways whose interest the 
government has guaranteed. If these roads fail to earn their' 
fixed charges the government must pay what it has agreed 
to, and this requires specific legislation appropriating specific 
amounts from the public treasury. The contributions from 
the public treasury in payment of the deficits of the state 
railways are just as real, but not so unmistakable and spe- 
cific. The difference between them recalls the story of the 
diminutive Hebrew commercial traveler who, after his em- 
ployer had chided him for putting a suit of clothes in his 
expense account, revised it, but made it amount to the same 
total as before. His employer expressing satisfaction with the 
revised edition, but inquiring how it happened to come to 
just the same total as the original one, the little Hebrew re- 
plied, "Veil, the difference is, the suit of clothes is still in 
there, only you can't see it." 

The suggestion that Canada, which has paid a deficit re- 
sulting from government ownership of railways in every 
year since it has owned railways, shall acquire certain pri- 
vate railways in order to avoid paying railway deficits, might 
be accepted as one of the humors of the silly season were it 
not so striking an illustration of the grotesque inconsistency 
and ignorance so often manifested by the officials of demo- 
cratic government in dealing with business problems. 


Corrosion of Iron. — P>y L. C. Wilson, Hound in cloth. 169 pages, 4fi i«. 
by 1 l A in. Published by The Kngineering Magazine Company, 140 
Nassau street, New York. Price $2. 

This book is a revision of a series of articles recently pub- 
lished in The Engineering Magazine. The author's purpose 
has been to assemble and condense the most interesting and 
important studies and facts connected with the corrosion of 
iron and its protection therefrom. Considerable practical in- 
formation is included concerning materials available for the 
preservation of iron and steel. 

July 21, 1916 



„ ,,,iiiiiil 11III1IIII II II lllllllIllllMIIllilllirilllll llllllllllllltlllllttllllllllllllirMllllllllllllltlllMlIIIMlllIMIIIMl^ 

E = 

Letters to the Editor 

I i 

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Ann Arbor, Mich. 

To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

May I venture a suggestion with respect to the facilities 
offered in the more pretentious passenger stations of our 
larger cities ? 

I have had occasion to visit several of the very fine sta- 
tions built during the past few years. The interior is fin- 
ished in expensive stone, the ceiling is decorated with mosaic, 
the furniture is mahogany, or something equally expensive. 
So when a mother travels with a live brood of three or four 
restless youngsters, she and the matron and the janitor are 
busy keeping these hustling innocents from using the settees 
as a runway and otherwise defacing the expensive finish. In 
addition to saving the mother the worry of having others cor- 
rect her offspring, wouldn't it be as cheap to have a room 
plainly finished, somewhere adjoining the main waiting room, 
furnished with a few ordinary rocking chairs, a sand box, 
I teeter, and a few things like that, — as many department 
stores do? J. E. Baker. 


Jamestown, Cal. 

To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

In the edition of June 16 I note a very readable article 
mi the subject of "Where German Efficiency Falls Down," 
and what occurred to me particularly was the comparison of 
charges for passenger and freight service and cost of same. 

It occurs to me that is would be a very good idea for the 
railroads to get a set of moving pictures, showing the vari- 
ous types of passenger and freight cars in the European 
countries, and the interior of coaches as well as the exterior 
and along side of these the views of the American coaches. 
It would also he a good idea to show how these cars look when 
they are in motion with the crowded coaches and people stand- 
ing up. 

A set of slides showing the comparisons of fares and 
charges for goods should also be shown and these latter, I 
would suggest, should be shown on the screen from a differ- 
ent machine so that they could be there permanently, at least 
for a long enough time for the people to read and digest them. 

These pictures could then be sent around to the different 
moving picture places. The larger railroads could send ex- 
hibits to various places individually. I believe that they 
would work up a very good feeling for the roads in this 
country. S. H. Smith, 

Traffic Manager, Sierra Railway. 


Chicago, 111. 

I" niE Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

I quote below from an article published in the Wall Street 
Journal of April 21. It is evident that the author, like 95 
per cent of the public, is not familiar with M. C. B. Rules, 
which govern all car repairs, when he states: 

"The using road is supposed to repair any dam- 
age to the cars, sustained while they are in its cus- 
tody, or pay the owner for such repairs." 
While it should be this way, it is, in fact, quite the contrary. 
For nearly every repair that is made to a car by the borrow- 
ing road, a charge is made to the owner of the car. Not only 
this, but all wheels, axles, brasses, brake shoes and wearing 
parts on the car are charged to the owner of the car by the 
using road, which items are just as much an operating expense 

as coal, lubricants or any other expenses incurred in opera- 
tion. In most cases the average cost of maintaining these 
items runs as high as $7 or $8 per month per car, and if a 
borrowing road is relieved of this expense, certainly, in their 
reports this item of operating expense should be credited to 
car hire balance and charged to the road's operating expense. 
For the above reason, and the fact that on the road's own cars 
no interest, depreciation or banker's commissions on the cost 
of cars are charged to operating expense, many receivers, to 
make a favorable showing, urge the issuance of receiver's 
certificates to build cars, when it would have been far cheaper 
to have hired or used foreign cars instead of incurring 
obligations which must be taken care of before reorganiza- 
tion is possible. This often works great harm to the stock- 
holders and seriously delays reorganization, particularly in 
view of the fact that it is a question, under present M. C. B. 
rules, if it is not cheaper for a road to use foreign cars than 
to build cars for its own use. An Investor. 


New York, N. Y. 

To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

At the recent American Iron and Steel Institute meeting 
two representatives of the Steel Corporation mentioned the 
desirability from a manufacturing standpoint of a common 
specification for rails. The inference was that the difference 
in existing specifications is not so great but that a common 
standard could be easily attained. The statements and inti- 
mations suggest the inquiry as to who is responsible for this 
not having been done long ago. 

Disregarding minor differences in chemical composition 
and sundry details as to manufacture, rail specifications 
differ now mostly with respect to physical testing and rejec- 
tion conditions. Thus there are five principal specifications: 

1. Manufacturers standard — No tests and no rejections 
for piping and segregation. 

2. A. R. E. A. — Three tests from each heat for piping and 
segregation and rejection of rails accordingly. 

3. A. S. T. M. — Practically the same as the A. R. E. A., 
but rails found piped and segregated are accepted as "special 

4. Nick and break test. — Piece of the top rails of each 
ingot are nicked and broken and the rail- represented rejected 
if piped or segregated. 

5. Pennsylvania — Similar to the A. R. E. A. with special 
chemical tests required. 

It has been stated repeatedly that piping and segregation 
form the curse of the rail situation, failures attributed to such 
causes being estimated at from 40 to 60 per cent of the total. 
No good reason exists for inflicting the railroads with so large 
a quantity of obviously defective steel, yet for those specifica- 
tions above which permit of detecting and rejecting unsound 
rails, viz.: numbers 2, 4 and 5, the manufacturers charge a 
premium above the stipulated price of rails and evidently 
take pains to make this enough in the case of the nick and 
break test specification and the Pennsylvania specification to 
render them practically prohibitive of general adoption. 

A few years ago the railroads yielded to the rail manufac- 
turers' demand for improved balanced sections. This was an 
item of great expense for the roads to bear as any change of 
standards must be. Later the railroads were more or less 
forced to take open hearth steel in lieu of Bessemer at a cost 
of $2 per ton more, although there is little doubt but that the 
change was beneficial. Then came a horizontal increased 
price for rails amounting to $5 per ton, and now the distant 
i rv is for heavier sections with corresponding increased costs. 
Thus it would seem that continually the railroads bear the 
burden while the manufacturers sit complacently, controlling 
in many respects not only the situation, but the policy as well 
by foisting certain specifications on the railroads against 
others admittedly superior and more protective. Surely the 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

manufacturers should be the last to complain of the lack of 
a common specification. The railroads individually and 
through the rail committee of the American Railway Engi- 
neering Association, have tried, and the responsibility for 
lack of success is well recognized. A. B. C. 


IIaii.eyville, Okla. 

To the Editor of the Railway Ace Gazette: 

With the lately revised standard code we fully expected a 
very substantial reduction in the length of some of the forms 
of train orders; but it appears that there is yet ample space 
for improvement. No one knows this better than the train 
despatcher, who rehearses the different forms every day. If 
he asks his superintendent why it is necessary to use such and 
such forms when one a great deal shorter would answer the 
purpose, about the only satisfaction he gets is that it is 

Form "E," for wait orders, still provides for the word 
"until" before each time shown. Such a repetition certainly 
seems unnecessary. The omission of the word would not 
have any effect on the understanding of the order. 

Form K is lengthened by the addition of three words, 
when, as a matter of fact, it could be shortened three words 
(the last three, A to Z). Why is it necessary to put in the 
words "due to leave"? Simply saying "No. 1 of February 
29th is annulled" will convey all the information necessary. 
Employees will understand it. No. l's schedule is over a 
certain piece of track, and that only, and when a man gets 
an order that No. 1 of such a date is annulled he understands 
just exactly where No. 1 is annulled. In annulling a sched- 
ule part way over the division, it is, of course, necessary to 
give the details. 

Form G could be eliminated. When it is necessary to run 
an engine extra all the requirements could be embodied in 
the clearance card handed out at the terminal, with the ex- 
ception of meeting points with opposing trains. The clear- 
ance card is issued on the authority of the despatcher and it 
would specify that this particular engine would use the track 
between certain points as an extra train. This procedure 
would also answer for sections of trains, Form F. 

It is good to see the elimination of Example 3, Form G, 
which did not amount to much, any way. It was a burden 
to the despatchers to put it out and to the operators to copy it. 

There is an agitation now on the part of some to make 
time-table meeting points between trains of same class posi- 
tive. It is claimed that this will reduce the number of train 
orders. But the proposed plan would have its drawbacks as 
well as its good qualities. However, with a little more cen- 
soring there could be a great reduction in the length of the 
orders now used, thus relieving the despatchers and operators 
of a good deal of work. 

The subject of efficiency tests should receive attention in 
connection with the despatching rules. How many of the 
inspectors undertake to find out if the last paragraph of 
Rule 210 is lived up to? It says, "Enginemen must show 
train orders to firemen and when practicable must show 
trainmen. Conductors must show train orders when prac^ 
ticable to trainmen." The phrase "when practicable" pretty 
nearly nullifies the rule, for it leaves a loop-hole for the con- 
ductor to omit the duty unless he feels like it. Nothing is 
more important than that the conductor know that all mem- 
bers of his crew, at all times, understand the train orders in 
effect. He is not able at any time to foresee what will hap- 
pen in the future, and should an accident befall him, and his 
brakemen not know what was going on, a serious accident 
might result. I have been told by both brakemen and fire 
men that they have gone over their entire division without 
knowing anything about the train orders that had been re- 
ceived on the trip. Firemen and brakemen should be recjuircd 
to report to the superintendent when such a condition exists, 

and action should be taken with the negligent conductor or 
engineman. The trainmaster, the traveling engineer and the 
inspector of train service should make this matter one of the 
most important, when on the road, and see that the intent of 
the rule is carried out. I have traveled considerably both by 
freight and passenger and have never known a time during 
any trip that it was not practicable for the conductor to show 
his train orders to the rear brakeman and usually to all the 
men of the crew. 

It would be a good plan, and it was in effect on one line 
where I worked, for the operator in copying orders to make 
an additional copy. This was handed to the flagman or rear 
brakemen. J. L. Coss. 


Atlanta, Ga, 

To the Editor of the Railway Age Gazette: 

Considerably more than two-thirds of the freight trans 
ported in Georgia moves under the rates confined to par- 
ticular commodities, and the question whether the rates are 
high or low therefore is not illuminated by the comparison 
that has been made by the Georgia Shippers' Association, 
which comparison has to do only with the six higher classes. 
This point should be stated as a supplementary fact in con- 
nection with the news item printed, in your issue of July 14, 
page 82, relative to the hearing which is to be had before 
the Georgia Railroad Commission beginning August 17. 
The rates in Georgia, on hundreds of the most important 
commodities and those moving in the heaviest volume, are 
lower than in the states north of Georgia, so that as a whole 
the freight tariffs in Georgia are substantially lower than 
those in any other southern state. 

In a general complaint brought by the Atlanta Freight 
Bureau against the railroads of the state a number of 
years ago, the commission formally found that the rates pro- 
mulgated by it were as a whole lower than the rates estab- 
lished by the commissions of other southern states. And the 
situation in Georgia today is more favorable to the shipper 
than in past years because of the smaller number of excep- 
tions to the southern classification which are now in effect 
in the other southern states. 

There arc other details in which the comparisons between 
Georgia and other states need explanation. For example, 
in the other states, the rate for 25 miles applies to any 
distance over 20 miles, whereas in Georgia the 20-mile rate 
applies up to 22 miles. 

As the result of the efforts of shippers of each state to se- 
cure rates lower than the rates paid by shippers of neigh- 
boring states, and by interstate shippers, Georgia now has 
no two systems of rates alike, and, as a consequence, there 
are numerous discriminations and inequalities, which the 
railroads are seeking to remove, with the cooperation of the 
various state regulatory bodies. 

It is for the purpose of perfecting a rate adjustment for 
the entire southeast, which would eliminate such discrimina- 
tions and discrepancies between intrastate rates in the dif- 
ferent states, and between intrastate rates and interstate rates, 
that the railroads have proposed the readjustment in Georgia 
which they are now asking the railroad commission to ap- 
prove. They are submitting similar petitions to the com- 
missions of other southern states. There is no doubt that the 
readjustment proposed would give a reasonable system of 
rates under which every shipper would pay like charge! 
for similar services; but such a readjustment cannot he made 
without increasing rates between points where they are now 
relatively low, and on commodities which do not pay their 
just share of the cost of transportation. No fair adjustment 
can be reached without increasing some rates, for to make 
an adjustment by reducing every rate to the level of the low- 
est now in effect in any state in the southeast would bank- 
rupt the carriers. C. G. A. 

The Reconstruction of the Keokuk Bridge 


New Spans Across Mississippi River Replace Old Ones 
Built in 1871. Original Piers Carry the New Structure 

*&* w -.-*fc v -^ . 

The Bridge with One Old Span Remaining 

THE erection of a new superstructure for the 
Keokuk and Hamilton bridge over the Mississippi 
River at Keokuk, Iowa, has just been completed, 
thereby replacing 11 old spans of cast and wrought iron 
which had carried rail and highway traffic across the river 
for more than 45 years. Considerable interest is attached 
to the details of the old structure and the excellent condition 
of the material after its long period of service. The bridge 
carries a miscellaneous traffic consisting of trains of the 
Keokuk branch of the Wabash, of the Toledo, Peoria & 
Western, and of an interurban line, as well as highway traf- 
fic. The steam road traffic consists of six trains each way 
daily and the interurban business of a car each way every 

The bridge is located about one-half mile south of the dam 
and power plant of the Mississippi River Power Company, 
and the Government lock. The bridge, exclusive of ap- 
proaches, is 2,194 ft. long and consists of 10 fixed spans and 
| a draw span. Commencing at the east abutment there are 
eight spans varying from 148 to 162 ft. in length, followed 
by two spans of 254^ ft. with a draw span adjacent to the 
west abutment, having a total length of 380 ft. The piers 
and abutments are all founded on rock at a maximum depth 
of 50 ft. below the base of rail. All of the piers are on a 
slight skew to the northeast. 

Interesting Old Spans 

The old structure, built in 1869 and 1870, and placed in 
service early in 1871, presented many features of interest. 
The old spans were all Whipple trusses, having parallel 
chords with the exception of the draw span, the top chords 
oi which were slightly bowed. The end and intermediate 
posts were made up of Carnegie octagonal columns, the top 
chords of two I-beams, two channels and a cover plate, the 
bottom chords of eye-bars, the diagonals and all laterals of 
loop bars, and the top lateral struts of tubular sections of 
cast iron. Cast iron joints were provided at the panel points 
i to facilitate the connection of the members. There was al- 
most a total absence of splice plates or other means of afford- 
ing a positive connection of the compression members, the 
dead load stresses being relied upon to bold the Structure 

The bridge was a through structure carrying all traffic on 
one deck, the trusses being placed 21 ft. 6 in. center to center 
tc afford an adequate driveway, with a single railroad track 
in the center; a sidewalk was carried outside the trusses on 
either side. The track and driveway floor was carried on 
timber cross ties, supported on two wooden stringers under 
each rail, with a jack stringer next to each truss. The floor 
beams, of unusual design for this day, consisted of two 10-in. 
channels, trussed by means of eye-bars and cast iron posts. 
The old structure was built and owned by the Keokuk & 
Hamilton Bridge Company and was a toll bridge, an arbi- 
trary being imposed on the steam road and interurban traffic. 
The new bridge is being financed by the same interests and 
the existing traffic arrangements will continue. 

The New Bridge 

The new superstructure for the eight shorter spans at the 
east end of the bridge consists of parallel chord riveted Pratt 
trusses. The two 2 5 \ l /z -ft. spans are curved chord Pratt 
trusses with riveted top chords and eye-bar bottom chords. 
The swing span consists of two riveted spans, made partially 
continuous by eye-bar connections to the tower over the pivot 

As most of the old substructure was in good condition, the 
new superstructure has been placed on the old piers, with 
the exception of one which was partially rebuilt. On account 
of a difference in the floor depth the old piers have had to 
be cut down and capped with concrete. The old center pier 
is hollow, consisting of a circular wall under the drum with 
a central column under the center casting. In preparing this 
for the new superstructure the circular wall and central col- 
umn were covered with a reinforced concrete slab. 

An improvement has been obtained in the new structure 
through the separation of the highway traffic from the rail 
traffic by placing the former on an upper deck. This has 
necessitated a viaduct 600 ft. long on the west side of the 
river and one of 360 ft. on the east side. Owing to the fact 
that the business district of Keokuk is at a considerable ele- 
vation above the railroad tracks, the approach viaduct on the 
city side is a convenience rather than a detriment. On the 
east side of the river an incline on a 6 per cent, grade is 
necessary. The removal of the highway traffic from the 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

lower deck has permitted a reduction of the distance between 
trusses to 16 ft. 7 in. for the eight short spans and 20 ft. 6 in. 
for the others and the use of the ordinary floor beam and 
stringer floor system, with an open timber deck. 

The upper deck has a creosoted wood block roadway tor 
the team traffic and a sidewalk 4 ft. 6 in. wide, cantilevered 
out on the- sooth side. The floor is carried on wooden string- 
ers having from 7 to 10 ft. spans, supported on 15-in. 4 lb. 
[-beams, spanning from truss to truss. On the eight short 
spans the highway deck is carried on top of the top chords 
of the trusses. In the draw span and the two curved chord 
spans the deek is carried between the trusses, longitudinal 

machinery, a 37-hp. motor operating on a 25-cycle, 440-volt 
circu il and a 14-hp. 2-cycle Fairbanks-Morse marine gas 
engine, operating at 800 r. p. m. The machinery is arranged 
SO that it may he operated by either, the single: unit perform- 
in. all functions in either case. The motor Will he used 
ordinarily, the gas engine serving merely as an alternative 
source of power in case of a failure of the current. I he mo- 

> of tongue heat treated 
I" Turned bolts. 



■['Turned bolts 

The Rail Lock 

girders being provided just inside of each truss to carry the 
floor system, these girders being supported at each post by 
connections to the cross frames. 

The Swing Span 
The center of the swing span is of the rim bearing type 
and has a four-support loading arrangement. The bottom 
chords of the trusses pass directly over the drum and the con- 
centrations of the end posts and the tower posts are transmit- 

The Pivot Pier and Tower 

tor is connected to the machinery by a hand-operated clutch 
which may be thrown into gear either with the swing ma- 
chinery or the longitudinal shafting connecting to the ma- 
chinery at each end of the span. J 
These longitudinal shafts are connected by two clutches to 

Locomotive Crane Placing False Work Under the Last Old Span 

ted directly through the bottom chords to the drum, there be- 
ing no intermediate loading girders. The rollers are secured 
between two concentric rings; a stiff structural ring on he 
inside and a lighter flexible ring on the the ins de 
ring being rigidly connected to the center by a system of stiff 
radial struts. With this arrangement the roller shafts a.e 
simply short axles ....meeting the rollers to the two rings. 
TWO Sources of power are provided for operating the bridge 

the end lifts and the rail locks, but through a peculiar trip 
arrangement these clutches are alternately operative and in- 
operative, thereby automatically effecting the alternate oper- 
ation of the end lift and the rail lock in the proper sequence 
Thus in opening the bridge the end machmery first with 
draws the rail lock and with the completion oi this function, 
the c i ut ches are shifted automatically, putting the end lift 
machinery in motion to lower the end oi the bridge. Ln« 

July 21, 1916 



operator, observing the completion of this operation on a 
mechanical indicator, shifts his hand clutch and the bridge 
commences to swing. When the bridge is being closed all of 
the operations are reversed. 

As shown in one of the accompanying drawings the end 
lifts are of a type which serves to center the bridge auto- 
matically and will readily overcome the warping effect re- 
sulting from the unequal expansion of the two sides of the 
structure. The ends of the spans are raised by forcing the 

Highway Deck of One of the Two 154^ ft. Spans 

toggles from an inclined to a vertical position, the rollers at 
the lower ends of the toggles being in contact with the in- 
clined bearing surfaces. As the toggles are raised, the rollers 
roll down the inclines to the lowest position, after which any 
further movement of the toggles serves to center the ends of 
the span. 
The rail locks are of the sliding tongue type as shown. A 

Bottom chord 

The End Lift 

new development in tliis case is the use of steel ties under the 
ends of the rails, a measure adopted because of the rapid 
crushing of wooden ties as a consequence of the impact ob- 
taining when the wheels pass over the gap in the rails. The 
tongues of the rail locks are of uniform section throughout 
except for the bevels on the top surface. Instead of being 
provided with a removable head which may be replaced when 
worn out, they are cast in a single piece and the top surface 
is treated by the "Stroh" hardening process. The rail traf- 

fic being relatively light and with moderate loading, it is not 
expected that the wear of the rail locks will be severe. 

The operator's house is a three-story frame structure car- 
ried outside the truss on the south side of the bridge. The 
room on the top floor is for the accommodation of a watch- 
man who must close the gates on the highway deck before 
the bridge is turned. The room on the second floor contains 
the controllers, switchboard, clutch levers and mechanical 
indicators for the end lifts and will be used for operating the 

Reconstruction of the Top of the Pivot Pier 

bridge with electrical power. The first floor contains the 
gas tank, the water tank, a hot water heating plant and the 
gas engine. No interlocking plant is provided. 

Because the channel of the river is bare rock it was con- 
sidered unsafe to transmit the electrical power by means of 
a marine cable. The current is carried by wire to a pole 
mounted over the top of the tower and which carries the cross- 

The New Draw Span with the Old Highway Floor Still in 


arm which supports telephone and telegraph wires carried 
across the bridge. This pole consists of two pipes, an 8 in. 
extra heavy pipe on the outside which is held in a fixed posi- 
tion by the cross-arm and the wires and a 2'j-in. pipe on 
the inside which turns with the bridge. A drum at the top 
of the pole contains collector rings for transferring the cur- 
rent to the swing span. 

Falsework and Erection 

Owing to the fact that the river has a rock bottom, piles 
could not be driven and the falsework consisted of frame 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

bents of six posts each, arranged in pairs to form towers, 
the longitudinal and transverse bracings being carried as low 
as the water level permitted. For falsework stringers, tem- 
porary use was made of floor beams from the old spans and 
stringers from the new spans, the stringers for the 254J/2-ft. 
Spans being used in the erection of the 8 shorter spans. 

because the new highway deck could not be placed in 
service until all the new spans were erected, it was necessary 
to maintain the highway on the lower deck until the new 
bridge was entirely completed. The plans for the erection 
were therefore perfected with this in mind. The old trusses 
were dismantled, leaving the old floor system in place, the 
oxy-acetylene torch being used extensively in removing the 
old material. Because of the loose-jointed nature of the old 
trusses it was necessary to guy them thoroughly as soon as 
they were placed on falsework and any members were re- 
moved. After the old trusses were out of the way, the old 
floor was replaced by the new floor, panel by panel, and the 
old floor beams and stringers 
were taken out, depending 
upon the continuity of the old 
track rails to carry the high- 
way deck until the panel of 
the new floor system was put 
in place. Owing to a differ- 
ence in length in the old and 
new panels, the old stringers 
were cut off each time and 
blocked as required to fit up 
against the last new floor 
beam set. 

The erection was started in 
July, 1915, beginning with 
enough falsework to carry the 
two spans at the east end of 
the bridge the falsework 
was used over and over as the 
work progressed, about 75 
per cent, of additional false- 
work material being provided 
later. The short spans were 
completed by January 7, 
1916. The erection of" the 
draw span was started on 
November 22, 1915, and com- 
pleted about March 1, 1916. 

Owing to a delay in the de- 
livery of the drum the trusses 
were erected except for the 
towers before the drum ar- 
rived. The bottom chords 
were jacked }/2-in. above the 

final position and the threads, rollers and the drum in four 
sections were slipped under the trusses. The four tower posts 
were not erected until after the drum was in place to provide 
room for swinging out the boom of the derrick car while the 
drum sections were being erected. After the drum and its ra- 
dial braces were completely assembled, the drum was rotated 
on the rollers until the holes in the top flanges of the drum 
registered with those in the bottom chord of the trusses, thus 
permitting the connection of the drum to the trusses. 

The erection of the westerly 254^-ft. span, followed that 
of the draw span, but when the falsework for the easterly 
254*/2-ft. span was to be placed high water made it neces- 
sary to stop the work on January 25. The stage of the river 
continued high and work could not be resumed until May 31. 

The new bridge was designed by Ralph Modjeski, con- 
sulting engineer, Chicago, who was represented at the bridge 
by G. C. Hinckley, resident engineer. The Strobel .Steel 
Construction Company, Chicago, had the contract for the 
entire new bridge including alterations to the substructure. 

John J. 


John J. Bernet, vice-president in charge of operation of 
the Michigan Central, and resident vice-president at Chi- 
cago of the New York Central, has been elected president of 
the New York, Chicago cS: St. Louis, with office at Cleveland, 
succeeding W. H. Canniff, resigned. Mr. Bernet has been 
connected with the lines now included in the New York 
Central continuously since 1889, when he started with the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern as a telegraph operator. 
His entire career has been spent in the operating department, 
and he has made steady and consistent progress through the 
various grades in that department, serving consecutively as 
train dispatcher, trainmaster, assistant superintendent, su- 
perintendent, assistant general superintendent, general super- 
intendent, assistant vice-president and vice-president. Mr. 
Bernet belongs to the class of men whose progress is not 
spectacular, but who achieve success by great thoroughness 

and efficiency in every task 
which they are called upon to 
perform. Before engaging in 
railroad service he was for a 
time a blacksmith, and as 
one of his associates remarks, 
he learned early the impor- 
tance of "striking while the 
iron is hot." 

He is a rather quiet man 
of a retiring disposition, who 
by steady and painstaking ap- 
plication has come to be re- 
garded as an unusually effi- 
cient operating officer. One 
of his striking characteristics 
is his ability to get to the 
heart of each problem that is 
presented to him, and to 
reach a prompt decision as 
to the necessary action. In 
this way he always has been 
able to keep up with his 
office work and spend a great 
deal of time on the road. He 
has never been a man to 
spare himself as far as hard 
work is concerned, and his 
subordinates have appreci- 
ated his willingness to con- 
Bernet sider the important details of 

various propositions submit- 
ted to him. 

Mr. Bernet was born on 
February 9, 1868, at Brant, Erie county, New York. He 
was educated in the public schools at Buffalo, N. Y. He 
entered railway service in 1889 as a telegraph operator for 
the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and on March 12, 
1895, was appointed train despatcher, which position he held 
until April 2, 1901. From April 2, 1901, to March 6, 1903, 
he was trainmaster of the Eastern division. On March 6, 
1903, he was appointed assistant superintendent of the same 
division; on February 1, 1905, superintendent of the same 
division. On November 22 of the same year he was appointed 
assistant general superintendent of the same roacl at Cleve- 
land, Ohio, which position he held until October 1, 1906, 
when he was appointed general superintendent. lie was gen 
eral superintendent until June 1, 1011, when he was ap- 
pointed assistant to vice-president of the New York Central 
bines West of Buffalo, with headquarters at Chicago. On 
April 15, 1912, his title was changed to assistant vice-presi- 
dent. On April 1, 1913, he was appointed vice-president in 
charge of operation, and on January 1, 1915, at the time 

July 21, 1916 



of the reorganization of the New York Central & Hudson 
River and the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and their 
consolidation into the New York Central Railroad, he was 
appointed resident vice-president at Chicago for the New 
York Central, acting as the general representative of the com- 
pany in that territory. He also retained tin- vice-presidency 
in charge of operation of the Michigan Central. 

Mr. Bernet has an extensive grape farm at Moorhead, 
Pa., and is an enthusiastic golfer. 




This is my tenth visit to the United States, of whose 
railway affairs I have been for about thirty years a dili- 
gent student. Every time I am brought into contact with 
American railways, the overpowering impression produced 
on my mind is of the marvelous results which the efficiency 
of the railroad men produces with the minimum expendi- 
ture, both of capital and income. It is not very far from ac- 
curate to say that the average mile of English railroad has 
cost as many pounds as the American mile has cost dollars. 
It is true that for our expenditure we have mostly double- 
track roads, while your typical road is only single tracked, 
hut per mile of line you probably carry — we have no ton- 
mile and passenger-mile statistics in England — more tons of 
freight and nearly as many passengers as we do, and thanks 
to your concentration of load into wholesale units both of 
carload and trainload, your single track is normally capable 
of taking care of the traffic offered. 

The Problem of Terminals 

But I do not think it is so with your terminals. Fifteen 
tons of package freight in one thirty-ton car take much less 
room on the road than the same weight distributed over five 
of our little ten-ton cars, or "trucks" as we call them, but 
when fifteen tons come to be handled at the terminals and 
carted away by teams, they need just as much space in 
America as in England. In other words, you will have to 
spend vast sums of money to enlarge and improve your termi- 
nal accommodation, and the land required for the purpose 
you will have to buy and adapt at modern prices. One does 
not need to go outside of New York with the new Pennsyl- 
vania and Grand Central stations to see what new terminals 
cost in a great city. 

Double Tracks and Other Improvements 

But there is more than this. Even assuming that you can 
carry your present traffic along the road, statistics show that 
your traffic doubles every twelve years and, therefore, be- 
fore long you will have to do a great deal of double tracking, 
and double tracking very often means practically rebuilding 
the railroad. Again, as the country gets more settled, traf- 
fic becomes more diversified; express and fast freight be- 
come more important. There will be more passenger trains, 
hoth through and local, not only due to closer settlement, but 
also to more exacting demands in matter of service. Now, 
express and fast freight trains not only carry less, but run 
at higher speeds than slow freight, and passenger expresses 
run at higher speeds still, so you will have both more trains 
on the line for the same amount of traffic and greater varieties 
in speed, and all this means, as every railway man knows, a 
great reduction in the carrying capacity of the line as meas- 
ured in tonnage. 

Puhlic demands for abolition of grade crossings, for steel 
coaches with their enormous weight per passenger carried 
three times that usual in England — for block signalling, for 
monumental stations, etc — all these things will imply irn- 

*An article by W. M. Acworth in the July Circular of the National City 
Bank, New \ oik City. 

mensity of expenditure. Mr. Hill estimated ten years ago that 
the railroads ought to spend a billion dollars a year to keep 
abreast of the public requirements. They have not spent it, 
not because the expenditure was unnecessary, but because 
the money was not forthcoming; and somehow you will have 
to catch up the arrears and take care of the future on an 
even more generous scale, or the development of the country 
will be brought to a standstill. 

New Capital Requirements 

Can the railroads get all the money they need? The 
question is a very serious one, and I will not attempt to 
answer it. That in the past they have not been able to get 
out all the long-term bonds they would have liked to sell is 
sufficiently proved by the volume of short-term notes issued 
and frequently renewed at maturity. Why should an in- 
vestor buy railroad bonds? Primarily, he wants security. 
The fact that over forty thousand miles of railroad are to- 
day in the hands of a receiver is sufficient proof that he does 
not always get it, and if railroads cannot sell bonds, still less 
can they issue common stock. Even the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, after seventy years of honest and intelligent work in 
developing the resources of what is perhaps the richest traffic 
territory in the world, earned in 1914 hardly more net in- 
come than sufficed to pay its modest six per cent dividend. 

Why should the public invest in railroads, if the returns 
are less than on other investments and the security of the 
capital seems to lessen rather than increase? And if the 
American public refuses to invest, there is certainly no other 
source for new capital nowadays. The I'.uropean market 
will have enough to do to take care of its own requirements 
for many a year to come. 

For all that, the prospects for the future look to me far 
more bright than I could have imagined when I was last 
here, less than three years ago. I see from the replies to a 
circular sent out to its clients by a New York banking house 
that 1,310 correspondents report that hostility to the rail- 
roads is abating, while only 185 say that it still persists; 
and the same correspondents, by a majority of almost two 
to one, report that a five per cent advance in rates would not 
be seriously opposed. And a general five per cent increase, 
all of it net income be it observed, would put a very differ- 
ent aspect on the whole situation. 

Hopeful Signs 

The railroads need not merely cessation of hostilities, but 
active support and help from the public authorities. They 
cannot complain that in the past the legislatures have neg- 
lected them. On the contrary, the excess in quantity of rail- 
way legislation has been almost as conspicuous as the de- 
ficiency in its quality. But there are many signs that things 
are changing. Recent decisions of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission have shown that this most important body 
appreciates the situation, and is ready to help the railroads 
to reach a sounder financial position. The fact that one of 
your great political parties has put forward in its platform 
the unification of control under the single authority of the 
Federal Government is a most hopeful sign. The mere 
avoidance of waste owing to the necessity of complying with 
innumerable varying requirements as to methods of operation 
will be a great thing. 

I question whether the public has any conception of the 
amount of time and money wasted owing to the multiplica- 
tion of inquiries, rate schedules, accounts, reports, etc. I 
have seen an estimate that the railroads, taken all together, 
have to furnish about two million reports yearly to the 
various state and Federal authorities. Unification of con- 
trol will put an end to such patent absurdities as the fact 
that, while the Interstate Commerce Commission recognizes 
that 2y z cents a mile is a reasonable fare, say, from Roche.— 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

trr to Cleveland, if a passenger on the same train gets out at 
Buffalo, New York decides that he cannot reasonably be 
asked to pay more than 2 cents a mile! 

Then your Federal valuation law of 1913 must soon begin 
to bear fruit. From what 1 have seen and heard of what has 
already been done, I am persuaded that any fair valuation, 
such as is now being carried out by engineers appointed by 
the government, will prove conclusively what I have always 
myself firmly believed, that the railroads of the United States 
are worth today far more than the sum at which they are 

I am quite sure that the American public mean to be fair, 
but they can hardly be expected to keep abreast of the rail- 
way situation, as it changes from year to year. They have 
been thinking too much hitherto of "old forgotten far-off 
things and battles long ago." They seem now, as proved 
by the proposal that a Congressional committee shall inquire 
into the whole situation, to be inclined to have done with the 
past and to turn their minds to the future. An exhaustive 
inquiry into the situation as it exists today can only be in 
the interest of the railroads and railroad investors. It will 
show, I am firmly convinced, that the railroads deserve well 
of the country; that per dollar of capital invested they do 
more work than any railroads in the world; that the rates 
they charge, having regard to the service rendered, are far 
lower than anywhere else in the world; but that the rates, as 
a whole, are not adequate to afford a steady and reasonable 
return, year in and year out, on the present investment, and 
to induce capitalists to make the great further investment 
which the public interest requires. 

Once the knowledge of these basic facts, as I believe them 
to be, has been got into the public mind, I have no doubt 
that the railroads will be given such fair treatment as will 
produce the investment of all the capital required. It is to 
be hoped, however, that the public education will be speedily 
completed. For the expenditure of new capital on a generous 
scale must not be much longer postponed if the trade of the 
country is to continue to expand in the years ahead. 


Washington, July 19. 

Last Saturday the House of Representatives amended and 
passed the long pending Newlands resolution creating a 
joint House and Senate subcommittee to investigate railroad 
legislation, transportation, and government ownership. On 
Monday the Senate, without debate, agreed to the resolution 
as it came from the House; and this long delayed measure 
now goes to the Fresident. 

The principal amendment calls for a report to Congress 
January 8, 1917. Wireless and cable companies are added 
to the list of public utilities which the committee is to in- 
vestigate. The investigating committee will consist of five 
senators and five representatives from the respective com- 
merce committees. 

In the course of the debate in the House a rather interest- 
ing disclosure was made. Chairman Adamson, in charge 
of the bill, was asked if the eight-hour day movement was 
included in the scope of the proposed investigation. To 
this Mr. Adamson replied in the negative; and in response 
to a question as to whether his committee had before it any 
resolution "in relation to the dispute between the railroads and 
the employees on that matter," Mr. Adamson answered: 

"Four months ago when the clouds gathered above the 
horizon the Republican leader | Mr. Mann | and I investi- 
gated to see whether there would be any strike. I will not 
say where we went, but we were assured by the represent- 
atives of the employees that there would be no walkout, and 
they did not mean to stop the wheels. The Interstate Com- 
merce Commission did not favor any investigation, and I 

cone hided that no action was necessary, and dropped the 

The bill to amend the Cummins amendment (as to declar- 
ing value of baggage, etc.,) has been reported favorably to 
the House (Hill S. 3069 Report No. 944). 

H. R. 16681, the clearance bill, has been reported to the 
House from the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Com- 
mittee (Report No. 970). 

An agreement has been reached by the conferees on the 
postoffice appropriation bill by which the Senate amend- 
ment, modified in some respects, but retaining only the sub- 
stantial features of the Senate amendment relating to rail- 
way mail pay, will be retained in the bill. The agreement 
contemplates a reference to the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission of any question relating to compensation for the 
railroads for carrying the mail. This is a substantial vic- 
tory for the railroads. It seems likely that the provision 
allowing the Postoffice department to send second class mat- 
ter, under certain conditions, by freight train will be re- 
tained in the law, but with a clause allowing aggrieved pub- 
lishers to appeal to a federal court. 


The new Lackawanna 8^2 -in. section, of which the illus- 
tration and table of properties appear below, was designed 
to give a wider range of selection to users of Lackawanna 
steel sheet piling. It is of the standard Lackawanna straight- 
web type with interlock consisting of similar hooks and 
guards on both edges, and is for use where a comparatively 
light section is required with high transverse strength and 
minimum weight in medium trench and cofferdam work. 

The interlocked joint formed between adjacent piles is 
flexible through an arc of 18 deg. on each side of the center 


Section Modulus. 

Least Radius of 

Lb. Per 
sq ft. 

Lb. Per 
Lin. ft. 

Per Single 

Per inch 

Per Horizontal Foot of 
lA/a/t interlocked in place. 



I.IOOin 3 

0./294in 3 

1.5 53 in 3 


Section and Table of Properties 

plane of the piling section. The hooks of adjacent sections 
engage to offer resistance to longitudinal displacement while 
the guards overlap and engage the outer surface of the hooks 
on the adjacent sections, thus preventing lateral displace- 
ment and co-operating to prevent longitudinal displacement. 
The joint can be disengaged only by withdrawing one pile. 
In the development of this new section, special attention 
was given to secure high tensional and transverse strength, 
and at the same time to produce a pile which would have 
comparatively low weight per sq. foot. This steel sheet pil- 
ing is made by the Lackawanna Steel Company, Lacka- 
wanna, N. Y. 

The English Channel Tunnel. A resolution in favor 
of the Channel Tunnel will shortly come before the house of 
commons. The annual report of the Northern Railway of 
France expresses regrel that the scheme has not yet material- 
ized, and intimates that it has fulfilled all its obligations, 
preserved its rights, and is ready to profit by the unexpected 
lac ilitics which the application of electricity would give 
both to the piercing of the tunnel and to the operation of the 
submarine railway. 

Failure of Government Ownership in Canada 

Influence of Unfortunate Location, Uneconomical Man- 
agement and Politics Reflected in Intercolonial History 

By Samuel O. Dunn 

THE conclusion that at least two-thirds of the losses in- 
curred by the Intercolonial are not due to its rates 
suggests that they must be due to uneconomical 
lanagement. In this connection stress must be laid 
n the fact that the cost of providing railway service neces- 
urilv includes capital expenses, as well as operating ex- 
enses. A further fact which often is overlooked is that there 
i a very close relationship between capital expenses and op- 
rating expenses. Under either private or public ownership 
ne public must ultimately pay all of both of these classes of 
xpenses; and the amount of operating expenses will under 
ither policy depend largely on the amount of the capital 
xpenses efficiently incurred. To reduce the grades of a rail- 
ray involves an increase of investment and fixed charges — 
i other words, of capital expenses; but if the investment is 
.isely and efficiently made, it will cause a still greater 
iminution of operating expenses. The total expenses will 
lereby be diminished. Likewise, if needed capital expendi- 
jres are not made, there will be needless increases of operat- 
ig expenses; if capital expenditures are unwisely or ineffi- 
iently made, there will be needless increases of fixed charges; 
nd in either case the total expenses will become needlessly 
lrge. This close relation between capital expenses and op- 
rating expenses illustrates the folly, so strikingly exemplified 
1 Canada, of the common practice of keeping the accounts 
f government railways so as not to show the exact amount of 
iterest paid on the investment, and of calling all their net 
arnings "profits." It would be equally rational to ignore 
ne operating expenses also, and to call the total earnings 

Bearing in mind these facts and principles, let us investi- 
ate the total expenses of the Intercolonial. Its cost to the 
ublic to June 30, 1914, including its losses, was $219,000 
er mile. Interest on this at 4 per cent is $8,760 per annum, 
Inch, added to its operating expenses, $8,718 per mile, 
lakes a total expense to the Canadian public for the service 
f the road of $17,478 per mile of line, without allowing any- 
n'ng for the taxes lost to the public because it is not privately 

To pay this total from its earnings the Intercolonial'* rates 
ould have to be raised 102 per cent. The Canadian Pacific 
i its eastern lines charges rates slightly higher than those 
f the Intercolonial; it handled in 1914 a traffic slightly 
nailer; it collected only $10,045 per mile of line in rates 
om the public; and yet it paid taxes, interest on its bonds, 
id 10 per cent dividends on its stock, 7 per cent of these 
sing from earnings; and it had a surplus averaging $256 
)r each mile of line. 

It may be contended by some that the inclusion of all the 
isses the Intercolonial has sustained in getting a basis for 
;certaining its actual present expenses is not fair. The writer 
Sieves that this is the only method which discloses the 
nount which government ownership and management have 
>st and are costing the people of Canada. But, to avoid 
is objection, let us disregard the losses sustained prior to 
>14. In 1914, the cost of construction of the Intercolonial 
as officially reported a s $70,815 a mile. Interest on this at 

'Part T of this article was published in the Railwav Age Gazette of 
ly 14, 1916. Reprinted bv permission from The Journal of Political 
onomy, University of Chicago, July, 1916 

4 per cent is $2,833. Added to operating expenses, $8,718, 
this makes a total expense per mile, as already indicated, of 
$11,541. Taxes on the same basis as those the Canadian 
Pacific paid would increase this to $11,671. The Canadian 
Pacific eastern lines, for each mile of line operated, collected 
15 per cent less than this from the public, while handling 
only 6.5 per cent less traffic per mile; they paid taxes, and 
they earned $1,573 net operating income per mile; and the 
Canadian Pacific system, as already indicated, not only paid 
interest and dividends, but had a surplus. To have paid 4 
per cent interest, and paid taxes and put aside surplus in 
the same proportion, the Intercolonial would have had to 
collect from the public $11,900 for each mile of its line, or 
18 per cent more per mile than the Canadian Pacific eastern 
lines did. The data on which these comparisons are based are- 
given in Table III. 

Table III. 


Year Ended June 30, Year Ended June 30, 
1914. 1915. 

Canadian Canadian 

Inter- Pacific East- Inter- Pacific-East- 
colonial. ern Lines. colonial. ern Lines. 

Mileage 1,457 4,596.2 1,459 4,786.9 

Average cost Cor capitaliza- 
tion) per mile $70,815 $51,021* $75,066 $47,863* 

Passengers carried one mile 

per mile of road 137,390 172,790 115,105 126,208 

Fassenger-train miles per mile 

of road 2,096 2,499.5 1,939 2,170.1 

Average passengers per train 51 69 46 . 58 

Average rate per passenger 

per mile, cents 1.67 1.808. 1.81 1.894 

Average total earnings per 

passenger-train mile " $0,978 $1,599 $0,966 $1,409 

rotal passenger-train earn- 
ings per mile of line $2,839.90 $3,895.94 $2,705.80 $3,057.07 

Ton miles per mile of road. .923,541 823,064 793,315 695,000 

Revenue freight-train miles 

per mile of road 3,466.13 2,655.2 3,101.64 1,999.4 

Average tons per train 264.74 309.98 260.54 347.56 

Average rate per ton per 

mile, cents 0.60 0.716 0.52 0.719 

Average earnings per revenue 

freight-train mile $1.6i $2,219 $1.58 $2.50 

Total freight revenue per 

mile of line $5,568.54 $5,891.69 $4,887.64 $4,998.51 

Operating revenue per mile 

of road $8,625.13 $10,044.86 $7,745.15 $8,314.54 

Total train miles per mile of 

road 5,562.25 4,987.4 5,033.9 3,987.1 

Operating revenue per train 

mile $1.55 $2.01 $1.54 $2.09 

Operating expenses per mile 

of road $8,717.87 $8,341.34 $7,775.89 $6,199.94 

Operating expenses per train 

mile $1.57 $1.67 $1,545 $1.56 

Net earnings per mile of road —$92.74 $1,703.52 —$30.74 $2,114.60 

Taxes per mil. of road None $130.30* None $123.90* 

Operating income per mile of 

road $1,573.22 $1,990.70 

'Average for entire system. All computations furnished from official 

It is clear that the service of the Canadian Pacific, while 
profitable to its owners, costs the public much less in pro- 
portion than that rendered by the Intercolonial. And the ex- 
pense of it is more equitably distributed. It is all paid by 
those who receive the service, while only from one-half to 
three-fourths of the total expenses incurred by the Inter- 
colonial are borne by those who receive its service. The rest 
is borne by the taxpayers. 

The question naturally arises win- the total expenses of the 
Intercolonial are so great. Its "cost of construction" — the 
investment in it — as officially reported, amounting in 1914 to 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

$70,815 a mile, is excessive according to the standards of 
Canada and the United States. The average capitalization 
of the railways of the United States in 1914 was only $66,661 ; 
and an average mile of their line was a much better piece 
of property and handled substantially more traffic than the 
average mile of the Intercolonial. The average capitaliza- 
tion of the private railways of Canada, excluding duplica- 
tions, was $53,619.* The average capitalization of the Cana- 
dian Pacific system was $51,021. Most of the privately 
owned railways of Canada, and conspicuously the Canadian 
Pacific, have received subsidies from the government. The 
receipts of the Canadian Pacific from its land grants amount 
to about $6,000 for each mile of its line. But the government 
aid it has received is far from adequate to account for the 
difference of over $17,000 a mile between its average capi- 
talization and the Intercolonial's "cost of construction." 
The explanation of the Intercolonial's large cost of construc- 
tion must be that expenditures on it have been made waste- 
fully, or that its accounts have not always distinguished ac- 
curately between expenditures for construction and expendi- 
tures for operation. 

That there long was scandalous waste in the construction 
of the Intercolonial is beyond question. Many years ago Sir 
Alexander Gait moved in Parliament that "the present sys- 
tem under which the road is being built as a public work 
of the Dominion is expensive and unsatisfactory; . . . 
and that in the opinion of this house the construction and fu- 
ture operation of the line should be committeed to private 
hands.'' Walter Shanly, the most eminent Canadian engi- 
neer of his day, who built the Hoosac tunnel, alleged that the 
Intercolonial "had already involved a vast waste of money 
and done much to contaminate public life." Sir John Mac- 
Donald, when prime minister, said that he was "tired of the 
disclosures about frauds and shortages, bankrupt contractors, 
and contractors who had made a fortune with suspicious ease, 
and was disposed after construction was completed to turn 
over the operation of the line to the Grand Trunk or some 
other company." Before the Civil Service Commission of 
1892, Collingwood Schreiber, a distinguished engineer, then 
deputy minister of railways, and for some years general man- 
ager of the line, testified that he had taken some sand from 
a gravel-pit in the woods near Gloucester Junction for which 
he offered $5 as ample compensation. The owner, backed by 
local politicians, demanded $70,000, and in the end obtained 
$16,000. "The public's mind," said Mr. Schreiber, "is per- 
vaded with the idea that one has a right to get all one can 
from the public treasury." The original estimate for an ex- 
tension from Hadlow, near Quebec, to St. Charles Junction, 
fourteen miles long, was $600,000. Property owners whose 
land and buildings were condemned appealed with such suc- 
cess to local politicians for assistance, "and swore one for 
another as to values" so ably, that the line finally cost 
$2, 200,000. 2 It seems to have been a common practice to let 
contracts for new construction and improvements to concerns 
and individuals because they were supporters of the party in 

The only structures or facilities of the road whose character 
tends to explain its relatively high cost are certain of its pas- 
senger stations, which are very large and pretentious-looking 
for the towns in which they are situated. One is told in 
Canada that these are due to the influence of local members 
of Parliament. Appropriations for passenger stations on the 
Intercolonial sometimes are part of the "pork barrel" in 
Canada, as appropriations for postoffice buildings are in 
the United States. 

Let us turn now from the road's capital expenses to its 
operating expenses. During most of the last ten years it has 
handled more traffic per mile, both freight and passenger, 

1 "Operating Results of Canadian Railways in 1914," by J. L, Payne, 
controller of statistics of Canadian railway department, in Railway Age 
Gazette, March 26, 1915. 

•Montreal Gazette, October 21, 1915. 

than the eastern lines of the Canadian Pacific. Within re- 
cent years the Canadian Pacific has had a heavier passenger 
business; but the Intercolonial still has a denser freight 
traffic. This was true in 1914; and in that year it ran 5,562 
trains over each mile of line, as compared with 4,987 run by 
the Canadian Pacific eastern lines. Bearing these facts in 
mind, it is interesting to study the analysis of operating ex- 
penses given in Table IV: 

Table IV. 


Canadian Pacific Railway 

Intercolonial. Eastern Lines. 

Total Per Cent Total Per Cent 

Operating of Total Operating of Total 

Expenses Operating Expenses Operating 

per Mile. Expenses. per Mile. Expenses. 
Maintenance of way and 

structures $1,454.00 16.66 $1,744.00 21.87 

Maintenance of equipment. 1,916.00 22,06 1,621.00 20.33 

Conducting transportation. 4,936.00 56.56 4,247.00 53.27 

Traffic expenses 199.00 2.22 171.00 2.15 

General expenses 245.00 2.55 188.00 2.37 

A question arises: Why are the Intercolonial's expendi- 
tures for maintenance of way and structures smaller than 
those of the Canadian Pacific, when the amount of traffic it 
handles and the number of trains it runs are larger? It may 
be answered that it is because the Intercolonial is more eco- 
nomically operated. This explanation can hardly be accepted, 
because while its total traffic, passenger and freight, per mile 
is only about 6.5 per cent heavier than that of the Canadian 
Pacific eastern lines, its cost of maintenance of equipment 
per mile is 11.5 per cent greater, its cost of conducting trans- 
portation per mile 13.5 per cent greater, its traffic expenses 
per mile 16.5 per cent greater, and its general expenses per 
mile 30 per cent greater. The advocates of government owner- 
ship claim that it would save money by doing away with the 
"princely" salaries paid to the higher officials of railways. 
The salaries of general officers are included in "general ex- 
penses." These, as just noted, are 30 per cent higher per 
mile on the Intercolonial than on the Canadian Pacific east- 
ern lines; and the expenses of the railway department of the 
government are not included in this calculation. The Inter- 
colonial's small expenditures for maintenance of way and 
structures are partly due to the fact that, on the whole, its 
roadway and track are not kept in as good condition as those 
of the Canadian Pacific. A further explanation may be that 
expenditures which really should be charged to maintenance 
of way are charged to construction. The line between main- 
tenance of way, and additions and betterments, is hard to 
draw accurately; and where a management is confronted 
with chronic deficits, as on the Intercolonial, it is under a 
constant temptation to make as good a showing as possible 
regarding operating expenses, by charging everything it can 
to capital account. 

The small expenditures of the Intercolonial for mainte- 
nance of way are not new. In the five years ending with June 
30, 1914, it spent on this account an average of only $1,317 
per mile of line, while the Canadian Pacific system, handling 
a smaller traffic per mile, spent an average of $1,497. The 
fact that the capital — or "cost of construction" — account of 
the Intercolonial is rapidly growing larger without causing 
reductions, absolutely or relatively, in transportation ex- 
penses, supports the theory that its low figures for mainte- 
nance of way expenses are largely fictitious. 

There is nothing fictitious, however, about its relativel) 
large expenditures for other accounts. One of the surest in 
dications of uneconomical and inefficient management ii 
that a road is spending a relatively small part of its earn 
ings for maintenance and a relatively large part for conduct 
ing transportation and for general and traffic purposes. V> baj 
is spent for maintenance goes into the physical property '<■ 
helps to keep up or improve the service, while what is sp 
for conducting transportation and for general and traffic pur 
poses adds nothing to the physical property, but is gone for 
ever. Relatively large expenditures for maintenance of waj 

July 21, 1916 



are more important than those for maintenance of equip- 
ment; for the latter may be due to a system of management 
which provides and uses an unnecessarily large amount of 
equipment. It is especially important to keep down the cost 
of conducting transportation, not only because the outlay 
made for it is gone forever, but because it is much the largest 
item of railway expenses. 

The main reason for the Intercolonial's relatively high 
cost of conducting transportation is obvious. The most ef- 
fective means for restricting this part of expenses is to handle 
traffic in the largest possible carloads and trainloads. Now, 
the Intercolonial has a long average haul per ton, 265 miles; 
it has a denser freight traffic than the Canadian Pacific 
eastern lines; and yet in 1914 it carried only 265 tons per 
train, as compared with 310 tons for the Canadian Pacific 
eastern lines. In consequence it ran 30 per cent more freight 
trains over each mile of line to handle 12 per cent more 
freight traffic. Similarly it ran 84 per cent as many pas- 
senger trains over each mile of line to handle 74 per cent as 
much passenger traffic. The comparatively small trainloads 
of the Intercolonial help to explain not only its high transpor- 
tation expenses, but also its high maintenance of equipment 
expenses. The more trains run to handle a given business, 
the more equipment there must be provided and maintained 
and the larger, other things being equal, will be the ex- 
penditures for maintenance of equipment. 

The road's relatively large expenditures for conducting 
transportation and maintenance of equipment are no more 
a new thing than its relatively low expenditures for main- 
tenance of way. During the five years ending with 1914, 
while its maintenance of way expenses per mile were less 
than those of the Canadian Pacific system, its maintenance 
of equipment expenses averaged $1,746 per mile, or 33 per 
cent more, and its conducting transportation expenses $4,075 
per mile, or 19 per cent more. 

In the United States 20 per cent of the operating ex- 
penses of the railways are incurred for maintenance of way, 
while on the Intercolonial less than 17 per cent are incurred 
for that purpose. In this country maintenance of equipment 
expenses are 23.8 per cent of total operating expenses, while 
on the Intercolonial they are 22 per cent. On the railways 
of the United States less than 51 per cent of operating ex- 
penditures are made for conducting transportation; on the 
Intercolonial, almost 57 per cent. The Intercolonial makes 
39 per cent of its operating outlay for both classes of main- 
tenance and 61 per cent for other purposes. The railways of 
the United States make 44 per cent of theirs for maintenance 
and only 56 per cent for other purposes. The railways of the 
United States, with a capitalization smaller than the Inter- 
colonial's cost of construction, handle 5 per cent more pas- 
senger traffic and 27 per cent more freight traffic per mile, 
with only 2.6 per cent greater operating expenses. One need 
not be expert in the analysis of railway statistics to see that 
those of the Intercolonial indicate a management which is 
extremely uneconomical as compared with that of the average 
railway in Canada or the United States. 

Little of the blame for this poor showing can apparently be 
placed on the present minister of railways, Hon. Frank 
Cochrane, or the present general manager, F. P. Gutelius. 
When Mr. Cochrane came into office a few years ago he 
evidently realized that the road had long been wretchedly 
mismanaged; for he put Mr. Gutelius, an experienced and 
able railway man, a former officer of the Canadian Pacific, 
in charge, with large authority. Mr. Gutelius went energetic- 
all}- to work to increase earnings and reduce expenses. He 
received the loyal support of most of the officers; and he 
has continued, up to the present time, his efforts to improve 
the results secured. 

The general confusion and reduction of railway earnings 
caused by the war have made it difficult to measure the ef- 
fects of his exertions. And unfortunately the Canadian pub- 
lic, especially that part living in the provmces in which 

the Intercolonial operates, and the representatives of this 
part in Parliament, have grown accustomed to having, and, 
indeed, insist upon having, the Intercolonial managed in 
ways which mainly account for its high expenses. Almost 
every increase of rates or reduction in expenses which the 
present management has attempted to make has encountered 
opposition which soon has been supplemented by or con- 
verted into political pressure. When it tried to reduce the 
excessive local freight and passenger service being given, 
the communities affected appealed to their deputies, and they 
to the minister of railways. When efforts have been made 
to dispense with needless employees, deputies have interposed 
in defense of their partisans. The fiscal year ending on 
June 30, 1915, was a period of acute business distress in 
Canada. There was a heavy decline in railway traffic. How 
much more freely and energetically the management of a 
private railway company can act in such an emergency than 
the management of a state railway subject to political pres- 
sure is indicated by the fact that while the Intercolonial 
suffered a loss of total earnings per mile of 12 per cent and 
reduced its operating expenses 11 per cent, the Canadian 
Pacific eastern lines, with a loss of earnings of 20 per cent 
per mile, reduced their operating expenses 25.7 per cent. 
The management of the Intercolonial could not have done 
so well as it did if it had not been saved the trouble of 
laying off numerous employees by having them voluntarily 
enlist in the army. It did not discharge these; it simply did 
not replace them. 

When a railway produces such results over a long period 
they may be immediately attributable to a number of causes, 
but these minor causes usually are themselves the effect of a 
few major causes. One of the major causes in this case 
has been that the officers in direct charge of the property have 
had little incentive to manage it well. The public and 
Parliament have not demanded this as the stockholders and 
directors of a railway company do. Consequently, there 
has been a feeling of comparative indifference regarding 
results on the part of the officers. Another of the major 
causes has been the influence of politics. This has been the 
major cause. The" part which politics formerly played is 
freely admitted by the officers of the road, although they 
say that conditions are somewhat different now. The pre- 
vailing low rates have been made as a sop to the people, 
and especially to the French population, of the eastern prov- 
inces. "Almost every abuse known to railroading took 
root and flourished, such as underbilling — that is, permit- 
ting a favored shipper to load the cars with a larger quan- 
tity of goods than he paid for, while his competitors on the 
other side of politics were restricted to a standard load 
and mulcted for any excess; the granting of secret rebates; 
the maintenance of an excessive number of stations and 
employees in order to swell the political influence of the road 
at election times; absurd classifications; unjust tariffs; the 
acquisition of more or less useless branch lines to serve par- 
tisan ends, and so on." 1 

It was customary for the party in power to buy railway 
supplies only from its supporters; and the story is told of a 
dentist who engaged in the manufacture of a certain device 
expressly to market it on the Intercolonial by means of 
his political affiliations. It was common practice largely to 
increase the number of employees some weeks before election, 
and every officer of the road frequently had the experience 
of coming to his office and finding among his subordinates 
the faces of men he had never seen before, and who had been 
put on his payroll at the instance of politicians. If an in- 
fluential politician wanted a man given a job on the railway 
he did not bother to take up the matter with the general 
manager or even with the division superintendent. He wrote 
a letter to the trainmaster or the roadmaster and ordered 
his friend and supporter employed. If an employee was dis- 
charged for incompetency or other good cause, he could 

'Muimal Gazette, October 21. 1915. 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

usually get reinstated if he had political pull. When busi- 
ness fell off, politics made it impossible to reduce the num- 
ber of employees and operating expenses proportionately. 
Political influence was used not only to secure excessively 
large and expensive passenger stations, but also unnecessary 
and unprofitable passenger and freight service. For ex- 
ample, when the present management came in it found that 
numerous passenger trains were being run into and out of 
St. John, Halifax, Sydney, and Newcastle, to enable lead- 
ing citizens of these small cities to live in the "suburbs." 
Most of these trains were earning only fifteen to fifty cents 
per mile, but when the management tried to reduce the serv- 
ice it encountered a storm of opposition which soon became 
largely political. 

As already indicated, the present management is trying 
to eliminate political influences and to put the operation of 
the road on a business basis. But the effects of the old 
regime are still apparent, and, as has been shown, opposi- 
tion instead of assistance is 
offered by the part of the 
public served by the Inter- 
colonial, while very little 
help is received from the rest 
of the people of Canada. 

One of the arguments al- 
ways advanced for govern- 
ment ownership is that the 
managements of state rail- 
ways will and should strive 
rather to promote the wel- 
fare of the people than to 
earn profits; and it may be 
contended that to show that 
the Intercolonial's manage- 
ment has been dominated 
by politics, that its rates have 
been made too low, and that 
there has been waste in its 
construction and operation, 
proves nothing regarding the 
desirability of government 
ownership and management, 
because it takes no account of 
the influence which has been 
exerted on the development 
and prosperity of the terri- 
tory which the road serves. 

The question as to the 
amount and character of 
the influence which the 
Intercolonial has exerted 
on the development and 
prosperity of the maritime provinces 
difficult one to answer. It is easily 
official data regarding the changes in the population, the 
agriculture, and the industry of these provinces and of other 
parts of Canada and the United States, that progress in the 
territory served by the Intercolonial has been relatively small 
and slow. In fact, it probably has been as small and slow 
as in any other equally large territory in Canada or the 
United States which has any considerable natural resources. 
Doubtless, however, this is due to a combination of circum- 
stances. The natural resources of the maritime provinces 
from either an agricultural or a manufacturing standpoint 
are not great, and their population is to a large extent natur- 
ally quite conservative. One thing may be said, however, 
with certainty. This is that the material progress made in 
the territory served by the Intercolonial has not been such 
as to support the argument that government management 
of railways will tend more strongly to promote the material 
well-being of the public than private management. 

W. H. Canniff 

is a somewhat 
demonstrable by 


William Henry Canniff has resigned as president of the 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis, with office at Cleveland, 
Ohio, after having held that office for 18 years and after a 
consecutive railroad experience of 53 years. Mr. Canniff 
began as a night watchman, later became a station agent, 
and until 1898, when he was elected president of the Nickel 
Plate, his official positions had been entirely in the operat- 
ing department on lines which later became parts of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern. He was general manager 
of the latter road when he was elected president of the 
Nickel Plate. 

As a railroad president he has been distinguished for his 
close application to his work, for his unusual familiarity 
with the details of all departments, for his fairness to em- 
ployees, the public and his competitors, and his all-around 
ability as an executive. He has been an unremitting student 

of all phases of railroad 
work and has enjoyed re- 
markably intimate relations 
^ with his employees, with 

whom he was very popu- 
lar. His administration of 
the Nickel Plate property 
has been a highly successful 

Mr. Canniff was born on 
October 22, 1847, at Litch- 
field, Mich. He began his 
railway service in 1863 as 
night watchman on the 
Michigan Southern & North- 
ern Indiana at Osseo, Mich. 
After two years he was pro- 
moted to agent of the same 
road at Trenton, Mich., 
where he remained for three 
years. From August, 1868, 
to August, 1872, he was 
joint agent for the Michigan 
Southern & Northern Indi- 
ana and the Louisville, New 
Albany & Chicago at Salem 
Crossing. In 1872, he was 
made traffic master of the 
Kendallville division of the 
Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern. He was later 
transferred to the Chicago 
division and in November, 
1880, he was appointed sup- 
ervisor of the Lansing division of the same road, including 
the Detroit, Hillsdale & Southwestern, and the Fort 
Wayne & Jackson railroads. After nine years in this capacity 
he was appointed on November 1, 1889, assistant general 
superintendent of the Lake Shore, on January 1, 1892, he 
was appointed general superintendent and from March, 
1896, to May, 1898, he was general manager of the same 
road. On the latter date he was elected president of the 
New York, Chicago & St. Louis. 

Railways Assist Military in East Africa. — A des- 
patch on the operations in German East Africa, says: "The 
rapidity of the advance and the distance to which it was 
carried must almost inevitably have caused a Invakdown in 
the transport but for the unremitting exertions of the rail- 
way engineers who carried forward the railway from the 
Njoro Drift, east of Salaita, to Taveta and the Latema Nek, 
at an average rate of a mile a day, including surveying, 
heavy bush cutting and the bridging of the Lumi river." 

Pacific Type Locomotives for the Reading 

These Are the First Engines with This Wheel Arrange- 
ment Built for This Road; Light Reciprocating Parts 

Philadelphia & Rcadii 

Type Locomotive. 

THE Philadelphia & Reading has recently placed in serv- 
ice five locomotives of the Pacific type, which are the 
first of that type to be used on this road. These loco- 
notives were designed to haul heavy passenger trains in very 
fast service, with a limit of 60,000-lb. load on each pair of 
driving wheels. The locomotives weigh, in working order, 
273,600 lb., of which 176,900 lb. is on the drivers, 38,000 
lb. is on the leading truck and 58,700 lb. on the trailer. The 
loaded weight of the tender is 160,000 lb. 

With 25 in. by 28 in. cylinders, 200 lb. boiler working 
pressure and driving wheels 80 in. in diameter, the maxi- 
num tractive effort is 37,200 lb., giving a factor of adhesion 

Front End Arrangement of the Reading Locomotive 

of 4.76. The valves are of the piston type, 13 in. in diameter, 
with 7 in. maximum travel, \y% steam lap, 5/16 in. lead 
md J4 i n - exhaust clearance. They are driven by Walschaert 
ralve gear, which, together with the reciprocating parts, has 
been made as light as possible to reduce the ill effects from 
the counterbalancing. The total weight of the reciprocating 
parts for one side is 1,237 lb., which, with 98,000 lb. piston 
load, the full boiler pressure being considered as acting on 

the piston for this purpose, gives a piston load of 79 lb. per 
pound weight of reciprocating parts. This compares with a 
corresponding figure of 83 lb. in the case of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Atlantic type engines, class E6S, and 87 lb. for 
that road's K4S Pacific type engines. In the Reading engine 
65 per cent of the reciprocating parts is balanced, the dynamic 
augment at a speed of 80 miles per hour being 41.5 per cent 
of the static weight on the drivers. 

The boiler is of the Wootten type, with 200 lb. working 
pressure, the diameter at the front end being 72 in. and the 
greatest diameter 80 in. It has a firebox 10 ft. 6 in. long 
by 9 ft. wide, giving a grate area of 94.5 sq. ft. There is a 
48 in. combustion chamber which provides a length of 19 
ft. for the 163 2 l /\-'\n. tubes and 30 5^-in. flues. The heat- 
ing surface of the tubes and flues is 2,644 sq. ft., and that 
of the firebox is 282 sq. ft., giving a total evaporative heat- 
ing surface of 2,926 sq. ft. The superheating surface is 652 
sq. ft. The fuel used is anthracite coal. 

The extreme height of the locomotive is 1 5 ft. and the cen- 
ter line of the boiler is 10 ft. above the rail. The leading 
truck wheels are 36 in. in diameter; the trailing truck wheels, 
54 in. The total engine wheel base is 35 ft. 7 in., while the 
total wheel base of the locomotive and tender is 67 ft. 11 ^ in. 

An interesting feature of these locomotives is the front end 
arrangement which is intended especially to prevent the 
throwing of fire from the stack. The officers of the Reading 
state that this arrangement is giving every satisfaction. The 
smokestack proper has an inside extension of only 9 in., 
there being a petticoat pipe with an adjustable sleeve, the 
top of this pipe being 8 in. below the stack extension and the 
bottom 2J4, in. above the top of the exhaust nozzle, which is 
15 in. high. There is a netting placed almost vertically both 
in front of and behind the petticoat pipe and a series of de- 
flectors is placed between the superheater dampers and the 
back netting, these deflectors having a tendency to throw the 
cinders downward and prevent the cutting out of the net- 
ting, as well as helping to break up the large cinders. The 
superheater damper arrangement is unusual; as will be seen 
from the drawing, it is made in four sections. 

The tender has a water capacity of 8,000 gal. and a coal 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

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July 21, 1916 



.parity of 12.85 tons; it has a wheel base of 19 ft. 9 in. and 
fitted with a water scoop. The locomotive is provided with 
,-o 9^2 -in. Westinghouse air pumps and the special equip- 
ent includes Ragonnet reverse gear, Cole trailer truck and 
ranklin fire door. The following table gives the principal 
mensions and data: 


General Data 

4 ft. 8 }4 in. 

rvice Passenger 

,el Anth. Coal 

active effort 37,200 lb. 

eight in working order 273,600 lb. 

eight on drivers 1 76,900 lb. 

eight on leaning truck 38,000 lb. 

eight on trailing truck 58,700 lb. 

eight of engine and tender in working order 433,600 lb. 

heel base, driving 13 ft. 10 in. 

heel base, total engine 35 ft. 7 in. 

neel base, engine and tender 67 ft. 1 1 .}£ in. 


eight on drivers -r- tractive effort 4.76 

ital weight -r- tractive effort 7.35 

active effort X diam. drivers -f- equivalent heating surface* 763 

luivalent heating surface* -H grate area. 41.4 

rebox heating surface -f- equivalent heating surface,* per cent...... 7.2 

eight On drivers H- equivalent heating surface* 45.3 

ltd weight -r equivalent heating surface* 70.1 

>lume both cylinders 1 5.9 cu. ft. 

luivalent heating surface* -=- vol. cylinders 245 

ate area -r- vol. cylinders 5.95 


nd . Simple 

ameter and stroke 25 in. by 28 in. 


nd Piston 

ameter 13 in. 

eatest travel 7 jn. 

itside lap 1 ; s in, 

side clearance 'J in. 

ad in full gear 5/16 in. 


iving. diameter over tires SO in. 

iiials, main, diameter and length 11 in. by 15 in. 

iving journals, others, diameter and length 11 in. by 15 in. 

igine truck wheels, diameter 36 in. 

ailing truck wheels, diameter 54 in. 

ailing truck, journals 9 in. by 14 in. 


f \ e Wootten 

orking pressure 200 lb. per sq. in. 

itside diameter of first ring 72 in. 

•ebox, length and width 10 ft. 6 in. by 9 ft. 

bes, number and outside diameter 163 — 2 l A jn. 

les, number and outside diameter 30 — 5 ]A in. 

bes and flues, length 19 ft. 

:ating surface, tubes and flues 2,644 sq. ft. 

:ating surface, firebox 282 sq. ft. 

:ating surface, total 2,926 sq. ft. 

perheater heating surface 652 sq. ft. 

uivalent heating surface* 3,904 sq. ft. 

ate area 94.5 sq. ft. 

lokestack, height above rail 15 ft. 

nter of boiler above rail 10 ft. 


light, loaded 1 60,000 lb. 

leels, diameter 36 in. 

irnals, diameter and length 6 in. by 1 1 in. 

iter capacity 8,000 gal. 

al capacity 12.85 tons 

'Equivalent heating surface 
les the superheating surface. 

total evaporative heating surface + 1.1 

An American Railroad in Uruguay. — The Republic of 
Hguay, with an area of 72,172 square miles, had, in 1913, 
)39 miles of railroad. By the various lines composing 
is system the interior of the country has been opened up 
d communication has been well developed with the prin- 
~>a\ seaport, Montevideo, in the extreme south. Toward 
B west and northwest, connection is effected with the ports 

the Uruguay River and the western part of south Brazil. 
Dward the north the Brazilian frontier is touched and there 

now direct service into southern Brazil, eastward to Rio 
•ande and Porto Alegre, and directly northward to Sao 
tulo and Rio de Janeiro. Toward the east and north- 
5t, although projected lines to the Brazilian frontier have 
t been constructed, the railroad has advanced consider- 
ly within the last few years. These railroads all center 
Montevideo, and good service is offered through the interior 
iched by them. There has been, however, need of other 
les which will serve as feeders to the main lines already 
nstructed or, acting independently, accomplish a similar 


By W. F. Northrup 

Agent, New York Transfer Station, Delaware, Lackawanna 
& Western, Secaucus, N. J. 

The most important detail in the handling of 1. c. 1. freight 
is the correct checking of the shipments. Failure on the part 
of the check clerk to properly tally and forward the shipments 
to the proper cars is costing the railroads a sufficient amount 
of money on account of losses to make this feature paramount 
in any investigation leading toward improved efficiency. 
There are so many different methods in use to cover this [-ar- 
ticular feature that time and space will not permit a discus- 
sion of the advantages and disadvantages of the different 

After considerable investigation during which numerous 
methods of checking were experimented with, we have adopt 
ed on the Lackawanna what is known as the "Carbon Ticket 
System." This is really nothing more or less than a combi- 
nation of other methods of tallying freight and is the result 
of a study of the causes of improper loading. While this 
system has not eliminated loading errors it has reduced them 
sufficiently to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. 
The carbon tickets do not differ materially from the various 
other forms of the so-called vericheck ticket, which are gener- 
ally in use, except that they are bound in pads and each alter- 
nate ticket bears a carbon back. This arrangement results 
in the issuance of each ticket in duplicate. The information 
shown on these tickets is as follows: 

First — Spot number; 

Second — Shipment number; 

Third — Number of pieces on truck; 

Fourth — Truckman's number ; 

Fifth — Check clerk's number. 
In operating this system each shipment passing through 
the transfer station is assigned an individual number. When 
the ticket is issued the original is turned over to the trucker 
who takes it with the freight to the outbound car, where it is 
deposited in a box hanging inside the car. The tickets in 
these boxes are inspected at frequent intervals by a verifier, 
whose duty it is to see that all of the spot numbers in the first 
space on the ticket agree with the number of the spot in 
which the car is standing. 

In case of an error steps can be taken immediately to re- 
move the freight and place it in the proper car. In this man- 

Trucker's Errors 


Month i" proper car 

January, 1915 60 

February 90 

March " I7S 


May 146 

June 169 


January, 1915 31 


March . 38 



June H6 


Grand total 

1 "a< kages found in 

impropei cai 

late to transfer. 

Traced by wire 




























ner errors made by the truckman are immediately noted and 
can be corrected without delay. Investigation however has 
proved that no small number of errors are due, not to the 
truckman, but to the (heck clerk; hence the idea of the carbon 
ticket. The duplicate copy of the original ticket is retained 
by the check clerk until he completes the out-turn of the car 

•Received in the contest on The Handling of L. C. L. Freight. 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

in which he is working, after which the duplicate tickets 
with the way-hills are turned over to another verifier who 
immediately checks each ticket hack against the original 
way-bills. Any discrepancy in the out-turn of the car is 
detected immediately. 

To demonstrate the effectiveness of this system and to give 
an idea of just how many pieces of freight were loaded at this 
station in error, such error being detected and the freight re- 
loaded to the proper cars I give below a statement for the 
first six months of 1915 which is self-explanatory. 

Aside from the actual errors corrected as demonstrated in 
the above statement, the moral effect on each trucker and 
checker has avoided errors, the number of which cannot be 
estimated. This system is not infallible. Loading errors are 
Still made which are not in every case detected, but they are 
few and far between. Following are a few of me important 
.advantages which have been noted as a result of this system: 

1. Errors made by each truckman and check clerk are 
known within 24 hours, and by maintaining a daily record 
the agent is in a position to detrmine just which of his em- 
ployees are delinquent and can deal with them accordingly. 

2. It has reduced over and short reports 60 per cent; 

3. It is invaluable as a record in handling O. S. & D. 
and claim papers. 

In connection with the carbon ticket system we maintain an 
individual record of each of the men employed at the station ; 
and each error noted either by means of tracers, correspond- 
ence, O. S. & D. reports or claims has been charged against 
the man responsible for it. When any man's record indi- 
cates that he is not capable of performing the duties assigned 
to him he is suspended from service for either 10, 15, 20 or 
30 days, according to the seriousness of his offense. Con- 
tinued errors result in dismissal. 

To stimulate interest in our check force we have installed 
a bonus system for the checkers, the cost of which is 
$10 monthly. This money is distributed in three prizes, con- 
sisting of a first prize of $5, a second prize of $3 and a third 
prize of $2 monthly. These awards are based on a demerit 
system and are given to the three check clerks who receive 
the fewest number of demerits per ton handled during the 
month. This method of awarding the prizes necessitates not 
only accuracy on the part of the check clerk but also his do- 
ing a reasonable amount of work to be considered for the 
award. The demerits charged against the check clerks in- 
clude two demerits for each piece of freight loaded to the 
improper car; two demerits for each day's absence from duty: 
■one demerit for each error in issuing a ticket, whether or not 
an actual error in loading is involved, and one demerit for 
-each failure to comply with station rules and regulations, of 
>which each checker has a copy. 

This bonus system has worked very satisfactorily and has 
■developed several men who can check an average of 70 to 
80 tons of freight daily with loading errors not averaging 
over 5 to 10 pieces per month. A corresponding improve- 
ment is noted in the entire force, and the interest displayed 
in striving for the money has caused a very satisfactory de- 
■ crease in improper loading with the resulting claims. Below 
I give the tonnage handled at this station for the first 5 
months of 1915, showing the approximate number of pieces 
of freight handled and the number of pieces improperly 
.loaded each month: 

Number of pieces Number of pieces 






May 21,196 

March . 

of freight 


of freight 







100,150 3,120,000 1,045 

We have also effected a material reduction in the number 
•of claims handled through the station at New York transfer 
.toy the.use of the carbon ticket system. Below I give figures 

showing to just what this reduction amounted as regards 
claims handled during the first six months of 1915 as com- 
pared with the first six months of 1913, the carbon ticket not 
being in use at this station during the earlier period. These 
figures include all freight claims and freight claim letters 
on which we were requested to supply a record. The amount 
of money involved cannot be shown, however, as the claim 
papers did not in all instances show it. 



Month in 1913 

January 423 

February 445 

March 426 

April 474 

May 502 

June i 383 




in 1915 

















The following is a list of the most notable train accidents 
that occurred on railways of the United States in the month 
of May, 1916: 


Kind of Kind of 

Date Road Place Accident Train Kil'd Ini'd 

4. Central Ga Mogul. be P. & F. 3 


Cause of Kind of 

Date Road Place Derailm't Train Kil'd Inj'd 

1. Norfolk & W Solitude b. rail P. 30 

2. Denver & Rio G Farnham. unx P. 

9. Norfolk & W Mineral Sp'gs. d. truck P. 32 

11. Seaboard A. L Manson. ace. obst. P. 2 1 

16. Missouri, K. & T Clinton. b. rail P. 7 

16. G. H. & S. A Nulo, Tex. b. rail P. 7 

17. Norfolk & W Pembroke. slide F. 3 

18. N. Y. N. H. & H Braintree. unx P. 3 

20. N. Y. N. H. & H....Waterbury. unx F. 1 

30. Denver & Rio G Grand Valley unx P. 9 

The trains in collision near Mogul, Ga., on the 4th were 
eastbound passenger No. 18 and westbound freight No. 37. 
Both trains had been brought nearly to a stop, and the dam- 
age to the engines was not great. Three persons were injured. 
The signalman at Mogul had admitted the freight to the 
block section occupied by the passenger train. 

The train derailed on the Norfolk & Western near Solitude, 
Va., on the evening of the 1st was northbound passenger 
No. 2, and four passenger cars fell down a bank. About 25 
passengers and 5 employees were slightly injured. The cause 
of the derailment was a broken rail. 

The train derailed at Farnham, Utah, on the morning of 
the 2d was eastbound passenger No. 16, and the engine and 
first five cars were ditched. No persons were seriously in- 
jured. The cause of the derailment was not determined. 
The tender was the first vehicle to run off the rails. 

The train derailed near Mineral Springs, Ohio, on the 9th 
was an eastbound local passenger. The injuries to persons 
are reported as all having been slight. The tender and four 
coaches fell down a bank. The derailment is believed to have 
been due to the failure of a safety hanger of the spring plank 
of a truck of the mail car. 

The train derailed at Manson, N. C, on the 11th was 
southbound passenger No. 7. The train was drawn by two 
engines and when running at about 45 miles an hour was 
thrown off the track at a switch, the tender of the leading 
engine being the first vehicle to leave the rails. The switch 
was slightly open, having been displaced by a short iron 
rod \y% in. in diameter, the presence of which rod has not 
been explained. One fireman and one trainman (who was 
off duty and riding on the train without authority) were 
killed, and one engineman was injured. 

'Abbreviations and marks used in Accident List: 

re, Rear collision be, Butting collision xc, Other collisions b, 

Broken d. Defective unf, Unforeseen obstruction unx. Unex- 
plained derail, Open derailing switch ms, Misplaced switch ace. 

obst.. Accidental obstruction malice, Malicious obstruction of track, etc. 

boiler, Explosion of locomotive on road fire, Cars burned while 

running P. or Pass., Passenger train F. or Ft., Freight train (includ- 
ing empty engines, work trains, etc.) Asterisk, Wreck wholly or partly 

destroyed by fire Dagger, One or more passengers killed. 

July 21, 1916 



The train derailed near Clinton, Mo., on the 16th was the 
southbound Texas special express. Five passenger cars fell 
down a bank. Three passengers and four trainmen were 
injured. The cause of the derailment was a broken rail. 

The train derailed near Nulo, Tex., on the 16th was 
No. 10, eastbound, the Sunset Limited Express. Three pas- 
senger cars, a mail car and an express car were partly over- 
turned. Five passengers and two trainmen were slightly 
injured. The cause of the derailment was a broken rail. 
The rail was of 80 lb. section laid in 1904, and broke be- 
cause of an internal transverse fissure. 

The train derailed near -Pembroke, Va., on the 17th was a 
westbound freight. The locomotive, a new Mallet, was over- 
turned and fell down a bank. The engineman, fireman, and 
a brakeman were injured. The engine struck a rock about 
the size of a small barrel, which had in some way become 
dislodged from the mountain side and rolled to the track at a 
place where the view along the track was very short. 

The train derailed at Braintree, Mass., on the 18th was 
a northbound local passenger. It was moving at low speed 
on a sharp curve and the rear car was overturned. Three 
passengers were injured. The cause of the derailment was 
not discovered. 

The train derailed near Waterbury, Conn., on the 20th 
was an eastbound freight. One brakeman was fatally in- 
jured. The cause of the derailment was the loosening of a 
driving wheel tire. 

The train derailed on the Denver & Rio Grande near Grand 
Valley, Colo., on the 30th was eastbound passenger No. 2. 
Fve cars ran off, and three employees and six passengers 
were injured. The cause of the derailment is reported as 


The local freight terminal of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe at Los Angeles consists of two buildings about 
1,000 ft. long, separated by seven house tracks, interspaced 
with two transfer platforms of approximately the same 
length as the houses. As a means of greatly reducing the 
trucking distances, three power-operated transfer bridges 
have been installed to afford intermediate cross trucking 

part is 00 ft. wide and was designed for an inbound house. 
The newer house was finished recently to serve as an out- 
bound freight house, the entire old building being assigned 
to the inbound freight service. The new house is 800 ft. 9 
in. long by 59 ft. 8 in. wide, with an automobile platform 
at the outer end of the same width and 149 ft. long. 

The seven tracks between the out-freight house and the in- 
freight house are divided into three groups by two platforms, 
each 16 ft. wide, there being three tracks adjacent to the new 
house, two between the two platforms and two adjacent to 
the old freight house. The house tracks come to a stub end 
on a line with the inner end of the freight houses and a cross 

The Pusher Mechanism 

platform connects the two longitudinal platforms and the two 
freight houses at this point. 

Owing to the great length of the layout, electric tractors 
and trailers were particularly applicable and have been in- 
stalled, but in order to afford a material reduction in the 
trucking distances, bridges were installed at two points in the 
length of the station to permit cross movements of the trucks. 
These bridges were removed by hand each time it was neces- 
sary to switch the cars, a cut being made in the string of cars 

Interior of New Outbound Freight House 

movements which are made movable to permit the switching 
of cars on the house tracks. These bridges present an inter- 
esting departure in freight house operation and several in- 
genious engineering details have been worked out in their 

The older of the two freight houses was built in 1907 and 
is 1,080 ft. long. One portion of it is 40 ft. wide and was 
used until recently as an outbound freight house. The other 

opposite each bridge when the cars were placed to allow room 
for the bridge. 

The operation of these primitive bridges proved expensive 
and it was found that power-operated bridges could be in- 
stalled at a considerable saving over the cost of operating 
the old ones. Two bridges have been installed as shown in 
the accompanying photograph to provide movable spans over 
the three groups of tracks at two intermediate points in the 


Vol. 61, No. 3 

length of the station. A third bridge has been provided over 
a single track in the throat of the yard. As shown, the 
Larger structures each consist of a gallows frame of struc- 
tural steel, spanning the center pair of tracks, and support- 
ing the operating machinery from which the three draw- 
bridges are raised or lowered. 

The draw bridges are simple in design, consisting of struc- 
tural steel beams carrying a plank flooring. The bridge over 
the three tracks next to the out-freight house has a length of 
43 ft. 4 in. The other two bridges are 28 ft. 10 in. and 29 
ft. 4 in. in length, respectively. However, a very simple 
device has been used to afford short span lengths, thus mak- 
ing it unnecessary to provide bridges of sufficient stiffness to 
span the full distances. Heavy sills have been placed on 
the center lines between tracks directly under these bridges 
to serve as bearings for swinging legs attached to the spans. 
When the bridges are down these legs serve as intermediate 
supports, thus cutting the spans to approximately 13 ft. 
When the bridges are raised the legs fold back against the 
under sides of the bridges and outside of the clearance lines. 

The spans are raised and lowered by means of cables 

weights, both pushers and counter weights being clearly vis- 
ible in one of the accompanying photographs. In the case 
of the larger bridge a motor-operated pusher was required. 

This pusher is shown in the accompanying drawing, and 
its operation is simple. When the bridge is to be closed a 
drum in clutch with the motor operating the bridge winds up 
a cable and the pusher is forced outward. When the full 
reach of the pusher has been obtained a small lug on the end 
of the pusher rod comes in contact with the clutch lever and 
throws the drum out of clutch with the motor. Thus the 
pusher remains stationary during the remaining travel of 
the bridge. The operation is reversed when the bridge is 

The new freight house has a steel frame, consisting of 
bents 20 ft. center to center made up of two columns and a 
clear span truss, supporting steel purlins which carry the 
wooden roof. The freight doors occupy the full spaces be- 
tween columns on both sides of the house and steel sash win- 
dows occupy most of the space above the doors, the small 
amount of wall space consisting of reinforced concrete cur- 
tain walls. Rolling doors are installed on the track side and 


1 i - 

Bfe^ % ^i 





Urn i 

The Lift Bridges Open 

winding up on drums operated by 7^-hp. 3-phase, 60-cycle 
alternating current motors. Worm drives are used, thus 
avoiding the need of any system of brakes. One 7^-hp. 
motor operates the 3 -track bridge; another motor of the same 
size operates the two smaller bridges simultaneously. Con- 
trollers are installed on one of the posts of the gallows frame 
at the platform level for the operation of the motors and au- 
tomatic cut-offs are provided to stop the motors when the 
bridges are fully opened. 

Unlike the usual bascule span, these bridges come to a 
true vertical position when open. Therefore the weight of 
the bridge is in no way effective to start it downward when 
it is desired to close the bridge. This becomes quite a formi- 
dable difficulty when a wind is blowing against the bridge in 
a direction opposite to that of the closing movement. On ac- 
count of this difficulty, pushers were provided to push the 
bridges out a sufficient distance to make the weight of the 
bridge effective in carrying it downward and also to serve as 
buffers when the bridges are opened. The pushers for the 
two smaller bridges are operated by means of counter 

cross folding doors on the team side. The doors fold outward 
rather than inward, thus saving space inside of the house and 
affording a canopy over the doors on the outside. At the 
inner end of the house there is a basement for a length of 
200 ft. for storage purposes, this basement being of reinforced 
concrete construction. The house is equipped with twenty- 
six three-ton scales and four six-ton scales placed adjacent 
to the team side doors. Each scale is provided with a Fair- 
banks automatic dial, graduated to the full capacity of the 
scales. The automobile platform is provided with a six-ton 
scale with a 7^-ft. by 16-ft. platform. 

The bridges were installed under the general direction of 
G. W. Harris, chief engineer of the Santa Fe coast lines. 
The design of the freight station was under the direction of 
E. A. Harrison, and the design of the bridges under the di- 
rection of A. F. Robinson, architect and bridge engineer of 
the Santa Fe system, respectively. A contract was let to C. 
H. Norwood, Chicago, who furnished all the structural steel 
and electrical equipment, and also designed the operating 

Railway Regulation Causes Locomotor Ataxia 

Lack of Co-ordination and Fairness in Present System 
Does Great Harm — National Control the Remedy 

By Frank Trumbull 
Chairman, Chesapeake & Ohio Railway 

I SHALL not wear}- you with figures or with platitudes 
about what you do for the railroads or what they do 
for you. The fact that you have invited a representa- 
tive of the railroads to address you, evidences sufficiently the 
mutual welfare and regard of shippers and carriers. Neither 
shall I apologize for the railroads. There has been a great 
deal of critical comment about exceptional instances of rail- 
way administration, but if you will put it all together you 
will find it relates to less than 10 per cent of the mileage of 
the country, and that it has very much exceeded in volume 
and sound the praise bestowed upon the other 90 per cent. 
Railway administration of today in this country is as honest 
as any other business. Notwithstanding this, railway di- 
rectors and officials accept the principle of regulation because 
railway companies are public service corporations. Discrimi- 
nations and unreasonable practices by such corporations are 
and ought to be forbidden by law. Discriminations by indi- 
vidual states against the commerce of other states and un- 
reasonable requirements ought also to be done away with by 
some better method than tedious litigation. Obviously, any 
adequate scheme of regulation ought to deal not with 10 per 
cent of the roads or with 90 per cent, but with all of them, 
and no regulation can be adequate that is not unified and 

I might entertain you with a long history of various at- 
tempts at regulation, commencing with the so-called "Granger 
laws," followed later by the Interstate Commerce law, enacted 
29 years ago, and both in turn followed by hundreds upon 
hundreds of statutes enacted by federal and state govern- 
ments. But it is sufficient for this occasion to say that these 
endeavors, due to a variety of motives, have, after establishing 
general principles, all been of a piecemeal and patchwork 
character; court plasters, not blood remedies. Railway legis- 
lation has been more conspicuous for quantity than for qual- 
ity, and "legislation" and "regulation" are not synonymous 

It is true that much progress has been made. For ex- 
ample, in the so-called Eastern Rate Case the Interstate 
Commerce Commission made, in December, 1914, the follow-, 
ing declarations of principle: 

That there is in this country a fundamental need 
of adequate transportation facilities. 

That such facilities during the continuance of 
present economic conditions can only be had by 
means of private capital, combined with private 

That private capital can only be obtained by the 
hope and realization of fair and reasonable return. 
That to produce such return, freight rates may 
be raised, when it is shown that existing rates as a 
whole, considered regionally in this case) yield in- 
adequate revenue, and that the higher rates pro- 
posed would be reasonable. 

That such reasonable passenger fares may be 
charged as will yield a fair return on the property 
devoted to passenger use, and, further, that in gen- 
eral each class of service, including the mail and 
express, should contribute its just proportion to the 
total economic cost of operation. 

*An address delivered before the National Hay Association at Cedar 
Point, Ohio, on July 12, 1916. 

That in determining reasonable rates, interest 
upon railway debt is not a factor and will be dis- 

This last has mightily clarified a thing about which there 
has been much confusion of thought and even more confu- 
sion of tongues. The fact is that bonds and stocks indicate 
only the ownership of property, and are not the property it- 
self which is used by the public. This is simply a corollary 
to the long established principle that if railway companies 
take private property for public use, they must pay its rea- 
sonable value, regardless of how the previous owner acquired 
it or paid for it. 

However, almost immediately after this decision was 
handed down, one state made an order reducing rates which, 
if sustained by the courts, would take away several million 
dollars per annum of the benefits derived at Washing- 

Various state rates and practices could not be changed to 
conform to the recommendations of the commission; pay- 
ments by the postoffice department were still outside the 
cemmission's jurisdiction; all the states were at liberty to 
make requirements which in one way or another changed the 
net revenue of the roads. All of which illustrates the real 
helplessness of the Interstate Commerce Commission actuallv 
to "regulate." Clearly, something was still lacking. 

Let us get down to fundamentals; back to the intent and 
real meaning of things. If you will look at Webster, you 
will find these definitions of the word "regulate" : 

"To adjust by rule or method." 

"To put in good order." 

"To adjust or maintain with respect to a desired 

"To regulate a watch or clock, to adjust its rate 
of running so that it will keep approximately 
standard time." 

The carriers and the public have suffered because they 
have not really obtained regulation according to the intent 
and meaning of that much-used word. Don't take my state- 
ment for it, but let me read to you an extract from a recent 
report of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce upon a resolution providing a joint committee of 
inquiry into the whole problem of transportation — similar 
to the Aldrich Monetary Commission — a resolution which 
has already passed the Senate and is expected soon to pass 
the House: 

"Sinci tin- approval of the acl to regulate commerce in 1887, 
the system has had a gradual and irregular growth by various and 
sometimes sporadic amendments, some <>i them making decided, if 
not radical, changes in the original plans and policies, and some 
of them adding new and important activities, So that the entire 
law to regulate commerci now in forci is not a uniform, compact, 
symmetrical structure easily understood, but is an incoherent 
growth, sometimes inconsistent, in some parts hardly reconcilable, 
and. to say the least ot it, the diversities anil incongruities should 
be carefully considered and wherevei possible unified and improved, 
to the end that the federal regulation of carriers may he suc- 
cessfully carried on with the best possible service to the public. 
It is the earnest hope of every member of your committee 
that the investigation, if ordered, shall lie directed to the detection 
of defects in the system, tin establishment of truth as to the best 
way to r< ' i i-. and the perfection of the system 

for the increased convenience and prosperity of the people in 
way that human legislative wisdom can accomplish perfec- 
tion in anything." 

In addressing Congress on December 8, 1915, President 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

Wilson, in recommending such a committee, said among other 
things about transportation: 

"It is obviously a problem that lies at the very foundation of our 
efficiency as a people; it is the one common interest of our in- 
dustrial life." 

"The question is whether there is anything else we can do that 
would supply us with effective means, in the very process of 
regulation, for bettering the conditions under which the railroads 
are operated and for making them more useful servants of the 
country as a whole." 

You will perceive that I am not giving you my own views, 
but those of great leaders of thought in this country. Sena- 
tor Underwood, of Alabama, said in an address at Chicago, 
on February 4, 1916: 

"We must recognize that the man who is willing to invest his 
money at a moderate rate of interest in railroad securities is not 
exploiting the public but is a public benefactor." 

"We must solve the problem along lines of private ownership 
and Government regulation. We must consider the wisdom of 
substituting one master for the forty-nine masters that regulate our 
commerce today." 

Colonel Roosevelt and Mr. Taft have made almost identical 
statements in clear and unmistakable terms, and Mr. Hughes 
said immediately after his nomination: 

. "We must rescue our instrumentalities of interstate and foreign 
commerce, our transportation facilities, from uncertainty and con- 
fusion. We must show that we know how to protect the public 
without destroying or crippling our productive energies." 

The "Locomotive Engineers' Journal," official organ of 
the 75,000 railroad engineers, said not long ago: 

"The railroads are almost wholly interstate in character, and 
it requires little thought to realize how unsatisfactory and un- 
businesslike it makes the conditions for the railroads with a com- 
mission in every state demanding all sorts of conditions from the 

"The great thoroughfares should have one boss, instead of forty- 
nine, and the rate making should be done by one factor of the 
Government, so that a survey of the whole territory may be before 
them, when all the varied conditions can be readily seen, and rates 
made that are just, both to the shipper and the railroads. 

"No other kind of business could live under such unknown and 
unfixed conditions." 

The Massachusetts Public Service Commission, in report- 
ing not long ago on the New Haven road, after an exhaustive 
inquiry, made this statement: 

"The whole legal question is so difficult, so entangled and con- 
fused by conflicting claims and rights, that it raises serious doubts 
as to the wisdom of the system from which it arose. No man 
can serve two masters. Is there public advantage in compelling a 
corporation to serve three or more? A system under which a 
single undivided corporation is at the same time three separate 
corporations is wholly illogical and seems contrary to good order 
and reason." 

Formerly, wages and rate matters were dealt with in a 
rather lawless way by shippers, employees and individual 
roads, but in the last few years there has been an evolution; 
both wages and rates have been considered regionally, and 
now, for the first time, the train service employees are insist- 
ing that their wages shall be considered on a nation-wide 
basis. Industrial and commercial bodies all over the coun- 
try, recognizing the great need for unified and more efficient 
regulation of transportation, have passed significant resolu- 
tions during the present year calling upon Congress for in- 
vestigation and relief. The Merchants' Association of New 
York, the Chamber of Commerce of Philadelphia, the Na- 
tional Manufacturers' Association, the National Lumber 
Dealers' Association, the Southern Pine Association, National 
Leather Association, American Hardware Manufacturers' 
Association and many similar organizations of wide influ- 
ence in the business world have expressed themselves vigor- 
ously to this effect. 

So under our very eyes this thing has come to pass. Men 
of all classes and of all shades of political opinion are de- 
claring that the transportation question is a national problem 
— not a local issue. 

Now, if you and other shippers, and the people who travel 
in passenger trains, or who receive mail and parcels post 
carried by the railroads, and railway directors and officials, 
are all agreed that the propriety of regulation is no longer in 

dispute, surely all of us together ought to be able to search 
our hearts, ascertain our paramount duty, get down to busi- 
ness and discuss the whole question from the standpoint of 
the public interest. 

We may, therefore, ask ourselves: 

Is it in the public interest that the railroads of this country 
are required to make over two million reports per annum to 
various federal and state tribunals? 

Is it in the public interest that passenger rates are only 
two cents a mile in some states and higher in more populous 
states? And in considering this question will not the most 
obvious thing to the public be the cost and comfort of the 
passenger equipment of today as compared with twenty 
years ago? 

Is it in the public interest that wagon-loads of testimony 
are submitted to various state tribunals to prove that rates 
ought to be higher, resulting in refusals, after a corresponding 
laborious inquiry by the Interstate Commerce Commission, 
the result of which was a finding that interstate charges ought 
to be increased an'd that passenger traffic is not paying its 
share ? 

Is it in the public interest that some states pass extra-crew 
laws while other states are refusing to pass them? 

Is it in the public interest that one shipper — the postofnee 
department — determines compensation to the railroads with- 
out submission to the Interstate Commerce Commission when 
other shippers are deprived of such a privilege? 

Is it in the public interest that public service corporations 
are required by divided authority to violate the spirit, if not 
the letter, of Section Two of Article Four of the Constitution 
of the United States, which declares that "The citizens of 
each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities 
of citizens in the several states." 

Is it in the public interest that public tribunals have said 
in some cases that rates by one line may be higher than 
another because the cost of operation is higher, thereby 
penalizing superior location and construction? If so, what 
incentive is there to build better roads, or improve existing 
roads ? 

Is it just that wages of steel workers, coal miners and 
others are voluntarily increased by employers and these in- 
creases then passed along to the consumer, including the rail- 
roads, unless similar flexibility be accorded to railroad in- 
vestors and nearly two million employees? If not, what is 
the alternative? 

Besides innumerable things like those mentioned are con- 
fusing anti-trust laws of various states as well as the federal 
government, which seem to most students of railway eco- 
nomics to be superfluous, when superimposed upon minute 
regulation and to interfere with that very desirable thing — 
low cost of production. Then, too, think of the time of ship- 
pers and railway officials devoted to attendance upon various 
tribunals. In consequence of all these wasteful things, mil- 
lions upon millions of dollars which ought to be saved for 
somebody, are going over the dam every year, and warrant 
the query whether there is any more wisdom in disembarking 
railroad corporations at state lines than there would be in 
disembarking passengers and freight or changing wages at 
state lines. Who, for example, would think of advocating a 
postoffice department for each state in the union? Is it not 
your duty and mine to cut out waste wherever we can, no 
matter how prosperous we may be ? 

The net results of conditions such as I have enumerated, 
is that individual states are actually regulating interstate 
commerce and are shifting to other states burdens of railway 
credit which the latter ought not to assume, and in reality are 
requiring railway corporations to do what the federal law 
prohibits them from doing — that is, to discriminate between 
persons and places. 

The fact is, we haven't had "regulation" at all. It is 
locomotor ataxia. If you will look again at the dictionary, 

July 21, 1916 



you will see locomotor ataxia described as "A disease of the 
spinal cord characterized by peculiar disturbances of gait, 
and difficulty in co-ordinating voluntary movements." 

Surely Webster must have had the railroads in mind when 
he wrote that! The federal government may be likened 
to the spinal cord of our political system. Congress can, 
and should — without any constitutional amendment — act in 
these matters in behalf of all the states and "co-ordinate" the 
railroads. The small number of people who would be 
thrown out of political employment are as nothing in the 
balance to the millions who would be benefited. In fact, 
state public service commissions would still have quite enough 
to do in supervising street car lines, lighting companies, water 
companies, etc. Any fear of too much centralization could 
be easily overcome by regional commissions. If we can 
mobilize the strength of the banks regionally, why not also 
the railroads? The people of the states would be better 
served and better protected. The people care nothing for 
state lines on the map, or for theoretical state rights, when 
they want to do business. 

Not long ago I heard an after-dinner speaker say: "The 
railroads must be taken out of the field of speculation." I 
do not know just how this is to be accomplished, unless by 
government guarantees, but certainly the business ought to be 
relieved of the speculative risks of conflicting treatment by 
public authorities. 

Railway investors are quite willing to take their chances 
with the other people of this country. They do not have any 
problems, except so-called regulation, that you have not. You 
have your puzzles about wages, about fluctuations of crops, 
of demand and supply and many other things. The railroad 
investor takes "pot-luck" with you, but is timid, even in 
prosperous seasons, about the one thing with which he has 
to contend and with which you do not; that is, artificial and 
uncertain limitations on profits. He is quite willing to have 
supervision of railway securities, but, naturally, thinks that 
the machinery should be simple and prompt and the federal 
government should act in behalf of all the states in regulat- 
ing the instrumentalities of commerce. At present nineteen 
states are trying to regulate the issuance of securities, and no 
two of the regulations are alike. If you were a banker, how 
long would you, with present opportunities for making 
money, tie up your funds or your customers' funds, waiting 
for "consents" of various tribunals, some of which impose a 
heavy special tax on this "privilege" of devoting money to 
public use, although the proceeds of the securities may be 
largely spent in other states? 

No railway regulation can really put the machine "in 
order" that does not comprehend the question of railway 
credit. Facilities must, of course, precede service, and credit 
must precede facilities. Our railroads should always be 
ahead of, not behind, the growth of the nation. In this con- 
nection, may I bring to your attention just one graphic state- 
ment? The debt of the railways of this country is now, 
roughly speaking, about eleven billion dollars. The stock 
amounts to about seven billion dollars. Now, how long 
would your bankers do business with you if you were attempt- 
ing to permanently borrow eleven dollars for every seven you 
put in the business yourself? Millions of people are as 
dependent upon weak roads as other people are upon the 
strong ones. For example, take the southwest. A large part 
of its railroads are in bankruptcy. Surely that is not all 
due to bad management. How much of it is due to unwise 
regulation, how much to unsound laws about financing, and 
how much to other things? Could any congressional action 
be of greater service than to do whatever is necessary to safe- 
guard and strengthen railway credit? 

Railway returns for the fiscal year just ended were equiva- 
lent to about S]/ 2 per cent on the property used by the public 
— surely not exorbitant. Is there any prosperous private 
business in the world that yields so small a return? In 

1913 the return was about 5 per cent, in 1914 about 4 per 
cent, in 1915 about 4 per cent. I am speaking of the rail- 
roads as a whole; not even a unified regulation can be suc- 
cessful if it is not to make weak roads healthier and more 
serviceable, nor can it be successful if based on returns of 
prosperous years only. 

In no business is it conservative to draw out every year 
all of the profits. How long would your bankers be cordial 
if you were to withdraw every year all of your gains, instead 
of building up reserves or adding to the real value of your 
assets? I have said that I am not here to apologize for the 
railroads, neither am I here to boast, but perhaps I may 
give you one illustration: The average passenger train in 
this country earns for carrying passengers, mail, express and 
parcels post about $1.40 per mile. The average equipment 
of locomotive and cars provided for this probably weighs 
about 500 tons per train and is projected through space at 
a speed varying from 20 to 60 miles per hour. That is to 
say, a five hundred ton train is projected twelve miles at high 
speed for the price of a ton of hay. Do you happen to know 
of any equivalent service for less money ? Let me also quote 
from a recent statement of W. M. Acworth, a distinguished 
English writer on railway economics. He said: 

"This is my tenth visit to the United States, of whose railway 
affairs I have been fcr about thirty years a diligent student. Every 
time I am brought into contact with American railways, the over- 
powering impression produced on my mind is of the marvelous 
results which the efficiency of the railroad men produces with the 
minimum expenditure both of capital and income." 

A very helpful American writer has said: 

"A nation is made great not by its fruitful acres, but by the 
men who cultivate them; not by its great forests, but by the men 
who use them; not by its mines, but by the men who work in 
them; not by its railways, but by the men who run them. America 
was a creat land when Columbus discovered it; Americans have 
made of it a great nation." 

We are a great nation, not a federation of tribes. Never 
before has there been such a national consciousness. We 
should be as proud of prosperous railroads as of prosperous 
banks; we must have both if we are to keep pace with the 
great expansion ahead of us, to say nothing of our normal 
growth. The opportunity of this generation — your oppor- 
tunity and mine — is to serve our country by promoting na- 
tional unity. The paramount "state right" is to be part of 
the union. Nothing will promote national unity more than 
unified and consistent regulation of transportation, which, as 
President Wilson has said, is "the one common interest of our 
industrial life." It is a fascinating task, and it is most 
gratifying that all the multiplying signs of mutual friendli- 
ness and appreciation are so propitious for its accomplish- 

British Locomotive Exports. — The value of the en- 
gines shipped in March was only $350,000, as compared 
with $1,200,000 in March, 1915. and SI, 250, 000 in March, 
1914. The value of the exports to March 31, this year, 
amounted to $1,650,000, as compared with $3,800,000 in the 
first quarter of 1915, and $6,000,000 in the first quarter of 

Utilizixc, Spoiled Munitions. — At the outbreak of the 
present war, many manufacturers went into the munitions 
business without definite ideas as to the requirements of this 
work. Consequently a large amount of material was spoiled 
or made in such a way that it would not pass inspection. 
One concern lost over 5,000 18-lb. British cartridge cases, 
but a novel use was made of these cases. They were placed 
in a punch press and smashed down so as to form a shallow 
cup. Soldered on the edges of this cup were two small curved 
holders which converted the cartridge case into a very satis- 
factory and attractive cigar and ash holder. The result was 
that the spoiled cartridge cases sold for a higher price in 
this form than they would have if sold for munition pur- 
poses. — Machinery. 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

CAR FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF LIVE 5/16 in. thick. The top chord of the member is a 5 in. by 
FISH 3^2 in. by Y% in. angle and the bottom chord is made up of 

two 3 in. by 3 in. by y$ in. angles running the full length of 

The McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Company, Chi- the car body. There is a top cover plate running the full 

cago, recently completed for the Illinois State Came and length of the car, 30 in. wide by Y% in. thick. Each side sill 

Floor Plan of the Illinois State Game and Fish Commission's Fish Car 

Fish Commission a car for use in the transportation of live is a 4-in. by 3-in. by 5/16-in. angle and a 5-in., 11.6-lb. Z- 
fish. It is of steel construction with interior finish of plain bar riveted together. The body bolsters are of the built-up 

4x3"x%L ,s"z.ll.6Lb. 

S 7. 11.6 Lb. , 

^-r//-r-r-.-, T H 
• 23 —J 

Arrangement of the Underframe of the Illinois State Fish Car 

sawed oak, with the exception of the wainscoting which is of type and have a top cover plate % in. by 68 in. extending the 
steel. It is 72 ft. 6 in. long over end sills, 81 ft. 2 in. long full width of the car body. The floor plates are 1/16 in. 

Car for Use in Live Fish Transportation 

over platforms and the trucks are spaced 57 ft. 10^ in. sheet steel and there are also two pressed steel cross- 

between centers. The weight of the car is 139,100 lb. The bearers. 

center sills are of the built-up fishbelly type; the web plates In the body framing the side sill forms the bottom chord of 

are 26 in. deep at the center and 12 in. at the ends and are a girder whose web member is a plate 3/16 in. by 34^ in., 

July 21, 1C16 



extending the full length of the car body, while the top chord 
consists of a 4 in. by 1^ in. by 7/16 in. dropper bar. The 
side plate is a 4-in., 8.2-lb. Z-bar and the posts are of 
pressed steel, y$ in. thick by 4 in. wide. The floor is 
insulated with Flexolith and the insulation in the superstruc- 
ture is Woolbestos. Agasote, 54 i n - thick, is used in the 
interior in the upper deck and the same material 3/16 in. 
thick in the lower deck. The trucks are of the 6-wheel type 
with 10 ft. 6 in. wheel base, 36 in. rolled steel wdieels and 
5 in. by 9 in. journals. The heating is provided for by stoves, 
no interior steam piping being applied, and the car is fitted 
with living accommodations. 

The car is equipped with an aerating and water circulat- 
ing system for the purpose of keeping the water in proper 
condition in the fish tank to keep the fish alive while in 
transportation. This is accomplished through a system of 
reservoirs and piping. There are 16 fish tanks, each one 
being connected with the system and having an overflow drain 
whereby the overflow water circulates to the receiving tank 
located underneath the car which has a capacity of 200 

There is also a tank placed in the roof of the car of 240 gal- 

Interior of the Car, Showing the Fish Tanks 

ions capacity which is the main reservoir for the system. The 
water is fed from this tank into the fish tanks as required, 
then out of the fish tanks through the overflow into the re- 
ceiving tank below the car, and when the receiving tank 
is filled it automatically empties, the water being forced 
out of this reservoir by air pressure to the storage tank in 
the roof of the car. 

The plant consists of a gasolene engine of 3 hp., and an 
air compressor of a capacity of 8 cu. ft. of free air per 
minute. The air reservoir is a high pressure tank 2 ft. by 
5 ft., carrying a pressure of 80 lb. The circulation is auto- 
matically controlled by a float in the receiving tank which 
in turn is connected with electric contacts that operate an 
electric valve, cutting in the air when the receiving tank is 
full and cutting it out when the water is displaced. 

The car is also supplied with its own electric plant for 
furnishing 22 lights in the car and also for furnishing power 
for operating the switches for the water circulating system. 
The generator is driven by the gasolene engine, with storage 
battery service. The storage battery is capable of thirty- 
six hours' service in operating the lights, etc., with the plant 


The drawing printed herewith shows the standard aspects 
and indications of the position light signals, block and inter- 
locking, giving indications to trains both night and day by 
uncolored lights, which are now in service on the Pennsyl- 
vania between Overbrook and Paoli, on the Philadelphia 
division, and to be installed on the New York division from 
West Philadelphia to North Philadelphia when that section 
of the line is electrified. 

These signals have now been in use nearly a year and a 
half. When they were first put in, and as they were described 
in the Railway Age Gazette of January 8, 1915, page 61; 
February 26, 1915, page 366; and March 5, 1915, page 404, 
each signal had two rows of lights burning continuously, the 
arrangement being made to correspond with a semaphore 
with two arms; but the scheme has now been simplified so 
that as shown, for example, in aspects 12, 13, 14, etc., only 
one signal or row of lights need be burning. In series with 
the upper row of lights there is a low resistance relay which, 
through its contacts, controls the circuit energizing the sec- 
ond row; so that, if the upper row should accidentally be 
extinguished, the circuit of the second row would be opened, 
extinguishing that also. Thus there is no danger of giving a 
false indication by the lower lights when the upper row has 
been put out. 

It will be noticed that aspects 1, 12 and 20 are identical; 
and also, in the same way, 2, 14, 17 and 22; 3, 18 and 25; 
4, 15, 19, 21, and 24 are identical. The same is true of 13 
and 23; and thus there are, in all, only fifteen aspects to 
provide all the indications required for scheme No. 3 of the 
Railway Signal Association. 

Aspect No. 16 may be changed at will to 12; that is, a 
Stop-and-Proceed may be changed to Stop-and-Stay, and 
vice versa. Where an automatic signal is used as a hold sig- 
nal for train orders, the operator, on throwing his office 
switch to set the signal, opens the circuit of the single fixed 
light (which is the mark of a Proceed-after-Stopping signal) 
and, when he throws his switch back to clear the signal, it be- 
comes again an automatic signal. Some signals are now being 
intalled with this arrangement. A take-siding indicator (No. 
26) is also to be installed. This will be mounted on a mast 
by itself and will have lamps 12 in. apart, on centers, with a 
background 3 ft. square. It will be lighted only when in use. 

It will be noted that the background's of Nos. 1, 2, etc., 
appear unduly large. As a matter of fact, in the construc- 
tion, aspects 12 to 25, inclusive, will have their own back- 
grounds of various shapes, depending on the number of posi- 
tions displayed. All backgrounds will be made as small as 
practicable, thus reducing the wind pressure on the struc- 

The fixed light in aspect No. 16 is mounted in front of 
the mast, and, as only one horizontal row is ever displayed, 
except on the interlocking signals, it is intended to use a short 
mast, R. S. A. standard. 

Two signals have been put in service, protecting a single- 
track tunnel, which are lighted up by the approaching train. 
On these, for a period of four months, no adjustments or re- 
pairs were made; there was neither a failure of any kind nor 
a lamp renewal. Batteries (caustic soda) continued in first- 
class shape; the plates showed practically no signs of wear, 
and there was only a slight sediment in the bottom of the jar. 
The maintenance of these signals consists of inspection trips 
which, on account of distance from headquarters, consume 
three hours each. Several trips were made in January; two 
in February and two in March, at a cost in the latter two 
months of 80 cents per signal per month. The first and only 
failure so far occurred April 26; trackmen dragged cinders 
over the track and caused a short circuit, resulting in one 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

signal showing slop when it should have been dear and the 
other remaining lighted for about three hours. The normal 
time which these signals are lighted is one hour in twenty- 

From a report made by Signal Engineer A. H. Rudd, it 
appears that the results from the operation of this type of 
signal have been very satisfactory. The number of failures 
of all kinds has been greatly reduced, and by doing away 
with all moving parts except the control relays the chance of 
false clear signals is reduced to a minimum. The engine- 
men are practically unanimous in their approval of the sig- 
nals; and they say that the lights can be seen better in fog 
and in snowstorms than any other signals. The number of 
signals on a railroad may be reduced, as compared with the 
older types, because four aspects can be given with each sig- 
nal, whereas other types afford only three. With the ad- 
ditional aspect it is sometimes practicable to use fewer signals. 
With colored lights only three colors are available, and with 
the semaphore arm only three aspects can be used, for all 
must be given in one quadrant. The arm cannot be moved 

Taking into account all elements, Mr. Rudd estimates that 
the average cost of a block section with a four-track auto- 
matic signal bridge, including signals and all fittings com- 
plete, is $10,071.22; with the least expensive semaphore a 
similar installation would have cost $10,633.07. This shows 
a saving per block section of $561.85; per signal, $140.46; 
and for the ninety signals, $12,641.40. 

This saving of $12,000 would be greater on another in- 
stallation, as a number of details could be left out. More- 
over, the new standard aspects, now shown, if they had been 
adopted at first, would have lessened the cost $4,500. In 
short, the system as now developed will cost $1,100 a mile 
less than was the case eighteen months ago. 

Mr. Rudd, because of his part in designing and develop- 
ing these signals, classes himself as prejudiced; but he says 
that many of the officers of the road look to see light signals 
take the place of the movable arm for general use where 
semaphore signals would be operated by electric or pneu- 
matic power. 

In his report Mr. Rudd gives an interesting sketch of the 





Proceed- prepared 

Proceed -prepared 



Proceed at medium 

Proceed at 

Proceed at 

to Stop at next Signal 

To pass next signal 

Speed prepared to 
stopat next signal- 

medium speed 

speed prep* 
to Stop 


Proceed at Proceed at 

ow speed prepared low *peed 
to Stop 


i i i ifi it i 

Stop. Proceed witn cautic 

prepared to stop a* - * 
of tram r obstruct 


Proceed -prepared Proceed- prepared 

to stop at next signal to pass nextsignal 

at medium speed 


Stop. Proeeni 

(Ord«rs) (no Order-,) 




required on interlocking sign 

Standard Aspects and Indications as Given by "Position- Light" Signals on the Pennsylvania Railroad 

from the lower to the upper quadrant without having it 
momentarily show stop. 

These signals are lighted by alternating current. This is 
the ideal plan and is of course available at all places where 
electric propulsion is used. To light these signals con- 
tinuously from a primary battery would, ordinarily, involve 
undue cost; but on lines of light traffic this source can be 
used, as the signals can be arranged to light up on the ap- 
proach of a train and to go out as the rear of the train 

The signal installation from Overbrook to Paoli, about 
fourteen miles, cost approximately $355,000, including part 
of the cost of power house and of costly ducts for carrying 
wires underground, but excluding the new track bonding re- 
quired in connection with electric propulsion. The cost also 
includes some changes that were made in interlocking. The 
signal locations were changed so that ninety automatic sig- 
nals now take the place of the 110 signals formerly used. 

development of the light signals. Experiments were first 
begun in the early part of 1914, Mr. Rudd's principal as- 
sistant being C. E. Goings. The glass was developed by Dr. 
William Churchill, of the Corning Glass Works, Corning, 
N. Y. The first signals were put in service February 14, 
1915, and the first patent was issued March 14, 1916. A 
number of patents are still pending. All of the men who 
participated in the invention pooled their- interests and li- 
censes have been issued to the four principal signal com- 
panies. The Union and the General companies are pre- 
pared to fill orders. A long series of experiments had to be 
made to get rid of the glare of the sun on the lamps, which, 
under favorable conditions — favorable to the sun, not to the 
railroad — would illuminate the whole of the signal so that 
the lighted lamps were indistinguishable from those which 
were not lighted. On lines running east and west the lights 
for west bound movements were troublesome at sunrise, and 
those for east bound movements developed the same condi- 

July 21, 1916 



on at sunset. These difficulties were present only for two 
r three weeks twice a year, when the sun, on its journey 
Drth or south, shone on the lights at just the right angle to 
roduce the effect mentioned. On lines of railroad running 
jrth and south this difficulty does not exist. The filaments 
: the lamps are very small and delicate and have to be 
icussed with great precision. By repeated changes in this 
ature and in the position of the lens, with the addition of 
reflector to more surely throw the rays downward, for the 
:nefit of enginemen close to the signals, the trouble was 
.tisfactorily overcome. Careful provision had to be made 
ir the short distance view, because the signals, being fixed 
i the overhead bridges supporting the electric wires for 
•opulsion, are about forty feet above the track. For dwarf 
gnals, which need not be visible more than about 1,000 
et, the lamps are "frosted'' by the use of chiffon. 


By Walter S. Hiatt. 
Our Special European Correspondent. 

Among other railroad material that is being worked over- 
ne now because of the European war may be mentioned the 
ilatial trains of the Emperors of Russia and Germany, the 
ing of Italy, and that of the President of the French Re- 
lblic. These trains have never been in service so fre- 
lently before. 

Indeed, it is likely, should the war last many months 
nger, that the train of the President of the French Re- 
iblic will have to be rebuilt. It is a war order that some 
iterprising American car builder may keep in mind. The 
ain was about to be rebuilt when the war started but the 
orthanded conditions in the French car factories have not 
rmitted the work to be carried out. 
This train, while not the most luxurious and convenient 

the official trains of Europe, has perhaps the most inter- 
ting history of them all. It has figured in more impor- 
nt political events than any of the others, and has carried 
some time nearly all of the great men of the world, includ- 
g, possibly, France's greatest enemy, the Emperor William 
mself. The train was hurriedly built in the autumn of 
196 for the immediate purpose of receiving the unexpected 
sit of the Czar of all the Russias, whose visit at this time 
mented and put the official seal on the alliance between 
•ance and Russia, the most portentous political affair pos- 
)ly in the whole history of modern Europe. The French 
inted, as is their custom, to celebrate this visit themselves 
d to welcome their visitor with every possible honor. It 
is on this occasion, for example, that the trees of the 
lamps Elysees were decorated with hundreds of thousands 
flowers, artificial flowers to be sure, owing to the lateness 
the season, but yet flowers. 

For the same reason the then most palatial of trains was 
ilt to carry the emperor from the frontier to Paris. Its 
ir cars were built in 13 days at the order of President 
lix Faure, and incidentally without the legal sanction that 
iinarily must accompany such expenditures. This sanc- 
n was formally granted long after the emperor had gone 
me. So hastily was the private personal car of the four 
ilt that it was not recalled until the tenth day that the 
iperor might want to take a bath. So the roof of the car 
s promptly cut open and a space made large enough to 
rmit the lowering of a huge bath tub into a corner of the 
■, not an ordinary bath tub, but one of solid silver. The 
) is there after all these years, as is the patch in the car 
)f. I was at pains to note it when visiting the cars. This 
in has its own great special housing shed at Villeneuve 

Georges, some miles out of Paris, though it has been as 
quently out as in that shed this year. 

In October the train was used to convey the Kong of 
England to the French front where he reviewed in company 
with President Poincare 50,000 of the troops that had taken 
part in the victory of late September aboul Rheims, the vic- 
tory today known as that of the fields of Champagne. Al- 
though the review took place hut 12 miles behind the front, 
neither the King of England, nor the troops, nor the train 
was bombarded by the Germans, for the simple reason that 
the Germans did not know the place when- the review was 
being held. 

The train was used late in August for the purpose of 
conveying the King of Belgium to Paris. It was on this 
occasion that the king lost his suspenders, or rather, being 
used to a soldier's life and uniform, he forgot to put them on 
the morning he left the train after his night ride from Paris 
hack to the northern front. 

The ceremonial train of the French Republic differs from 
the Imperial trains in that it is not armored, and has no 
protection whatever against bullets and shells. It was built 
at a time when such trains had neither l>een conceived nor 
thought necessary. All of the four cars are elaborately uphol- 
stered in red and yellow silk velvets, and all are of wood 
construction, each 40 tons in weight. The cars are not at 
all of the typical French construction, hut look rather like the 
massive American Pullman parlor car, except that the roofs 
are not fully rounded at the car ends. The interiors of the 
cars resemble somewhat the inspection or tourist cars used on 
the western railways of the United States, and have none of 
the abrupt divisions and cross compartments peculiar to the 
English or continental cars. While thoroughly comfortable, 
however, it is apparent by their fading curtains and up- 
holstering, by their too palatial parlors, by their clumsy and 
ponderous arrangements which can no longer he (ailed con- 
veniences, that they have outlived their time and usefulness 
They vaguely remind one of the old palace at Oiron, whose 
magnificence is falling into decay because no one can afford 
to live in the place. 

In sharp contrast is the Imperial train of Germanv which 
conveys the Emperor William to his several battle fronts. 
All of the seven cars of the train are partially armored, with 
homh-proof bottoms and tops. When the train i- run near 
the front it is pulled by one of the many armored locomo- 
tives now so common in France and Germanv, a locomo- 
tive prepared to resist not only aeroplane bombs hut cannon 
shell, a locomotive whose armor reaches down to the track- 
and curves sharply upward until it resembles a land Merri- 

A feature of the train is the library car in which i- 
hung up a multitude of military maps, more than 700, for 
the study of the operations of German and enemy troop-. Of 
course the train has its special telephone which can he con- 
nected at any station. 

The special train of the Emperor of Russia i- the most 
luxurious and longest of them all. It is composed of a 
dozen cars and is often run in two sections. It was adapted 
to war uses long ago, before the presenl conflict was thought 
of, its top, bottom, and sides being heavily armored and proof 
against dynamite charges planted on the track-. Some of 
the cars are set aside for the Emperor's suite and guard, in 
other- provision is made for a real Russian hath, a real 
kitchen, a smoking saloon and every comfort that the em- 
peror might find in one of his own greal palaces. I here i- 
also a chapel for worship and religious services. 

Despite the many journeys now being made in these special 
trains, and the vigilance and effort of the enemy aeronaut-, 
none SO far has actually been injured during the war. Grant- 
ing that all of them escape destruction, it i> pretty certain, 
in view of the rapid wear and tear of train operation at the 
present time, that after the war the nation- owning them will 
have to foot new hills for other official train.-. 

General News Department 

The Boston Elevated Railway has announced an increase in 
the pay of employees which is said to aggregate $2,000,000 a year. 

In court at Jamaica, N. Y., July 11, Michael Halleran, 27 years 
old, a crossing flagman of the Long Island Road, was sentenced 
by Justices Edwards, Mclnerney and Salmon to six months im- 
prisonment for being intoxicated on duty. 

It is reported that negotiations are in progress between of- 
ficers of the Southern Pacific and the authorities of the Mexican 
government to restore the line of the Southern Pacific of Mex- 
ico to the officers of the company for operation. For some time 
the line has been in the hands of Mexican military authorities. 

On the Broadway Limited of the Pennsylvania, east-bound, on 
the night of July 13, near Bucyrus, Ohio, four passengers were 
slightly wounded by shot from a shotgun. The passengers were 
sitting on the observation platform at the rear of the train and 
the shooting is said to have been done by a boy at the roadside, 
presumably animated by mere mischief. 

The Lehigh Valley has given an annual pass to each employee 
who has been in the service of the company over fifty years, 
good for himself and his wife over all of the company's lines. 
On the list of these men there are 16 names, including two ma- 
chinists, two boiler-makers, two car repairers, three watchmen 
and three laborers. 

In connection with the passage by Congress of appropriations 
for railroad construction in Alaska, Lieutenant Mears, of the 
Alaskan Commission, announces that there is still a surplus sup- 
ply of labor in Alaska, both skilled and unskilled. The govern- 
ment has just made the final payment of $650,000 on the Alaska 
Northern Railway, which was bought to be made a part of the 
new government railroad. 

The employees of the Buffalo, Rochester & Pittsburgh at 
the shops of the company at Du Bois, Pa., said to number 
900, who went out on strike July 12, came to an agreement 
with the officers of the road on the 14th and returned to 
work. The settlement between the company and the em- 
ployees provides for increases in pay varying from 10 to 
15 per cent ; and it is said that time and a half will be paid for 
overtime work. 

The Northern Pacific, in an effort to reduce loss and damage 
claims, has issued a circular to agents, conductors and yard 
foremen, announcing the organization of a freight claim pre- 
vention department as a part of the bureau of efficiency. The 
department is tentatively operating east of the Missouri river. 
Its province is to determine the causes which originate claims 
and to endeavor to eradicate them. The circular states that 
each case will be carefully investigated and given attention along 
educational lines. Printed cards have been furnished to the 
employees on which they may send suggestions to their 

Resignation of Professor C. Frank Allen 

C. Frank Allen, professor of railroad engineering and for the 
past 30 years a member of the faculty of Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, resigned July 10. Professor Allen graduated 
from the Institute in the class of 1872. For six years after his 
graduation he was engaged in work connected with the water 
and sewerage systems of several cities, including Boston and 
Newton, Mass., and Providence, R. I. In 1878 he entered the 
service of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fc, and was assistant 
engineer for the Santa Fe until 1885. In the meantime he 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in New Mexico. He 
was later, in 1901, admitted to the Massachusetts bar. Professor 
Allen was made assistant professor of railway engineering at 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1887. He became as- 
sociate professor two years later, and subsequently was also ap- 
pointed professor of railroad engineering. Among his technical 
writings are included: "Railway Curves and Embankments," 
"Tables for Earth Computations" and "Field and Office Tables." 

It Pays to be a Railroader 
[Harrisburg (Fa.) Star-Independent] 

A galaxy of automobiles — including Fords and Packards — 
parked together, which to the bystander brought to mind scenes 
identified with funerals, ball games, track meets, a $2 show or 
a duel along the countryside, attracted considerable attention to- 
day at the Pennsylvania Railroad siding opposite the Reading 

"Who is coming or going?" asked the man in the ice cream 

"Nobody,", replied a well-fed gentleman counting a wad of 
yellowbacks. "Today is pay day." 

The man in white sighed and wished he were a conductor,, 
brakeman or engineer — or in his own words, "anything but an 
official." — Harrisburg (Pa.) Star-Independent. 

Regulation of Railway Purchases 

Frank Trumbull, president of the Chesapeake & Ohio ; Robert 
S. Lovett, chairman of the board of directors of the Union 
Pacific, and Alfred P. Thorn, general counsel of the Southern 
Railway, acting for the Railway Executives' Advisory Committee, 
and representing 84 per cent of the railroads of the country, on 
Wednesday of this week called on President Wilson to recom- 
mend the suspension of that section of the Clayton act, Section 
10, which requires competitive bidding for railroad supplies. 
They ask to have the subject investigated by a joint committee 
of Congress, or by the Interstate Commerce Commission. It is 
understood that the President gave them a favorable response. 
They also appeared before the House Judiciary Committee, and 
were informed that favorable reports in the pending resolution 
have been made by sub-committees in both houses of Congress. 

As noted last week, page 73, this law, as it now stands, goes 
into effect October 15 next. A resolution has been introduced 
in Congress to suspend Section 10 for two years, and this the 
President was asked to endorse. It is believed that the section 
was adopted by Congress in the conference report of the Senate 
and the House, without careful consideration of its drastic 
effect. As is well known, most of the larger railroads are made 
up of several separate corporations, and dealings between parent 
and subsidiary companies consist largely of mere bookkeeping 
technicalities. The parent companies do purchasing for the 
entire system, obtaining, because of large orders, lower prices 
than could be secured by the subsidiary lines. 

Arbitration of Telegraphers' Wages 

The arbitration of the claims of the telegraphers of the New 
York Central for increased pay and easier conditions of work 
will probably be the subject of a report within the coming week. 
The arbitrators, Messrs. H. K. Daugherty, a lawyer, of Grove 
City, Pa. ; W. J. Fripp, general manager of the Eastern lines 
of the New York Central, and E. J. Manion, vice-president of 
the operators' brotherhood, have been listening to testimony in 
New York City for the past 10 days, and are now discussing 
the evidence. The witnesses brought forward by the brother- 
hood told of the difficulties of their work ; the burdensome char- 
acter of their incidental duties such as handling baggage and 
freight, keeping stations clean, attending switch lamps and 
answering telephone calls; and the cost of living. Supporting 
the demand for a more liberal allowance for vacations, the 
brotherhood leaders told of other roads on which two weeks, 
with pay, is allowed each operator once a year. It appears that 
in Illinois the New York Central pays certain telegraphers on 
a basis higher than that which prevails in the eastern part of 
its territory, and the efforts of the spokesmen for the operators 
were directed to securing the higher rate throughout the Cen- 
tral lines. They declare that they do not want old-age pensions; 
they want to prepare for old age themselves. 

Officers of the road told of the comparatively easy character 
of most of the work in a large majority of the telegraph offices, 

uly 21, 1916 



lying some of the claims put up by the spokesmen for the 
ployees. Attention was called to the fact that many 
tgraphers have an income from the express company; and 
i telegrapher said that from that source he received $30 a 
ill 1 1 . As showing the possibilities of running a double track 
road without telegraphers, one witness for the company said 
t on the occasion of the Dayton (Ohio) flood in 1913, the 
:e Shore & Michigan Southern ran trains between Cleveland 
; Toledo, 106 miles, without the aid of the telegraph, for a 
toil of 11 days; and many extra passenger trains were run, be- 
se of washouts on other roads. The interference of the 
iority rule, demanded by the brotherhood, with the best ar- 
gement for making promotions, was set forth in some detail. 
'he rates of pay of telegraphers on the New York Central, ac- 
ling to the principal witness for the brotherhood, average 
or $68 a month ; whereas, according to his claim, the Pitts- 
gh & Lake Erie pays an average of $81.53 a month; the 
ton & Albany, $78.86*; the New Haven, $77.28, and the Boston 
laine, $75.37. 

he chairman of the telegraphers' brotherhood on the New 
k, Chicago & St. Louis, subsidiary of the New York Central, 
le a statement in which he declared that telegraphers re- 
ed smaller pay than teachers, bank clerks and clerks in 
ories and other industrial establishments in various towns 
3hio, Indiana and Pennsylvania. 

Transportation of the National Guard 

i answer to criticisms concerning the transportation, etc., of 
national guard, Secretary Baker and the war department 
made public some of the reports from the army officers who 
; been investigating the matter. In giving out the reports 
■etarv Baker himself said that "the war department regards 
handling of the details of the movement of the troops to 
border as excellent in every respect." 

ajor General Leonard Wood, commanding the eastern de- 
ment, in his report said that "All troops leaving mobilization 
ps in the eastern department were furnished with ten days' 
el rations. Trains were provided with either a cook car 
)aggage car with a range set up in it, and this has been 
i in all cases wherever possible. Where there was no op- 
unity to furnish coffee to troops they were provided with 
ey. It is not possible that troops which have been reported 
t of rations at Kansas City and Cincinnati could have been 
t unless rations had been thrown away, as every precaution 
been taken to see that they started with an ample supply. 
Sleeping space furnished national guard troops mustered into 
ice of the United States en route to the Mexican border was 
prescribed by the war department. When available, tourist 
)ers have been provided, and when not available, day coaches 
ided by war department regulation of three men to each 
double seats. When day coach equipment was available, the 
oads provided one double seat to each man without extra 
ge. Troops have been transferred from day coaches to tour- 
leepers when en route whenever possible to do so. Cars 
out lights were not used to transport troops. Troop trains 
: not sidetracked or delayed to accommodate private busi- 
i but troop trains have been held on request of commanding 
:rs to exercise men and animals and for bathing the 

ijor General Thomas H. Barry, commanding the central de- 
nent, said : "Under instructions from the war department 
ling cars were furnished only by the quartermaster general's 
:, and orders directed that coaches must be used on the basis 
tree men to each two double seats, and that troops must not 
eld at mobilization camps awaiting tourist sleepers, explain- 
that where forwarded from point of origin in day coaches 
y effort was made to meet trains en route with tourist 
ers. In some cases troops started in day coaches. 
11 troop trains from the central department left with proper 
ing facilities. No information that any cars were side- 
:ed or delayed to accommodate private business. All troops 
ng mobilization camps in the central department after July 
rried ten days' rations. The comparatively few organiza- 
leaving prior to July 1 carried sufficient rations to allow 
lelays en route, and all troops had sufficient to carry them 
Jie border. . . . All troop trains were provided with 
r baggage or open-end box cars with cooking arrangements. 

Water was provided for all troop train- before detparture, in 
accordance with the regulations, and in manj cases i ctra water 
cans and ice were carried. 

"All troop trains were inspected by camp quartermasters, and 
in many cases by senior mustering officers, surgeon, organization 
commander and railroad officials." 

lajor General J. Franklin Bell, commanding the western de- 
partment, made a similar report and concluded: 

I personally inspected and supervised administration of mobil- 
ization camps. Everything which could be controlled by sub- 
ordinates of the regular army and those at headquarters was 
done as promptly and thoroughly as possible under the circum- 
stances. Consider mobilization and forwarding of troops to 
border relatively most creditable to all concerned. 

"Not a single complaint received at department headquarters 
from any source." 

The Wage Controversy 

Members of the organizations of train and engine employees, 
now taking a strike vote to enforce their demands for an in- 
crease in wages, are holding public meetings in railroad centers 
throughout the country at which addresses are made on the 
subject of the wage controversy. At such a meeting held at 
Spokane, Wash., recently, resolutions were adopted which in- 
cluded the following: 

"Regardless of any controversies which may be pending as 
between the railroads and our brotherhoods, we stand ready to 
perform any and all duties which will make for the prompt 
movement of such trains as may be necessary for the transpor- 
tation of troops and supplies to the border, and at all times to 
do our full duty toward upholding the dignity of our country 
and the honor of our flag." 

The Transportation Brotherhoods' Publicity Bureau has 
issued a statement regarding the proposal of the railways that 
the wage controversy be settled either by arbitration or by refer- 
ence to the Interstate Commerce Commission. The statement 
is in part as follows : 

"The Interstate Commerce Commission has no authority 
under the law to regulate wages of employees any more than it 
has to regulate the price of steel rails and other supplies pur- 
chased by the railroad companies. Therefore, any investigation 
made by the Interstate Commerce Commission into the subject 
of wages would come to naught for the reason that the com- 
mission has no power to settle the matter. 

"Under the Newlands arbitration law, it is distinctly provided 
that arbitration can be set in operation when a strike is 
threatened. No man has a right to say that a strike is threat- 
ened until the result of the strike vote, now being taken, is 
ascertained. The will of the employees must be known before 
a strike can be threatened. 

"If the Interstate Commerce Commission would assume the 
responsibility of agreeing that the demands of the men should 
be met, it would clearly be up to the commission to provide the 
means for meeting any increased cost of operation. The rail- 
ways, of course, would like to put the Interstate Commerce 
Commission under this obligation to grant increased freight 

"If it is right and proper for the freight train employees to 
go into an arbitration as to whether thej shall be worked ex- 
cessive hours and as to what they shall sell tlieir labor for, then 
it would only be consistent for the railway ear and engine 
builders and railway supply dealers to agree to arbitrate with 
the railroads as to the price the railroads should pay for these 

"The principle objection, however, of the employees to arbitra- 
tion would be on the ground of the inability to secure impartial 
arbitrators who were sufficiently acquainted with the technicali- 
ties of a problem of this kind." 

The National Conference Committee i>\ the Railways, Elisha 
Lee, assistant general manager of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 
chairman, has published advertisements in many of the weekly 
papers, giving figures showing the wages of train employees in 
eastern, western and southern territory. The advertisements 
are signed by the members of the National Conference Com- 
mittee, and read as follows : 
To the American Public: 

Do you believe in arbitration or industrial warfare? 

The train employees on all the railroads are voting whether 



Vol. 61, No. 3 

they will give their leaders authority to tie Up the commerce of 
the country to enforce their demands for a 100 million dollar 
wage increase. 

The railroads are in the public service — your service. This 
army of employees is in the public service — your service. 

You pay for rail transportation 3 billion dollars a year, and 
44 cents out of every dollar from you goes to the employees. 

On all the eastern railroads in 1915, 75 per cent of the train 
employees earned these wages (lowest, highest and average of 
all) as shown by the payrolls: 

Passenger Freight Yard 

, * » , * , , A s 

Range Av'ge Range Av'ge Range Av'ge 

Engineers $1,641) $1,931 $1,585) $1,783 $1,303) $1,543 

3,224) 2,992) 2,178) 

Conductors 1,553) 1,831 1.552) 1,642 1,145) 1,315 

3,004 ) 2,901 j 1,991 \ 

Firemen 951) 1,128 933) 1,109 752) 935 

1,704) 1,762) 1,633) 

Brakemen 957) 1,141 862) 973 834) 1,085 

1,707 ) 1,521 ) 1,635 S 

The average yearly wage payments to all eastern train em- 
ployees (including those who worked only part of the year), as 
shown by the 1915 payrolls, were: 

Passenger Freight Yard 

Engineers $1,796 $1,546 $1,384 

Conductors 1,724 1,404 1,238 

Firemen 1,033 903 844 

Brakemen 1,018 858 990 

A 100 million dollar wage increase for men in freight and 
yard service (less than one-fifth of all employees) is equal to a 
5 per cent advance in all freight rates. 

The managers of the railroads, as trustees for the public, have 
no right to place this burden on the cost of transportation to you 
without a clear mandate from a public tribunal speaking for you. 

The railroads have proposed the settlement of this contro- 
versy either under the existing national arbitration law, or by 
reference to the Interstate Commerce Commission. This offer 
has been refused by the employees' representatives. 

Shall a nation-wide strike or an investigation under the gov- 
ernment determine this issue? 

The figures given for the western and southern roads are as 
follows : 

On all the southern railroads in 1915, 75 per cent of the train 
employees earned these wages (lowest, highest and average of 
all), as shown by the payrolls: 

Passenger Freight Yard 
aI t SL _a 

Range Av'ge Range Av'ge Range Av'ge 

Engineers $1,972) $2,306 $1,455) $1,916 $1,156) $1,566 

3,983 ) 3.505 ) 2,424 ( 

Conductors 1,552) 1,847 1,353) 1,580 1,055) 1,245 

2,696) 2,358 } 1,749) 

Firemen 943) 1,209 649) 979 406) 777 

1,652) 1,638) 1,302) 

Brakemen 957) 1,109 755) 958 754) 990 

1,736| 1,854 J 1,405 1 

The average yearly wage payments to all southern train em- 
ployees (including those who worked only part of the year), as 
shown by the 1915 payrolls, were : 

Passenger Freight Yard 

Engineers $2,144 $1,712 $1,313 

Conductors 1,723 1,488 1,157 

Firemen 1,096 865 688 

Brakemen 1,013 845 868 

On all the western railroads in 1915, 75 per cent of the train 
employees earned these wages (lowest, highest and average of 
all) as shown by the payrolls: 

Passenger Freight Yard 

, A , . * N , A ^ 

Range Av'ge Range Av'ge Range Av'ge 

Engineers $1,747) $2,195 $1,537) $2,071 $1,056) $1,378 

3,094) 3,076) 2,445) 

Conductors 1,543) 1,878 1,454) 1,935 1,151) 1,355 

2,789 ) 2,933 ) 2,045 f 

Firemen 1,053) 1,317 751) 1,181 418) 973 

2,078)' 2,059) 1,552) 

Brakemen 854) 967 874) 1,135 862) 1,107 

1,719 \ 1,961 ) 1,821 \ 

The average yearly wage payments to all western train em- 
ployees (including those who worked only part of the year), as 
shown by the 1915 payrolls, were: 

Passenger Freight Yard 

Engineers $2,038 $1,737 $1,218 

Conductors 1,772 1,624 1,292 

Firemen 1,218 973 832 

Brakemen 921 1,000 1,026 

Canadian Board of Inquiry 

A. U. Smith, president of the New York Central, is chairman 
of a board of three members, which is to inquire into the rail- 
way situation in Canada, a temporary commission just ap- 
pointed by the Canadian government, and announced at Ottawa, 
July 14. The other members are Sir Henry L. Drayton, K. C, 
chairman of the Canadian Railway Commission, and Sir George 
Paish. The Railway Board of Inquiry, as it will be called, will 
be constituted under the Inquiries Act, and provincial govern- 
ments have been requested to co-operate with it. The board is re- 
quired to report without delay. Sir Henry Drayton has had 
long experience as chairman of the Board of Railway Commis- 
sioners, and has a record for ability, firmness and impartiality. 

Sir George Paish, the eminent financial authority in Great 
Britain has always taken a lively interest in Canadian affairs. 

The scope of the proposed inquiry is outlined as follows: 

1. The general problem of transportation in Canada. 

2. The status of each of the three transcontinental railways, 
the Canadian Pacific, the Grand Trunk and the Canadian North- 
ern, having special reference to the following considerations: 

(a) The territories served by each, and the service which it 
is capable of performing. 

(b) Physical conditions, equipment and capacity. 

(c) Methods of operation. 

(d) Branch lines, feeders and connections in Canada. 

(e) Connections in the United States. 

(f) Steamship connections. 

(g) Capitalization, fixed charges and net earnings, having 
regard to present conditions and probable future development. 

3. The re-organization of any of the systems, or the acquisi- 
tion thereof by the state, and in the latter case the most ef- 
fective system of operation, whether in connection with the 
Intercolonial Railway or otherwise. 

4. All matters which the members of the board may consider 

Disastrous Floods in North Carolina and Tennessee 

Floods in the Catawba and French Broad rivers, July 16, 
submerged scores of buildings in Asheville and Biltmore, 
N. C, and in numerous smaller places; and did damage 
amounting to millions of dollars; and five or more persons 
were drowned. The station of the Southern Railway at 
Asheville together with many cars and locomotives were 
submerged. In Charlotte, N. C, a bridge of the Southern 
Railway was carried away, together with ten or more men, 
including workmen of the railroad company and linemen of 
the Western Union Telegraph Company. The men were 
reported lost, but the report is not confirmed. The Seaboard 
Air Line bridge at Mount Holly, N. C, was destroyed, and 
traffic on that company's lines was interrupted at a number 
of places by washouts. Much damage was done in East 
Tennessee, a number of bridges being destroyed on the 
Virginia 6k Southwestern. The Carolina, Clinchfield & Ohio, 
and other roads suffered in many places, rivers rising from 
15 feet to 30 feet above normal level. The Norfolk & 
Western was flooded west of Radford, Va. Press despatches 
from Wilmington, N. C, and Charleston, S. C, reported 
floods at many places and traffic generally interrupted. 

An officer of the Southern Railway summarized the situa- 
tion on that company's lines on July 19 as follows: 

"The most serious flood damages to the Southern Railway 
are in North Carolina on Catawba river draining east 
through the Piedmont region, and French Broad river 
draining west through Asheville, caused apparently in both 
cases by failure of dams, as our main line bridges on the 
several other rivers in the coastal plain all withstood ordi- 
nary flood waters. Catawba river has taken out bridges of 
all railroads west of Camden and Wateree, S. C, including 
four Southern Railway bridges on radiating lines, Salisbury- 
Asheville, Charlotte-Atlanta, Charlotte-Columbia and Rock- 
hill-Camden. Through passenger service from the east to 
Atlanta, Birmingham, Memphis and beyond was maintained 
via Lynchburg, Bristol and Knoxville. The roadbed on our 
mountain lines in western North Carolina was badly scoured. 
Work of reconstruction at all breaks is now progressing sat- 

The Norfolk & Western, on the 18th, reported its main 
line repaired, so that normal train movement was restored. 

Lily 21, 1916 





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Vol. 61, No. 3 

Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Association 

The annual meeting of the Roadmasters' and Maintenance oi 
Way Association will be held al the lintel McAlpin, New York, 
September 19 to 22. A special train will be provided over the 
New York Central for members from Chicago and the West. 

The Track Supply Association, which meets with the Road- 
masters' and Maintenance of Way Association, is now complet- 
ing arrangements for its exhibit. Practically all the space 
has now been assigned, and indications are that the exhibit will 
be one of the largest in the history of this association. The fol- 
lowing firms have signified their intention of exhibiting: 

Ajax Forge Company, Chicago. 

Aja\ Kail Anchor Company, Chicago. 

American Hoist & Derrick Company, St. Paul, Minn. 

American Steel & Wire Company, Chicago. 

American Valve & Meter Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Bowman, T. B., Chicago. 

Carborundum Company, Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Carnegie Steel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chicago Malleable Castings Company, West Pullman, III. 

Cleveland Frog & Crossing Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Creepcheck Company, New York. 

Crerar-Adams Company, Chicago. 

Dressel Railway Lamp Works, New York. 

Duff Mfg. Company, The, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Elliot Frog & Switch Company, East St. Louis, 111. 

Empire Railway Appliance Corp., New York. 

Eymon Continuous Crossing Company, Marion, Ohio. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Company, Chicago. 

Fairmont Gas Eng. & Ry. Motor Car Company, Fairmont, Minn. 

Frictionless Rail Company, Boston, Mass. 

Hatfield Rail Joint Mfg. Company, Macon, Ga. 

Hauck Mfg. Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hayes Track Appliance Company, Richmond, Ihd. 

Hussey-Binns Shovel Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Indianapolis Switch & Frog Company, Springfield, Ohio. 

Ingersoll-Rand Company, 11 Broadway, New York. 

Jordan, O. F., Company, Chicago, 111. 

Keystone Grii.der & Mfg. Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Lackawanna Steel Company, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Lundie, John, New York. 

Madden Company, The, Chicago. 

Mitchell Rail Anchor Company, W. M., Louisville, Ky. 

Mudge & Company, Chicago. 

Morden Frog & Crossing Works, Chicago. 

National Malleable Castings Company, The, Cleveland, Ohio. 

P. & M. Company, The, Chicago. 

Pocket List of Railroad Officials, New York. 

Positive Rail Anchor Company, Louisville, Ky. 

Q. & C. Company, The, New York. 

Rail Joint Company, The, New York. 

Railroad Supply Company, The, Chicago. 

Railway Review, Chicago. 

Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, N. Y. 

Reading Specialties Company, Reading, Pa. 

Sellers Mfg. Company, Chicago. 

Seltite Company, Inc., Westchester, N. Y. 

Simmons-Boardman Publishing Company, New York. 

Southern Railway Supply Company, St. Louis, Mo. 

Templeton, Kenly & Company, Chicago. 

Track Specialties Company, New York. 

Union Switch & Signal Company, The, Swissvale, Pa. 

Verona Tool Works, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Wharton, Wm., Jr., & Company, Inc., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wyoming Shovel Works, The, Wyoming, F'a. 


The following list gives names of secretaries, date of next or regular 
meetings and places of meeting of those associations which will meet during 
the next three months. The full list of meetings and conventions is pub- 
lished only in the first issue of the Railway Age Gazette for each month. 

American Association of Dining Car Superintendents. — H. C. Board- 
man, D. L. & W., Hoboken, N. J. Annual convention, October 19-21, 
New Orleans, La. 

American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers.— W. C. Hope, 
C. R. R. of N. J., 143 Liberty St., New York. Annual meeting, 
October 17, 18, Washington, D. C. 

American Association of Railroad Superintendents.— E. H. Harman, 
Room 101, Union Station, St. Louis, Mo. Annual meeting, August 
16-18, 1916, Memphis, Tenn. 

American Electric Railway Association. — E. B. Burritt, 8 W. 40th street, 
New York. Annual convention, October 9-13, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Electric Railway Manufacturers' Association. — H. G. Mc- 
Connaughy, 165 Broadway, New York. Annual convention, October 
9-13, Atlantic City, N. J. 

American Railway Association. — J. E. Fairbanks, general secretary, 75 
Church St., New York. 

American Railway Bridge and Building Association. — C. A. Lichty, 
C. & N. W., Chicago. Next convention, October 17-19, New Orleans, 

American Railway Tool Foremen's Association. — Owen D. Kinsey, Il- 
linois Central, Chicago. Annual meeting, August 24-26, 1916, Hotel 
Sherman, Chicago. 

American Society of Civil Engineers. — Chas. Warren Hunt, 220 W. 57th 
St., New York. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Wednesday in month, 
except July and August, 220 W. 57th St., New York. 

Association of Manufacturers of Chilled Car Wheels. — George W. Lyn- 
don, 1214 McCormick Bldg., Chicago. Annual convention, October 
10, 1916, Waldorf-Astoria. New York. 

Bi in, i ami Building Supply Men's Association. — P. C. Jacobs, H. VV. 
Johns-Manville Co., Chicago. Meetings with American Railway 
Bridge and Building Association. 

Canadian Railway Clou.- Janus Powell. Grand Trunk, P. O. Box 7, St. 
Lambert (near Montreal), Que. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday in 
month, except June, July and August, Windsor Hotel, Montreal, Que. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. Clement H. McLeod, 176 Mans- 
field St., Montreal, Que. Regular meetings, 1st Thursday in October. 
November, December, February, March and April. Annual meeting, 
January, Montreal. 

Car Foremen's Association of Chicago. — Aaron Kline, 841 Lawlor Ave., 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July 
and August, Hotel La Salle, Chicago 

Central Railway Ct.i'n. — II. D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. Regu- 
lar meetings, 2d Friday in January, May, September and November. 
Annual meeting, 2d Thursday in March, Hole! Statler, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Cincinnati Railway Club. — II. Boutet, Chief Interchange Inspector, Cin'ti 
Rys., 101 Carew Bldg., Cincinnati. Regular meetings, 2d Tuesday, 
February, May, September and November, Hotel Sinton, Cincinnati. 

Kngineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania. — Elmer K. Ililes, 2511 
Oliver lildg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 1st and 3d Tuesday, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

General Superintendents' Association of Chicago. — A. M. Hunter, 321 
Grand Central Station, Chicago. Regular meetings, Wednesday, pre- 
ceding 3d Thursday in month. Room 1856, Transportation Bldg., 

International Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association. — A. L. Wood- 
worth, C. H. & D., Lima, Ohio. Next meeting, August 15-17, 1916, 
Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

International Railway General Foremen's Association. — Wm. Hall. 1126 
W. Broadway, Winona, Minn. Annual meeting, August 29 to Sep- 
tember 1, Hotel Sherman, Chicago. 

Maintenance of Way and Master Painters' Association of the United 
States and Canada. — F. W. Hager, Fort Worth & Denver City, Fort 
Worth, Tex. Next convention, October 17-19, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association of the United States 
and Canada. — A. P. Dane, B. & M., Reading, Mass. Next annual 
meeting, September 12-14, 1916, "The Breakers," Atlantic City, N. J. 

New England Railroad Club. — W. E. Cade, Jr., 683 Atlantic Ave., Bos- 
ton, Mass. Regular meeting, 2d Tuesday in month, except June, July, 
August and September, Boston. 

New York Railroad Club. — Harry D. Vought, 95 Liberty St., New York. 
Regular meeting, 3d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 
29 W. 39th St., New York. 

Niagara Frontier Car Men's Association. — E. N. Frankenberger, 623 Bris- 
bane Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. Meetings, 3d Wednesday in month, New 
York Telephone Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Peoria Association of Railroad Officers. — M. W. Rotchford, 410 Masonic 
Temple Bldg., Peoria, 111. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday in month, 
Jefferson Hotel. Peoria. 

Railroad Club of Kansas City.— Claude Manlove, 1008 Walnut St., Kansas 
City, Mo. Regular meetings, 3d Saturday in month, Kansas City. 

Railway Club of Pittsburgh.- — J. B. Anderson, Room 207. P. R. R. Sta., 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Regular meetings, 4th Friday in month, except June, 
July and August, Monongahela House, Pittsburgh. 

Railway Fire Protection Association. — C. B. Edwards, Fire Ins. Agt., 
Mobile & Ohio, Mobile, Ala. Annual meeting, October 3-5, 1916, 
New York. 

Railway Real Estate Association. — Frank C. Irvine, 1125 Pennsylvania 
Station, Pittsburgh, Pa. Annual meeting, October 10, 1916, Chicago. 

Railway Signal Association. — C. C. Rosenberg, Myers Bldg., Bethlehem. 
Pa. Next annual convention, September 12-14, 1916, Grand Hotel, 
Mackinac Island, Mich. 

Richmond Railroad Club. — F. O. Robinson, C. & O., Richmond, Va. 
Regular meetings, 2d Monday in month, except June, July and 

Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Association. — P. T. McAndrews, 
C. & N. W., Sterling. 111. Next annual convention, September 19-22, 
1916, New York. 

St. Louis Railway Club. — B. W. Frauenthal, L T nion Station, St. Louis. Mo. 
Regular meetings, 2d Friday in month, except June, July and August, 
St. Louis. 

Salt Lake Transportation Club.— R. E. Rowland, David Keith Bldg., Salt 
Lake City, Utah. Regular meetings, 1st Saturday of each month, 
Salt Lake City. 

Signal Appliance Association. — F. W. Edmunds, 3868 Park Ave., New 
York. Meetings with annual convention Railway Signal Association. 

Society of Railway Financial Officers. — L. W. Cox, 1217 Commercial 
Trust Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. Annual meeting, October 18-20, 
Washington, D. C. 

Southern & Southwestern Railway Club. — A. J. Merrill, Grand Bldg., 
Atlanta, Ga. Regular meetings, 3d Thursday, January, March, May, 
July, September, November, 10 A. M., Piedmont Hotel, Atlanta. 

Toledo Transportation Club. — Harry S. Fox, Toledo. Ohio. Regular 
meetings, 1st Saturday in month, Boody House, Toledo. 

Track Supply Association. — W. C. Kidd, Ramapo Iron Works, Hillburn, 
N. Y. Meetings with Roadmasters' and Maintenance of Way Asso- 

Traffic Club of Chicago. — W. H. Whartoru La Salle Hotel. Chicago. 

Traffic Club of Newark. — Roy S. Bushy, Firemen's Bldg., Newark, N. J. 
Regular meetings, 1st Monday, in month, except July and August, 
The Washington. 559 Broad St., Newark. 

Traffic Club of New York.— C. A. Swope. 291 Broadway, New York. Reg- 
ular meetings, last Tuesday in month, except June, July and August. 
Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York. 

Traffic Club of Pittsburgh. — D. L. Wells, Gen'l Agent, Erie R. R., 1924 
Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Meetings, bi-monthlv. Pittsburgh. 

Traffic Club of St. Louis.— W. S. Crilly, 620 South 7th St.. St. Louis. 
Mo. Annual meeting, December 5, 1916. Noonday meetings, Octo- 
ber to May. 

Transportation Club of Detroit. — W. R. Hurley, Superintendent's office, 
N. Y. C. R. R., Detroit, Mich. Meetings mDnthly, Normandie Hotel, 

Traveling Engineers' Association. — W. O. Thompson, N. Y. C. R. R.. 
Cleveland, Ohio. Next meeting, September 5-8, 1916, Hotel Sherman, 

Utah Society of Engineers. — Frank W. Moore. 1111 Newhouse Bldg., 
Salt Lake City. Utah. Regular meetings, 3d Friday in month, ex- 
cept Tuly and 'August, Salt Lake City. 

Western Canada Railway Club. — L. Kon, Immigration Agent, Grand 
Trunk Pacific, Winnipeg, Man. Regular meetings, 2d Monday, ex- 
cept Tune, Tulv and August, Winnipeg. 

Western Railway Club. — J. W. Taylor, 1112 Karpen Bldg., Chicago. 
Regular meetings, 3d Tuesday in month, except June, July and 
August, Grand Pacific Hotel. Chicago. 

Western Society of Engineers. — E. N. Layfield, 1735 Monadnock Block. 
Chicago. Regular meetings, 1st Monday in month, except January. 
Tuly and August, Chicago. Extra meetings, except in July and 
August, generally on other Monday evenings. Annual meeting. 1st 
Wednesday after 1st Thursday in January, Chicago. 

July 21, 1916 


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Traffic News 

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The Pacific Mail Steamship Company, now said to be con- 
trolled by W. R. Grace & Co., announces that on August 19 
it will resume sending ships across the Pacific. Three v< 
have been engaged for use on this route, as an experiment. 
Rates for transportation of freight are now so high that it 
is expected that the extra expense due to the present naviga- 
tion law of the United States will be partly or fully offset. 

The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy last week ran a special 
train from St. Paul to Chicago, carrying a party of Shriners 
to a convention at Buffalo, which was completely equipped with 
telephones in every car and every berth. The train was com- 
posed of 12 cars, including a diner and a car equipped for band 
concerts. The telephones were installed by the Tri-state Tele- 
phone Company of St. Paul and Minneapolis, and the exchange 
was of the automatic type. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad announces that beginning today, 
July 21, the Federal Express, between Washington and Boston, 
discontinued last January, will again be put in service; but it 
will be run only once a week each way, northbound on Friday, 
and southbound on Sunday evening. The train runs by way 
of the Lehigh & Hudson river and the Poughkeepsie bridge, 
as before; and one of the reasons given for putting it on at 
this time is that passengers desire to travel to and from the 
New England summer resorts without passing through New 
York City during the prevalence there of infantile paralysis. 

The executive traffic officers of the western transcontinental 
lines were in conference for several dayo in Chicago last week 
for the purpose of considering the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission's recent order rescinding the relief granted under the 
fourth section, on "Schedule C" commodities westbound, and 
certain Pacific coast products eastbound, on account of the 
absence of competition through the Panama canal. It is un- 
derstood that no final conclusions were reached by the railroads 
as to just how they will proceed in complying with the order, 
which gives them the alternative of advancing the rates to the 
Pacific coast or reducing certain rates to intermediate points ; 
and the details are still being considered. 

Car Surpluses and Shortages 

The American Railway Association Committee on Relations 
Between Railroads has issued Statistical Statement No. 18, giving 
a summary of freight car surpluses and shortages for July 1, 
1916, with comparisons. 

Total Surplus 

Tuly 1, 1916 67,014 

June i, 1916 70,310 

July 1, 1915 276,421 

The surplus for June 1, 1916, includes figures reported since 
the issue of Statistical Statement No. 17. 

There has been little change in the total car surplus situation 
since the report for June 1. There is a considerable box car 
surplus west and northwest of Chicago and on the Pacific Coast, 
but little in any other section. The coal car surplus shows a 
slight decrease, the greater part of the surplus being west and 
northwest of Chicago and in the East. The miscellaneous car 
surplus is mostly on the Pacific Coast and in the Middle West. 
Total Shortage 

Tuly 1, 1916 14,898 

tunc 1, 1916 12,617 

July 1, 1915 785 

The shortage for June 1, 1916, includes figures reported since 
the issue of Statistical Statement No. 17. 

There is a very small increase in the box car shortage in 
practically all parts of the country, and a small increase in the 
coal car shortage in the East, but no large amount of shortage 
of any class of equipment in any one section. 
The figures by classes of cars follow : 

Classes Surplus Shorl 

Box .'6,455 8,465 

Flat 3,189 902 

Coal and gondola 14,097 5,003 

Miscellaneous 23,273 

Total 67,014 14,898 

; Commission and Court News 


"MIIIIMI ii iiiiinii nun hi minium inn 



Minneapolis grain merchants ha plaint with the 

Interstati I ommi r< e < ommi 

rates and transit privileges <>u carload shipment n and 

grain from Washington, Oregon, [dal 

South Dakota and Montana to Chicago, Milwaukee, Mr 
olis, Duluth and Superior, and through thi 

'I he Interstate Commerce Commission began a bearing in 
( hicago on July 10 in its inquiry into the matter <.i rat< 
and classification of lumber and lumber products. Thi 
which lasted throughout last week and int., this wee! 
conducted bj ( hairman Meyer with the assistance >>i Examiner- 
Attorney Mines and Examiner Esch. In advance of tin- bearing 
the commission had gathered a mass of information 01 
subject by submitting interrogatories t" lumbermen all over the 

country, and at the hearing both the shipper- and t! 
were asked to answer other questions suggested by the com- 
mission. The hearing has been attended bj approximate! 
persons, including lumber shippers, railroad traffic men and at- 
torneys. The first week was devoted to tin testimony of ship- 
pers, and the carriers followed. The testimi dur- 
ing the lirM week indicated a general s,- lt i-- the part 

of both shippers and railroads with the present situal 
lumber rates and classification, with minor exceptions, and with 
comparativelj little disagreement between the position of the 
shippers and that of the railroads. \